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By Dr. Natalie Carter Barraga
© TSBVI 2007 357 pp Order # 59400BARR or textfile - Order # 59400BARR

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This is Dr. Natalie Barraga's story, from her beginnings in Troy, Texas to her travels across the globe. Dr. Barraga is probably best known for her writings on low vision and visual efficiency. Dr. Barraga has received over 20 national and international honors and awards, and has earned the respect of students and colleagues around the world.

She began her career in education by teaching home economics in the public schools. She also taught kindergarten for two and a half years at the New York Institute for the Blind. After returning to Texas, she taught home economics at Texas School for the Blind and accepted an appointment to the special education faculty at the University of Texas. After retiring from The UT, she has remained very active by teaching, researching, and advising at the University; by consulting nationally and internationally; and by advocating for continued improvements in services for blind children and their parents. She currently lives in Austin, Texas.

by Susan Hauser, Nancy Levack, & Lauren Newton (Eds.)
© TSBVI 1999 - 708 pages Order # 59434FAP
Note: This curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder.

Table of Contents of this book

The Functional Academics Curriculum is designed for teachers and instructors who work with a very special group of adolescents, age 12 years and older, for whom the developmental or academic approach is no longer effective, and have basic academic skills at a kindergarten through second grade level.
This guide addresses the major components of instruction. It addresses what to teach by describing curriculum content and assess, as well as how to teach by discussing strategies, adaptations, and procedures for planning, teaching, and documenting progress. The areas addressed include:

  • Communication Skills
  • Social Skills
  • Cognitive and Thinking Skills
  • Orientation and Mobility Skills
  • English/Language Arts
  • Math
  • Career Education
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Home Economics/Management
  • Recreation and Leisure

This curriculum is primarily an activity-based program. The students' learning day is structured around daily life activities that are age-appropriate and that prepare students for productive adult lives, blending traditional academic work with real life tasks. Instructors may choose from assessment forms and sample units included.
The curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder. Forms included are permitted to copy.

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Contents of Functional Academics: A Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairments

by Susan Hauser, Nancy Levack, & Lauren Newton (Eds.)

Part 1 Establishing a Framework for Instruction


  • Intended Population
  • Philosophy
  • Student Outcomes
  • Curriculum Content
  • The Continuum of Programming at TSBVI
  • The Exit Program

Assessing and Program Planning

  • Forms:
    • Teacher's Report of Present Competencies
    • Residential Report of Present Competencies
    • Parent IEP Considerations
    • Individual Transition Plan Summary
  • Why and When to Assess
  • How to Use the Curriculum Assessments
  • Functional Academics Assessments Included in this Curriculum
  • Who Assesses
  • Assessment and Program Planning Process
  • Individual Education Plans
  • Planning for Graduation
  • Individual Transition Planning
  • ARD Meetings
  • Documenting and Reporting Progress

General Teaching Strategies

  • Forms:
    • Daily Schedule (Quarter Hours)
    • Daily Schedule (Bell Schedule)
    • Activity Plan " Community
    • Activity Plan " Cooking
    • Unit (Planning)
  • Scheduling and Self-Contained Classes
  • Layering
  • Weekly Schedule of Classes or Activities
  • The Team Approach to Programming
  • The Role of Community-Based Instruction
  • Planning Instruction Based on Individualized Transition Plans
  • Lesson/Activity Plans
  • Incidental Learning
  • Planning Useful Activities
  • Teaching Through Units of Study

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Part 2 The Curriculum Content: Infused Skills

Communication Skills

  • Forms:
    • Oral Communication Assessment
    • Functional Literacy Assessment
    • Telephone Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Social Skills

  • Forms:
    • Knowledge of Personal Information Assessment
    • Knowledge of Visual and Other Impairments Assessment
    • Self-Advocacy Assessment
    • Knowledge of Human Sexuality Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Cognitive/Thinking Skills

  • What to Teach
  • Teaching Strategies

Orientation and Mobility Skills

  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

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Part 3 The Curriculum Content: Subject Areas

English / Language Arts

  • Forms:
    • Braille Assessment
    • Operating a Braillewriter Assessment
    • Functional Word Attack Assessment
    • Vocabulary and Reading Assessment
    • Self-Advocacy for Large Print Readers Assessment
    • Composition Writing Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies


  • Forms:
    • Basic Math Assessment
    • Calculator Assessment
    • Abacus and Fingermath Assessment
    • Money Assessment
    • Time Assessment
    • Measurement Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Career Education

  • Forms:
    • Parent Survey on Student Preferences for Work
    • Work Related Activities Assessment
    • Student Interview
    • Career Portfolio (Large Print)
    • Career Portfolio (Regular Print)
    • Resume of Work Training Experience
  • What to Teach
  • Work Awareness
  • Self-Awareness
  • Advocacy
  • Work Concepts
  • Job Seeking
  • Job Maintenance
  • Work Skills, Behaviors, and Attitudes
  • Employment
  • Strategies for Prompt Reduction
  • Assessment
  • Documentation
  • About the Units and Their Lessons

Social Studies

  • What to Teach
  • Teaching Strategies


  • What to Teach
  • Teaching Strategies

Home Economics and Management

  • Forms:
    • Dressing Assessment
    • Eating Assessment
    • Food Preparation Assessment
    • Grocery Store Assessment
    • Clothing Care Assessment
    • Household Management Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Personal Fitness & Use of Free Time

  • Forms:
    • Recreation/Leisure Assessment
    • Leisure Survey for Parents
    • Leisure Survey for Staff
    • Leisure Time Activities Plan
    • Restaurant Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Documentation
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Part 4 Teaching in a Residential School

