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Case Study, Phase 1: Parent Interview

with Eric Grimmett and Sara Kitchen, Certified Teachers of the Visually Impaired.

Sara: Let's get started with the parent interview.

Eric: Let's.

Sara: Okay.  So the first question, "Tell me what you do with the toy to get your child interested in it?"  Brandon's parents said, "I put the toy in his hand to hold."  The school said, "Shake it, tap it, make noise, introduce it on his lap, put it on the light board and move it."

Eric: All right, this question targets Movement and Fields, and in terms of what the school answered, we had positive for a CVI for Movement.  So, if you're doing this for practice, you mark Row 2, you go down this Resolution Chart and Brandon's basically in the Range 1-2.

Sara: Question Number 2.  "When you show your child something, how do you know he or she sees it?"  Brandon's parent wrote, "Not! Brandon is blind." The school wrote, "Head orientation towards object, "slow reach out towards it.  Usually with light board or art."

Eric: This question targets Visual Attention

and Non-purposeful Gaze, that's Row 6 on your Resolution Chart.  Again, we have the school answering positive for light gazing here and they speak about the light box.  So, if you're practicing, mark this in Row 6, and Brandon, again, is about in Range 1-2.

Sara: Question Number 3.  "Does your child have a favorite side or a favorite head position?"  Parent says, "The right side, also, head position."

The school says, "Left side for viewing, right side for most activity, usually head's slumped."

Eric: Okay, this question is asking about Field Preference, Row 4, and additional disabilities.  The answer is positive for Fields so you mark in Row 4.  Again, Brandon is about Range 1-2 there.

Sara: Question Number 4.  "Does your child usually find objects by looking or by feeling for them?"  Brandon's parents say, "He is blind."  The school says, "He is not usually motivated to look for items, but primarily, he uses touch when he does."

Eric: This question asked about Visually Guided Reach which is Row 10 or Visual Complexity which is Row 5.  And in this case, really, we have to say the answer is inconclusive on both interviews.

Sara: Number 5. "Do you have concerns about the way your child sees?"  The parent says, "No, he is blind."  The school did not answer that.

Eric: Okay, so number 5 is asking about appearance of the eye, the eye exam, and the answer is inconclusive on this one as well.

Sara: Number 6.  "Where do you usually hold objects for your child to look at?"  Brandon's parent say, "I put them in his hand to hold only, he is blind."  The school says, "The center to the left side within a 1-foot range."

Eric: This question asked about Visual Field Preferences, Row 4, and Visual Complexity, Row 5.  Answers are positive for field, center-left, and for distance, within 1 foot.  So you mark in Row 4 fields, Range 1-2.  And in Row 7, the Distance row, Range 1-2 as well.

Sara: Number 7.  "What are your child's favorite things in your house?"  The parent says, "The piano, the radio." The school says, "The radio, shakers, rain sticks, drums, instruments, keyboards."

Eric: Okay, this question targets Light Gazing, Non-purposeful Gaze, Row 6, Movement, 2, and Visual Novelty, Row 9.  Answer is inconclusive for this but we do see that Brandon does really like sound devices and devices that emits some kind of music.

Sara: Question number 8.  "What if anything have doctors told you about your child's eyes?"  Brandon's parent said, "They said he was totally blind but I don't think so."  The school did not answer.

Eric: Okay, this question is focusing on the eye exam again and the parents' answers are very telling.  They've been told that their child is totally blind but their answer is, "But I don't think so." So, positive for CVI there, I'd say.

Sara: Okay.  Number 9.  "When does your child usually like to look at things?"  Parent, "Not! He is blind."  The school says, "In front of the light board, he will look at sounds."

Eric: This question asked about Visual Novelty, Row 9, and Complexity, Row 5.  The answer is positive for Light Gazing, which is in Row 6, and Brandon's in about a Range of 1-2 there.

Sara: Number 10.  "What color are the things your child likes to look at most?"  His parents say, "None, he is blind."  The school says, "He might be a little more attentive to red."

Eric: This question is asking about Color Preference, obviously, which is Row 1, and Novelty, Row 9.  The answer is positive for Color Preference in terms of the school, so you mark in Row 1, Range 1-2 for Brandon.

Sara: Question Number 11, "What does your child do when he or she is near very shiny or mirrored objects?"  Brandon's parents say, "Nothing, he is blind."  The school says, "There's no noticeable change in affect but they do use tin foil on some symbols, but it's also coupled with noise."

