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Examples of phrases you may need to use if you adapt the test:

  • "The test was not timed due to visual impairment."
  • "Test items that were visual in nature were eliminated."
  • "Adaptations in test items or administration may have altered the reliability and validity of this test."
  • "The student used a CCTV during the test and recorded his answers on bold lined paper with a black felt tip pen. He wore glasses for reading."
  • "The student used the abacus to compute arithmetic problems and recorded his answers in Braille."
  • "The student has no reading medium and had the comprehension section and spelling words read to him. Therefore, the results represent his oral comprehension and oral spelling ability."

Examples of phrases you may need to use if you do not adapt the test:

  • "These results compare the student to his sighted peers."
  • "This test was not normed on the visually impaired population, therefore, the results should not be considered completely valid."
  • "These results are probably a minimal estimate of the student's ability due to item inappropriateness and lack of normative data on the visually impaired population."
  • "The student is functioning approximately three years below grade placement level of his sighted peers."
  • "The student showed the following strengths and weaknesses:"
  • "The student could follow three step directions orally. He needs to improve ..."