Part 5 Units


More information about Braille FUNdamentals Braille Curriculum

Games for identifying either letters, contractions or words

Braille Jeopardy
Create a set of 4 or 5 categories (e.g. words that star with a, t, m, b, g, I). As the students progress categories can change (e.g., alphabet, whole words, dots e.g., teacher gives the dot numbers and students tell the word, dot 5 words, short form words, punctuation, which does not belong in the pattern. Make a chart with boxes for $200, $400, $600, $800, and $1,000 going across and each of the categories going down. You will need a total of 25 questions ranging from easiest to hardest in each category. Ask the students to pick the category and the dollar amount. The teacher or another student keeps track of the questions left. The teacher or students keep score. An optional activity would be a final jeopardy question where the teacher picks the category that proves most difficult and the students bet a portion of their score on answering it. The teacher can decide whether the students will answer in the form of a question or just answer the questions directly, depending on the ability of the students.
Make a set of cards that have four words on them three of which start with a specific letter or have a specific contraction (e.g., apple, apron tire, animal or under some not work). Student picks a card from the pile reads the words, chooses the one that doesn't fit the pattern. The one with the most cards wins the game. Students can go back through their cards and earn an extra point or prize by naming one more word that fits the pattern on the card.
Cinderella's Closet:
Give students a set of cards that are shaped like shoes with words that are matched pairs, - one word on each card (e.g., same words, same initial letters, rhyming words, same braille contractions). Ask the student to help Cinderella organize her closet by matching her shoes into pairs that are the same word, or start with the same letter or rhyme or are the same kind of contraction
Make up riddles for the letters or words in the cluster (e.g., "What begins ball and ends rib, if you say I'm an f, you'd be telling a fib?" Choose form b,g,i. "If I'm pizza you want me, If I'm liver you don't." Choose from but, go, more. Students read a card with the letters or words form the cluster and give the correct answer.
Balloon Burst:
This is a game for students who are not afraid of balloons or loud sounds. Insert letters, contractions or words in balloons. Inflate & knot. Ask the students to sit on the balloon, pop it and read the word.
Clothespin Clip:
Letters, contractions or words are placed around a cardboard circle. A set of clothespins has the same letters, contractions or words. Students match the clothespins to the letters, contractions or words on the card. Variations: Students hang the letters, contractions or words on a clothesline with the matching clothespin.
Rope Race:
Attach the rope in two different spots on a classroom and affix letters, contractions or words along the rope. Student travels along the rope and reads the words. Students can race each other or race against the clock.
Go to the Well:
Each student goes to the well and pulls out a card and reads it, If he reads it correctly, he keeps the card and can pull another card to read. Students can continue until three cards are read correctly. If he cannot read the word he passes it to the player to the right (this gives that player a chance for an extra card), and his turn is over. The player to the right then continues his turn. At the end of the game the students count up their cards.
Capital Cones:
Make ice cream cones with lower case letters and make scoops of ice cream with the capital letters. Put Velcro on scoops and cones so they can stick together. Ask the students to match.
Use two sets of 6 alphabet cards with Velcro attached to the front of the card. Place them face down on carpet or felt. Ask the students to turn over two at a time and read the letters out loud. If they match the student can keep them. If they do not match they should be returned to their original positions. Move to the next player. Continue until all cards are removed and the one with the most cards wins. This can be played with 1,2 or 3 players.
Graph It!:
Use tactual graph paper with a letter in each box. Teacher gives direction (e.g. south 2 spaces, or up, down, left right) Student reads the letter & gets a point for each correct answer). Variation: Teacher plots a shape on the graph. After reading the letter, student puts a pushpin in. When all the letters are identified the student has made a shape.
Put a braille letter on each side of a block. The student tosses the block & reads the letter/configuration. If correct, they earn a point. A student needs all 6 points to win.
Make a spinner containing one free spin, one loses a turn, and the desired braille letters or configurations. Students spin and read the letter. The first student to correctly read all the letters wins. Variation: Spinning Wheel: (Teacher's Gold Mine 207)
Mother May I:
Students are given a set of 5 cards. The student reads the card. If read correctly, the teacher tells the student how many "baby steps", "giant steps", etc. he can take. Students must ask, "Mother, may I?" before they move or they must go back to the beginning.
Treasure Hunt:
Place flash cards at various locations in the room (e.g. next to the computer, by a child's desk). Students are given clues to help them find each card. When they find a card, they must read it before being given the next clue. The last clue leads to a treasure.
Set up a baseball diamond in the room with chairs or desks. Give the student cards to read. They can take a base each time they read a card correctly.
Rollin', Rollin', Rollin':
Make a game board with the letters b, i, g, m, a, t. . (Letters may be repeated along the board and other letters may be substituted for b, i, g, m, a, t.) The student rolls the die and moves that number of spaces along the board. He must read the letter on that space and name a word that begins with that letter in order to stay in that spot. If he cannot do one of these things he must move back to his original position. The first person to reach the end of the board wins the game
Outburst and Outburst, Jr.:
This game is adaptable and fun to play with older groups of students.
Go Fish:
Use multiple sets of flashcards. Follow rules of regular Go Fish game.
Fish Fry:
Put letters, words, or configurations on fish shaped cards. Put the cards in an old frying pan. Using a spatula, students take turns flipping fish out of the pan and reading the flopped out fish. If they read the fish correctly, they may keep it. The student with the most fish at the end of the game wins.
Bingo (Braillo):
Use a commercial Bingo game and braille the letters, or make your own Bingo cards with the words or contractions you want to focus on.
Loony spoons:
Place a set of letters, contractions or words on paper cups and the same set on wooden ice cream spoons.) Each student takes a cup from the top of the stack. The first student draws a spoon from the pack of spoons and reads the word and checks to see if it matches his cup. If it matches she keeps it, if not she passes it to the person to her left. That person also checks it for a match. If the spoon doesn't match any of the players it is returned to a bone pile. If the spoon and cup match, the player keeps the cup and spoon and draws another cup from the stack before taking another spoon. At the end of the game the players count their matched cups and spoons.
Jigsaw puzzle match:
Make four interlocking pairs out of heavy duty material like foam board or mat board. Each piece should have male Velcro on the underneath side so it can attach to a carpeted surface. Each piece will need an additional piece of Velcro on the top side. Velcro matching pairs of the desired letters, words or configurations to each pair of puzzle pieces. Attach the left half of each pair to the carpeted surface. Give the student the right halves and ask him to match the letters words or configurations to the same one on the left. Alternatives: Put the contracted word on the left and the spelled out word on the right, or the number sign on the left and the number word on the right.
Secret code games:
Make up a silly sentence or riddle substituting numbers for letters. Write a code for assigning a letter to each number. The student rewrites the sentence substituting the letters for the numbers on the key and then reads the complete phrase. Alternative: write out the name of a treat. The student will earn the treat after solving the code.
Flip board:
Attach stacks of letters or contractions together in 2, 3, or 4 sets. The students flip through the stacks of letters to combine them into words.
Spread a pile of Flashcards or Rhyming words on the floor. The student drops a clothespin with a parachute on to the cards and reads the card where the parachute lands. If the student can read the card she keeps it, if not it is returned to the floor.
This commercial game can be adapted for braille practice by providing the students lists of words to read and choose from. Arrange lists in categories to fit the categories in the stories (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives).
Rhyming time:
The students draw a card, read the word, name as many words as they can that rhyme with the initial word within a specific time. Students get a point for each rhyming word. Variation: Students have to give a specific number or rhyming words to earn a point.
Tic Tac Toe:
Use a tactual Tic-Tac-Toe game. Before the student makes a move, he must read a letter, word, or sentence.
This commercially available game can be adapted. Put one answer and three clues on each card. Each student gets a stack of cards (or draws one a t a time out of the box). They take turns reading the three clues to the other players and the players try to guess the connection (e.g., elm, oak, and cedar = trees) The player who reads the card correctly gets a point and the player who answers correctly gets a point.
This commercially available game can be adapted. Make two sets of cards. Divide the players into two teams. Each card has a word that you want the players to guess and a list of words that you cannot say to make them guess it. The player says anything else to get the team to guess the word. A monitor from the other team also reads the card to be sure that the player does not say any of the Taboo words. Score a point for every correct guess without the taboo words being said.