Eric: This question is asking about three different areas, Light Gazing, which is Row 6, Movement, Row 2, and Color Preference, Row 1.  However, the answer is inconclusive on both interviews for this question.

Sara: Question Number 12.  "Describe how your child behaves around lamps or ceiling fans."  Brandon's parents say,  "He looks upward to fans and up to light."  School, they didn't notice a change in behavior.

Eric: This question is asking about Non-purposeful Gaze and Light Gazing, Row 6.  The answer is positive, so mark in Row 6, Range 1-2.

Sara: Number 13. "Are you usually able to identify what your child is looking at?"  Brandon's parents say, "Yes."  The school says, "If he is trying to use his vision, he will put his face on the object to see it."

Eric: This question is asking about Non-purposeful Gaze but the answer that we received is positive actually for distance. So you wanna mark that in Row 7, Range 1-2.

Sara: Number 14.  "Does your child usually first notice things that move or things that don't move?"  Brandon's parents say, "Things that move."  The school says that they're undecided.

Eric: This question is asking about Movement, Row two, and Fields, Row 4.  The answer is positive CVI for Movement.  So you mark that in Row 2, Range 1-2.

Sara: Number 15.  "How does your child position his head when you think he is looking at something?"  Brandon's parents said, "He leans to the right to listen to things."  The school says, "No answer."

Eric: Okay, this question targets Fields in Row 4, and the answer is inconclusive because they actually address listening at this point.

Sara: Number 16. "Do you think your child has a 'favorite' color?"  Parents say, "No."  The school says, "Maybe red."

Eric: Okay, again, this question is about Color Preference and the answer is positive.  Mark on Row 1, Range 3-4 this time for Brandon.

Sara: Number 17. "Does your child seem to notice things more at home or in new environments?"  The parent says, "No."  The school didn't answer.

Eric: And this question targets Complexity of Array and Non-purposeful Gaze and Novelty.  And, of course, the answer is it's inconclusive on both interviews here.

Sara: Number 18.  "Describe how your child positions his head when swatting or reaching towards something."  The parent says, "Straight."  The school says, "No regular correlation."

Eric: Okay, this question targets a Visual Motor, Row 10, and Field Preferences, Row 4.  The answer is inconclusive.

Sara: Number 19.  "How does your child react when you give him new things to look at?" Parent says, "He does not, he is blind."  The school says, "He will reach out and touch it."  Eric: Okay, this question targets Novelty, Row 9, and Complexity, Row 5. For the school's sake, answer is positive for Novelty because he does reach for new things. So you mark that in Row 9, under Range 3-4 for Brandon.

Sara: Number 20.  "Do you position your child in a certain way to help him see things?"  The parents said, "No."  The school said, "Items on the left side, light underneath."

Eric: This question asks about Fields and Complexity, Rows 4 and 5.  The answer is positive for Fields, so you mark that in Row 4, Range 1-2.

Sara: Number 21.  "Have you ever been concerned about the way your child's eyes move?"  The parents say, "No," and the school says, "No answer."

Eric: Okay, this question is asking about eyes and it targets those kids who do not already have a CVI diagnosis.  The answer in this case is inconclusive.

Sara: Number 22.  "What does your child do when there are many objects

in front of him to look at?"  His parents says, "He is blind."  The school didn't answer that one.

Eric: Okay, this question targets Complexity, Row 5, and Novelty, Row 9, and the answer is inconclusive.

Sara: Number 23.  "Tell me about the faces your child prefers to look at."

The parent says, "None, he is blind."  Eric: This question targets Novelty, Row 9, and Complexity, Row 5, and the answer again is inconclusive.

Sara: Twenty-four.  "If your child had his own object to look at and a new object, which object would he prefer?"  His parent says, "Remember that he's blind."

Eric: Okay, this question is looking at Novelty, Row 9, and Complexity, Row 5 again, and the answer again here is inconclusive.

Sara: Question number 25.  "Tell me what your child's favorite objects or toys look like."  Brandon's folks say, "He has no favorite objects or toy."

Eric: And again, this question is focusing on Novelty and Complexity, Rows 9 and Row 5.  The answer is inconclusive, and that gives us really a total of 13 positives for CVI, 0 negatives and 12 inconclusives.

Sara: And that's probably enough to think, you know, just to think about CVI might be contributing to Brandon's visual behaviors considering also the red flag of him having a closed head injury.  Don't you think?

Eric: Yes, definitely, definitely.