Games for reading sentences:

Scrambled sentences:
Put a sentence with the words out of order on a flash card. Ask the students to unscramble the sentence and write it correctly. Make this more fun by giving the sentences a theme or making them tell a short story when they are all put together.
Sail Away:
Write sentences with one or more missing words on the base of sailboats. Put the missing words on the sails. Ask the students to put the sails on the boats to make complete sentences. (Use Velcro, magnets, or paper clips to fasten the sails.
This commercial game asks players to read a nonsense sentence aloud and the other players tell what common phrase it is supposed to represent. (e.g. ape herd hen Dee and = a bird in the hand). Braille out the cards for the students to read.
Spit it Out:
This commercial game can be easily adapted by brailling the sentence cards. Students are given three tongue twister sentences and the student picks which one would be easiest to say. They then say it as many times as they can in a given time limit.
Clever endeavor:
This commercial game can be adapted by Brailling the clue cards. Each card has a mystery answer. And a series of clues that range for easiest to hardest. The player reads the clues to the group choosing the ones that the other players might not get.

Games for reading & writing practice:

Two down & two to go:
Give students a list of four letter words with the two middle letters missing. Give them a set of cards with the missing middle letters for each word. Students match the middle letter combos with the list to make the words and then write the words.
Patchwork Quilt:
Make 20 patchwork squares with different textured fabrics glued to cardboard squares. Velcro q words onto the squares. Pass out the squares to the students. Ask the following questions and the student who has the correct answer puts his patch on the board or carpet to make the patchwork quilt. When all the card are laid down the quilt is complete.
  • Who is the lady who is married to the king?
  • What sound does a duck make?
  • What sea animal looks like an octopus?
  • What is the name of a vegetable that also means to crush?
  • What measurement takes four to make a gallon?
  • What shape has four equal sides?
  • What is the answer to a division problem?
  • What bushy tailed animal gathers nuts for the winter?
  • What is another word for being silent?
  • What do you ask someone?
  • What is the sound that a mouse makes?
  • What is another word for a short test?
  • What is the name of a French egg and cheese pie?
  • What is the name of the color that is a combination of green and blue?
  • What is a word that means you are sick to your stomach?
  • What can you sink into that feels wet and muddy?
  • What means that two things are the same?
  • What kind or bird looks like a partridge?
  • What kind of rock is shiny and clear?
  • What tool has a rubber edge and us used to clean mirrors?
Word Workout:
Give the students a small word (e.g., rat). Students write as many words as they can think of that have this word in it.
Every other:
Give students a group of words with every other letter missing. Give the category (e.g., foods, games, famous men, state capitals). Students figure out the word and write it.
Up & Down Words:
List a word in vertical order. In the next column list the word backwards in vertical order. Student add letters to make a new word using the two letters
  • b t
  • a a
  • t b
Variations: Choose any word on the student's level. The reversed letters do not have to make a word. The students can choose their own word to write up and down. The student earns a point for each word made.
this is a commercial game that is easily adaptable. Here is one way to adapt it. List five categories (e.g., cold things, boy's names, things at the beach, foods). Tell students to come up with one item for each category. Have someone pick a letter at random (e.g., rolling dice, spinning a wheel, picking a card). Tell students that adjectives don't count to fulfill the letter requirement (e.g. red popsicle) but two points can be awarded if the there are two words with the same letter that meet the category (e.g. Tim Taylor), Name each category and give each student a limited time to write the answer (e.g. 10 -15 seconds). When all the categories have been answered, go through and ask the student to read the answer for the first category. Score points if students have given an original answer. Answers cannot be repeated in different categories. Play the same 5 categories three times with a different letter, then change categories.
Construction crew:
Make short word list for nouns, verbs and adjectives from the cluster words that the students are learning. Ask the students to use these words to write a sentence. After a specific amount of time the students read their sentences, and earn a point for each word in their sentence. Continue each round of writing sentences keeping cumulative score for all the words used.
Wheel of Fortune:
Make a spinner with five hundred-dollar amounts (e.g., $200, $500) and Lose a Turn. Make a list of words or phrases containing the braille configurations that you want the students to practice. Students use a braillewriter to keep track of the letters in the word and letters that have been called but ate not ion the word. When the student knows how many letters the word has, it helps to write out the number of full cells on the page. The teacher picks the first word, gives the student a clue (e.g., category, person, place or thing and tells how many words or letters. The student spins and for a dollar amount he chooses a letter. If the letter is in the word, tell the student where the letter appears in the letter or phrase and have them record it on the page below the full cells. If the letter does not appear, Vowels can be bought for $100. If students are capable of keeping their scores on an abacus, encourage them to do so.

Games for number recognition:

Braille Uno:
This is a commercially available game. Also regular Uno cards can be adapted.
This is also called War. Using braille playing cards each student draws from a pile, reads the number and determine who has the highest number. The student with the highest number gets to keep all the drawn cards. If the same number is drawn, they each draw another card. The student with the most cards wins.
Use brailled playing cards. Each student is dealt two cards. Students look at their cards and decide if they want more cards or not. The student who comes closest to 21 without going over wins the hand.
Number Bingo:
Adapt a commercial game or make your own.
Crazy 8s:
Use brailled playing cards. Each player gets seven cards. Turn over the top card of the draw pile. Each player has to match the number or the suit of the card that is face up. 8s are wild and are used to change the suit. If you cannot play a card in your hand, draw from the pile. Draw until you get something that you can play. The object is to play all the cards in your hand and "go out."

Additional Activities:

Make a list of the letters, words or contractions being learned. Allow the students to decorate them with string, beans, stickers, torn paper, glitter, etc. Variation: Have student use a specified letter or configuration in combination with spaces, or not, to cover the bookmark with a textured pattern.
Phonics Quizzers:
Ask the student thought questions that reinforce phonics patterns (e.g., what did you see on the way to school that starts the same as cat?)
Greeting Cards:
give the students a list of occasion specific phrases to choose from when creating greeting cards.
Sequencing sentences:
Braille sentences or use sentences from the Literature section. Cut the sentences apart and give the students the sentences out of order. Ask the students to sequence and rewrite the sentences.
Opposite Outlook:
Put reading words in a can. The students pick out a word, read it and write its opposite. Variations: Students can be timed and count how many words they can come up with in a given amount of time.
Category Capers:
Give students a list of vocabulary words. Have students braille two or three category headings (e.g., starts with the letter __, related to nature, things people do, rhymes with hat, parts of our body) at the top of another paper. Students then read the words and write them under the designated categories.
Racy Riddlers:
Write a riddle or rhyme in grade 1. Students have to put it in Grade 2.
Rhyming Wheel:
Braille a rhyming pattern (e.g., op, at alt) on rectangular piece of paper. Attach it to a wheel with a brad making sure that the pattern shows past the wheel. Divide the wheel into quadrants with an initial letter(s) in each quadrant. The student moves the rhyming pattern around the wheel and combines the initial letter and the rhyming pattern to read the words (e.g., bop, drop, mop, stop). The students can then write these words on a separate sheet of paper.
Braille fortune cookies

How Do We Get There?
(especially when teaching social and recreational skills)

by Valerie Perwein & Nancy Levack
© TSBVI 1996 - 48 pp. Order # 59421ILS

This booklet can serve as a basis for inservice, especially when using the Independent Living Curriculum to teach from.

It features:

  • Information about teaching social and recreational skills
  • How to choose the right objectives and teaching strategies
  • Examples of teaching strategies
  • Question and strategy forms

The booklet is sold unbound printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for ring binders.


Compiled by Teachers at TSBVI
© TSBVI 2007 Print set - Order # 59445 Eval, textfile - Not Available

Table of Contents of this book

Evaluation of students with visual impairments is a complex, multi-faceted process of gathering information using appropriate tools & techniques. Informal evaluation should be considered an essential supplement to the use of formal measures and published instruments. In order to determine curricular focus and plan effective instructional programming for students, the staff must know a student's levels of functioning in all areas of academic and unique need. By conducting appropriate evaluations, students' specific needs related to accessing the general curriculum, as well as the areas identified in the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) can be identified.

EVALS is a 5-part set which is contained in a convenient file box with a handle and snap tight buckle. It will include:

  • Two books of evaluations for the ECC areas
  • One book of evaluations for academic subject areas for Practical Academics and Basic Skills students
  • Independent Living Skills Assessment and On-going Evaluation
  • TAPS Comprehensive Assessment and On-going Evaluation

Many of the evaluations have been aligned to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS).

Section 1 Overview

  • Meaningful Evaluation 
  • Organization of Evals Book 
  • Locating Learning Standards for Other States        
  • Core Curriculum 
  • Modified & Alternate Curriculum/Learning Standards  
  • Expanded Core Curriculum 
  • Expanded Core Curriculum
    • Compensatory/Access Skills
      • Abacus/Counting Method       
      • Beginning Concepts   
      • Braille: Pre-Braille
      • Braille: Braillewriter Basics
      • Braille: Uncontracted Braille & Literary Numbers    
      • Braille: Contracted Reading & Writing       
      • Handwriting for Blind Students    
      • Handwriting for Low Vision Students    
      • Listening-Auditory Skills 
      • Nemeth Code: Elementary
      • Nemeth Code: Algebra I    
      • Nemeth Code: Algebra II   
      • Nemeth Code: Geometry  
      • Organizational Skills     
      • Slate & Stylus         
      • Study Skills 
      • Tactile Graphics Skills for Math
  • Orientation & Mobility
    • The booklet, TAPS An Orientation & Mobility Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairments: Comprehensive Assessment & Ongoing Evaluation has been provided.
  • Social Interaction Skills
    • Sexuality Education 
    • Social Skills 
  • Independent Living Skills
    • Domestic Activities  
  • Recreation & Leisure Skills
    • Recreation, Leisure, Fitness      
  • The booklet, Independent Living Assessment & Ongoing Evaluation has been provided in addition to the included Evals for Social Interaction Skills, Independent Living Skills, and Recreation & Leisure Skills listed above.

Section 2 Career Education Skills

  • Beginning Career Education I         
  • Beginning Career Education II       
  • Career Connections (Modified)  
  • Career Education Units 
  • Comprehensive General Employability      
  • Work Related Job Site Activities
  • Technology Skills
    • Beginner Braille 'n Speak/Braille Lite/Type 'n Speak
    • Braille 'n Speak/Braille Lite/Type 'n Speak
    • Braille Note
    • Functional Computer Use
    • Functional Use of Assistive Tools          
    • Keyboarding       
    • Low Vision Technology        
    • Scanners   
    • Speech Technology
    • Telebraille  
  • Visual Efficiency Skills
    • Magnifier Use  
    • Monocular Use   
  • Also see: Beginning Concepts, Braille: Pre-Braille, Listening-Auditory Skills, and Tactile Graphics Skills for Math in Section 1 of this publication for more Visual Efficiency Skills.
  • Self-Determination Skills
    • Self-Determination    
  • Transition Skills
    • EXIT - Level I, EXperiences In Transition  
    • EXIT - Level II, EXperiences In Transition  

Section 3 Alternate/Modified Curriculum

  • Health for Practical Academics Students
    • Health and Healthy Choices     
  • Language Arts for Practical Academics Students
    • Application of Reading Skills 
    • Beginning Reading Skills 
    • Handwriting for Low Vision Students    
    • Signature Writing for Blind Students
    • Personal Data  
    • Practical Applications
    • Sight Words
    • Telephone Skills
    • Braille: Uncontracted Braille & Literary Numbers
    • Vocabulary for School & Community
    • Writing/Composition
  • Language Arts for Basic Skills Students
    • Language Arts Skills for Secondary Students    
  • Math for Practical Academics Students
    • Basic Math Skills 
    • Measurement Skills    
    • Money Skills
    • Time/Calendar Skills  
  • Math for Basic Skills Students
    • Math Skills for Secondary Basic Skills Students    
  • Science for Practical Academics Students
    • Elementary Science     
    • General Science/Health  
    • Science for Basic Skills Students
    • Science/Health for Secondary Basic Skills Students    
  • Social Studies for Practical Academics Students
    • General Social Studies      
    • Texas History        
    • U.S. History (Early to Reconstruction) 
    • U.S. History (Reconstruction to Present)     
    • World History        
    • World Geography 
    • Economics          
    • Government       
  • Social Studies for Basic Skills Students
    • Social Studies for Secondary Basic Skills Students
  • Infused Skills for Basic Skills Students
    • Infused Skills Assessment      

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By Jeri Cleveland, R. Michael Clinkscales, Nancy Hefner, David Houghtling, Cindy Kubacak, Debra Sewell
© TSBVI 2007, 444 pp Order # 59444SDC, textfile - Not Available

Table of Contents of this book

At the heart of everything we want to teach our students lies a set of skills that helps them become successful members of our communities. Self-determination instruction is part of this set of skills, and is based on the premise that students must acquire specific knowledge and skills and have many opportunities to practice them. Self-determination involves knowledge of self and others, decision-making, problem solving, goal setting, personal advocacy, self-control and knowledge of how to interact with the environment to achieve desired outcomes.

The emergence of self-determination as a concept all its own allows us to target the specific skills that must be taught. Since students with visual impairments must often be explicitly taught skills before they can use them spontaneously, the Empowered curriculum, comprised of an Introduction and 23 Units, has been developed to guide the instruction of Self-determination skills. Also included is a disc that can used for making large print or embossed copies of the student activities.

Table of Contents


Getting Started  

Unit Objectives  


  • General Teacher Information
  • Introduction to Students
  • Objectives
  • Key Words
  • Materials
  • Activities
  • Teacher Resources

Unit 1: Getting to Know Each Other

Unit 2: Self-Awareness

Unit 3: Identifying Strengths and Challenges

Unit 4: Self-Acceptance, Coping and Compensatory Strategies

Unit 5: Self-Management: Stress Management

Unit 6: Self-Management: Self-Assessment Process

Unit 7: Personal Control

Unit 8: Communication: Basics of Communication and Active Listening

Unit 9: Passive, Aggressive, Passive/Aggressive and Assertive Communication

Unit 10: Personal Advocacy

Unit 11: Decision Making

Unit 12: Personal Values, Shared Values, Respecting Others' Values

Unit 13: Dreaming About the Future

Unit 14: Setting Long-Term Goals

Unit 15: Setting Short-Term Objectives

Unit 16: Making Action Plans (steps to reach short-term objectives)

Unit 17: Problem Solving Basics

Unit 18: Problem Solving II: Goal Assessment and Revision

Unit 19: Conflict Resolution/Negotiation

Unit 20: Rights and Responsibilities (including legal status)

Unit 21: Knowledge of Resources

Unit 22: Advocacy Within Systems

Unit 23: Where the Rubber Meets the Road


Materials Chart 

CD Materials Guide

Self-Determination Evaluation   


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by Brenda O'Sail, Nancy Levack, Linda Donovan, and Debra Sewell
© TSBVI 2001 - Order #59435ECC
Note: This curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder.

Table of Contents

This curriculum is written for students younger than twelve years of age who have visual impairments and are not yet reading, writing, and doing math at a first grade level. It is based on a thematic approach to teaching. Specific units of study have been included because an understanding of these topics gives students a foundation in their ability to understand themselves, their world, and how it functions. Unit activities include concept development, math readiness, reading and writing readiness, music and games, arts, cooking and eating, pretend play, story time, and extended discussion or activities.

The major themes are:

  • Description and Use
  • Self Theme
  • Happy Healthy Me Theme
  • Environment Theme
  • Where I Live Theme
  • Holidays Theme
  • Cycles Theme
  • Transportation Theme
  • Safety Theme
  • Recreation Theme
  • Animals Theme
  • Work Theme
  • Tools Theme
  • Others Theme
  • Community Helpers Theme

In addition, the curriculum includes an Assessment and Ongoing Evaluation that includes infused skills in cognition, communication, sensory and motor skills, readiness, work skills, and music skills. These skills are identified as a need through the assessment and then taught through the themes.


Description and Use

  • Overview
    • Intended Population
    • Philosophy
    • Why An Elementary Concepts Curriculum for Students who have Visual Impairments
    • Mediating the Environment
    • Other Components of the Curriculum
    • Curriculum Content
      • Units
      • Theme Activities
      • Unit Activities
      • Infused Skills
      • Concept Words
      • Pre-Units
    • Other Frameworks which Support Elementary
      • Concepts
      • Whole Language
      • Cooperative Learning
      • Integrated Thematic Instruction
      • Dimensions of Learning
    • Other Curriculum Resources
    • References
  • Assessment, Planning & Documentation
    • Why Assess
    • Who Should Assess
    • How to Use the Assessment Booklet
      • How to Compile the Assessment Information in Preparation for the Pre-ARD and ARD Meeting
      • Drafting the IEP
  • Instruction
    • Setting up the Classroom Environment
      • Philosophy
      • Room Organization and Work Spaces
      • Materials and Equipment
      • Environmental Cues
      • Adaptive Devices
      • Considerations When Using Environmental Adaptations and Adaptive Devices
    • Using Alternative Calendar Systems
      • Philosophy
    • Using Calendars to Teach Infused Skills
    • Components of a Calendar
      • Symbols
      • Calendar Format
    • Suggestions for Using Calendars
    • Using Routines
    • Using Task Analysis
    • Additional Readings and Resources


  • Topic: Body Parts
  • Topic: Clothing
  • Topic: Eating Utensils
  • Topic: Self-Care Objects
  • Topic: Toys
  • Topic: Shapes
  • Topic: Move It - An Introduction to Transportation


  • Story Time Books
  • Teacher Books
  • References
  • AV/Manipulatives
  • Additional Recipes
  • Assessment and Ongoing Evaluation

Themes and Units

  • Pre-Units
    • Body Parts
    • Clothing
    • Eating Utensils
    • Self-Care Objects
    • Toys
    • Shapes
    • Move It - An Introduction to Transportation
  • Unit Theme: Self
    • Unit A. Body Parts
    • Unit B. Identity
    • Unit C. Daily Activities
    • Unit D. Feelings
  • Unit Theme: Happy Healthy Me
    • Unit A. Nutrition
    • Unit B. Personal Hygiene
    • Unit C. Exercise/Rest
  • Unit Theme: Environment
    • Unit A. Land
    • Unit B. Water
    • Unit C. Air
    • Unit D. Caring for the Environment
  • Unit Theme: Where I Live
    • Unit A. Homes
    • Unit B. Community
  • Unit Theme: Holidays
    • Unit A. Fall Holidays
    • Unit B. Winter Holidays
    • Unit C. Spring Holidays
    • Unit D. Summer Holidays
  • Unit Theme: Cycles
    • Unit A. Seasons
    • Unit B. Life Cycles
    • Unit C. Weather
    • Unit D. Time
  • Unit Theme: Transportation
    • Unit A. Public Transportation
    • Unit B. Work Vehicles
    • Unit C. Family Vehicles
  • Unit Theme: Safety
    • Unit A. Home
    • Unit B. School and Playgrounds
    • Unit C. Community Safety
    • Unit D. Personal Safety
    • Unit E. Emergency Services
  • Unit Theme: Recreation
    • Unit A. Home
    • Unit B. School
    • Unit C. Community
  • Unit Theme: Animals
    • Unit A. Pets
    • Unit B. Farm Animals
    • Unit C. Wild Life
    • Unit D. Zoo and Circus Animals
    • Unit E. Insects and Spiders
    • Unit F. Dinosaurs
  • Unit Theme: Work
    • Unit A. What is Work
    • Unit B. Kinds of Jobs
    • Unit C. Money
  • Unit Theme: Tools
    • Unit A. What is a Tool
    • Unit B. Cleaning Tools
    • Unit C. Cooking Tools
    • Unit D. Classroom Tools
    • Unit E. Fixing/Building Tools
    • Unit F. Gardening Tools
  • Unit Theme: Others
    • Unit A. Family
    • Unit B. Friends
    • Unit C. School
    • Unit D. Getting Along with Others
  • Unit Theme: Community Helpers
    • Unit A. Police Officers
    • Unit B. Fire Fighters
    • Unit C. Mail Carriers
    • Unit D. Doctors/Nurses
    • Unit E. Dentists

by Linda Hagood
© TSBVI 1997 - 386 pages Order # 59432CRP
Also available on disk - MAC or DOS (textfile-no forms) Order # 59432CRD

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Teach your student how to communicate & learn how to communicate with your student who has little or no language or has beginning formal signed or spoken language. This resource guide offers a broader approach to teaching communication than is found in more traditional curricula.

  • A model for teaching communication
  • A process approach to assessment
  • Principles for selecting communication targets
  • Current approaches to teaching communication
  • Context selection for teaching communication
  • Sample activity routines
  • Strategies and problem solving
  • Why and how to use a standard tactual symbol system
  • Building quality interactions with children who are deafblind
  • Reproducible forms for assessment and evaluation, lesson plans/activity routines for diagnostic teaching

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Contents of Communication:A Guide for Teaching Students with Visual and Multiple Impairments

by Linda Hagood

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • Intended Users and Population
  • Philosophy
  • A Model for Teaching Communication
    • Table: Major Goal Areas for Communication Programming
  • Ways in Which a Visual Impairment Can Affect Communication in a Child with Severe Disabilities
  • Ways in Which Deafblindness Can Affect Development of Communication
  • Summary

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Chapter 2: Assessment

  • Current Approaches to Assessing Communication Skills
    • Norm-Referenced Testing
    • Activity Routine Discrepancy Analysis
    • Informal Assessments
    • Table: Nonstandardized Approaches to Assessing Communication Skills
  • The Process Approach to Assessment
    • Table: Process Approach Assessment Information
  • Sequence of Assessment
    • Table: Sequence of Assessment
    • Step One: Communication Screening Questionnaire
    • Step Two: Communication Sampling in Natural Contexts
    • Table: Communication Sampling
    • Step Three: Scripted Sampling
    • Step Four: Diagnostic Teaching
    • Step Five: Compiling the Information
    • Table: Compiling Assessment Information
  • Summary

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Chapter 3: Planning Instruction

  • Principles for Selecting Communication Targets
  • General Approaches to Teaching Communication
    • Van Dijk Methods
    • Calendars
    • Table: Examples of Communication Goals Taught Using Calendars
    • Table: Considerations in Developing a Concrete Calendar
    • Joint Action Routines
    • Hanen Techniques/Ecological Communication System
    • Unit Teaching/Thematic Instruction
    • Table: Sample Communication Objectives for a Unit on Water
    • Table: Sample Communication Activities for a Unit on Water
    • Incidental Teaching
    • Table: Examples of Incidental Teaching
    • Engineered Environments
  • Selecting the Best Method for Your Student
    • Table: Overview of Methods-93
  • Selecting Contexts for Teaching Communication
    • Teaching Communication as an Infused Objective
    • Teaching Communication as a Primary Objective
    • Using Routines as Contexts for Teaching Communication
    • Stages in the Development of Routines
  • Summary

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Chapter 4: Sample Activity Routines

  • Introduction
    • Table: Sample Lesson Plan/Activity Routine
  • Level 1 Activities
    • Characteristics of Routines
    • Foot Massage
    • Snack Making
    • Grocery Shopping
  • Level 2 Activities
    • Characteristics of Routines
    • Foot Massage
    • Snack Making
    • Grocery Shopping
  • Level 3 Activities
    • Characteristics of Routines
    • Snack Making
    • Grocery Shopping
  • Summary

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Chapter 5: Strategies and Problem Solving

  • Communicative Form: Transition to New Forms
    • Table: Communicative Forms
  • Communicative Form: Voice Output Devices
  • Social Interactive Skills
  • Communicative Functions: Intentionality
  • Communicative Functions: Choice-Making
  • Communicative Functions: Beyond Labeling and Requesting
  • Communicative Content: Topics
  • Communicative Content: Meaning Categories
  • Communicative Content: Echolalia
  • Summary

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  • A Standard Tactual Symbol System
    • Who Can Use Tactual Symbols?
    • Why Would a Student Use Tactual Symbols?
    • How the Symbols Have Been Used
    • Considerations in Developing a Tactual Symbol System
    • Summary
    • Readings and Resources
  • Conversations Without Language: Building Quality Interactions with Children who are Deafblind
    • What is Conversation for the Child with Limited Language Skills?
    • Why is Conversation Important for the Child with Limited Language?
    • Four Problems in Teaching Conversational Skills and Some Solutions
    • Summary
    • Readings and Resources
  • Reproducible Forms
    • Communication Screening Questionnaire
    • Communication Sample
    • Summary of Communication Sample
    • Assessment Script: Chocolate Milk
    • Assessment Script: Movement and Body Play
    • Assessment Script: Switch-Activated Toys
    • Infused Skills Assessment
    • Communication Assessment Report
    • Lesson Plan/Activity Routine
    • Planning for Topic Expansion
  • Sample Assessment 1
  • Sample Assessment 2
  • Sample Unit: Physical Knowledge
  • References




© TSBVI 1999 - 182 pages Order # 59420CEH
Note: This curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder.

Order Form/Pricelist in DOC

Order Form/Pricelist in PDF


Table of Contents of this book

This handbook represents the guidelines in the Career Education Program of TSBVI. This program provides learning opportunities that are experientially based, academically supported, and realistically focused on students' strengths and goal areas. The expected outcome is that students will be prepared to enter the job market with the ability to demonstrate good work habits, set realistic goals, demonstrate basic SCANS skills, and specific skills training in various job clusters.
The handbook describes transition planning, the role of job coaches, planning and assessment, and courses included in the Career Education Program at TSBVI. It also features teaching units for some job clusters.

Many necessary forms are included:

  • Work Assessment Plan
  • Work Training Plan
  • Cooperative Work Plan
  • Work Behavior Evaluation
  • Personal Transition Profile - Interview Guide
  • Work Stipend Incentive
  • Career Portfolio: Student Interview, Parent Interview, Student Profile, General Employability Competencies

This handbook is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder. The forms included are permitted to copy.

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Contents of Career Education for Applied Academics


  • Mission Statement
  • Philosophy
  • Expected Student Outcomes
  • The Career Education Program at TSBVI
  • Transition Planning
  • The Role of Job Coaches

Planning and Assessing

  • Planning for Student Placement
  • Ongoing Assessment
  • Forms to be Used by the Job Coaches
  • Transition Planning


  • Integrated Academics:
    • Intro. to Work
    • Exploring Occupations in Health Care
    • Exploring Massage Therapy
    • Exploring Occupations in Horticulture
    • Intro. to Tool Use
    • Exploring Occupations in Hospitality Services
    • Exploring Occupations in Offices
    • Issues in Transition
    • Personal Skills Development
    • Intro. to Health Science Technology
    • Health Science Technology II (Massage Therapy Cert. Program)
    • Keyboarding
    • Technology Applications for the Visually Impaired
  • Work Experience
  • Examples of Students' Programs
  • Summer Programs
  • Postsecondary Programming
  • Why Are SCANS Skills Integrated in the Career Education Program?
  • Why Are Social Skills Integrated in the Career Education Program?


  • Job Bank
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Resources for Additional Information
  • Career Education Department Programmatic/Team Oriented Goals


  • Work Assessment Plan
  • Work Training Plan
  • Cooperative Work Plan
  • Work Behavior Plan
  • Personal Transition Profile - Interview Guide
  • Work Stipend Incentive
  • The Process of Planning Your Future Begins Now!
  • Personal Vision/Personal Goals
  • Career Portfolio

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by Robbie Blaha
© TSBVI 2001 - 128 pages Order # 59436CAL

This book is written for students who need help structuring and organizing their time and activities. It includes information about:

  • The benefits of calendar systems
  • Calendar programming based on individual students' needs and skills
  • The continuum of calendars available for expanding students' skills
  • Communication and time
  • Benefits of anticipation calendars, daily calendars, and expanded calendars
  • Parents and calendars
  • Assessing and evaluating with a calendar

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1, Benefits of Calendar Systems
    • Calendars and Communication
    •  Calendars and Time
    •  Calendars and Emotional Support
    •  Calendar Tips
  • Chapter 2, Anticipation Calendars
    •  Benefits of Anticipation Calendars
    •  Guidelines for Implementing an Anticipation Calendar
    •  Calendar Tips
  • Chapter 3, Daily Calendars
    •  Benefits of a Daily Calendar
    •  Guidelines for Implementing a Daily Calendar
    •  Calendar Tips
  • Chapter 4, Expanded Calendars
    •  Benefits of Expanded Calendars
    •  Guidelines for Implementing Concrete Expanded Calendars
    •  Calendar Tips
  • Appendix

Better Together: Building Relationships with People who have Visual Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorder (or Atypical Social Development)

by Linda Hagood-© TSBVI 2008 Print set - Order # 59446 BTP, also available on disk

Table of Contents for this book.

The population of children with visual impairment has grown increasingly diverse in recent years. A growing number of students with visual impairment are being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between autism and visual impairment is complex. Therefore, the issues related to identification of autism in children with visual impairment remain controversial. As the theoretical controversies continue, parents and teachers are faced with a growing number of visually impaired students who have trouble building social connections, which typical sighted children establish during the first years of life. The goal of this manual is to provide practical suggestions for teachers and parents who want to build important foundational relationships and teach social skills to children with visual impairments and autism or other types of atypical social development. Better Together provides a systematic scope and sequence of relationship-based goals and objectives, as well as examples of activities and strategies for teaching the objectives. Sample thematic units are presented that can be used by teachers to organize relationship-based instruction.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

  • Autism and Asperger's Syndrome
    • Diagnostic Criteria for Autistic Disorder
    • Diagnostic Criteria for Asperger's Disorder
    • Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
  • What's In A Name? Questioning the Autism Diagnosis of Children with Visual Impairment
  • Overview of Approaches for Teaching Children with Autism
    • Continuum of Current Treatment Approaches
    • Categorical Comparison of Current Educational Approaches
  • Resources for Teaching the Student with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Visual Impairment
  • Why a Relationship-Based Approach for Visually Impaired Children with Autism?
  • Goals of this Guide

Chapter 2 Curriculum Scope and Sequence

  • Domains Used in Better Together Curriculum
  • Descriptions of Levels in Social Skills Curriculum
    • Level 1 Developmental Level 0-6 months
    • Level 2 Developmental Level 6-18 months
    • Level 3 Developmental Level 18-36 months
    • Level 4 Developmental Level 36-60 months
    • Level 5 Developmental Level 5 years-7 years

Chapter 3 Relationship-based Evaluation

  • Evaluation of Student Skills
    • Social Interaction
    • Communication
    • Social Cognition
    • Emotional Development

Chapter 4 Strategies for Building Relationships

  • Stage 1 Getting Ready
    • Medical and Educational Histories
    • Interview Parents and Previous Teachers
    • Understand the Implications of Specific Visual Problems for Social Learning
  • Stage 2 Getting Started
    • Establishing a Foundation
  • Stage 3 Staying Connected
    • Cooperation
  • Stage 4 Building Equity
    • Collaboration
    • Guiding Principals for Maintaining Mature Relationships

Chapter 5 Adapting Existing Curricula

  • Relationship-based Approaches for Students with Autism
    • Materials

Chapter 6 Samples Instructional Units

  • Unit 1 Connections
    • Social Games
    • Stories
    • Science
    • Art
    • Music
    • Creative Movement/Dramatic Play
  • Unit 2 Understanding Others' Perspectives
    • Social Games
    • Stories
    • Language Arts
    • Science
    • Social Studies/History/Current Events
  • Unit 3 Transitions/Changes
    • Social Games
    • Stories
    • Language Arts
    • Science
    • Social Studies
  • Unit 4 Emotions/Feelings
    • Social Games
    • Stories
    • Science

Chapter 7 Activities to Encourage Creativity and Collaboration

  • Yoga
    • Emotional Regulation
    • Connection to Others
    • Creative/Symbolic Thinking
  • Collaborative Writing
    • Parallels Between Social Play Levels and Writing Abilities
    • Parallels Between Cognitive Play Levels and Writing Abilities
  • Strategies to Develop a Play-based Writing Program

Chapter 8 FAQs on Common Problems

  • Problem Area: Echoed Speech
  • Problem Area: Tolerating Change
  • Problem Area: Isolation
  • Problem Area: Mannerisms and Self-Stimulation


  • Making a Happy Ending


  1. Evaluation/Assessment Forms
    • Evaluation of Adult Teaching Strategies
    • Evaluation of the Adult-Child Relationship
    • Evaluation of Student Skills
  2. Student Stories
  3. References

by Pat Stephenson

© TSBVI Revised 2008 - 230 pages Order # 59428BSA, or textfile - Order # 59428AD

A companion book to Basic Skills for Community Living for the domestic, recreation/leisure, and vocational domains, including activity routine discrepancy analysis forms preprinted with routine steps with permission to copy. The routines are sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder.

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Contents of Basic Skills for Community Living: A Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities

by Nancy Levack, Susan Hauser, Lauren Newton, and Pat Stephenson (Eds.)

Part One: The Overall Program

Chapter 1: Overview

  • Intended Population
  • Philosophy
    • The Role of Community-Based Instruction
    • The Transdisciplinary Approach to Programming
  • The Continuum of Programming at TSBVI
  • Curriculum Content
    • Functional Activities
    • Developmental Skills
    • How to Integrate Functional Activities and Developmental Skills in Programming

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Chapter 2: Assessing the Student

  • Who Should Assess
  • How to Do an Assessment in Preparation for an ARD Meeting
    • Assessments to Be Done by the Classroom Teacher
    • Other Teacher Activities for the Pre-ARD Meeting
    • Assessments to Be Done by the Residential Instructor
    • Assessments to be Done by Support Staff
    • Assessments to Be Done by the Work Skills Teacher
    • Additional Assessments for Specific Needs
    • Timelines for ARD Preparation
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 3: Transition Planning

  • Philosophy
  • Guidelines for Transition Planning
    • Who Does What in the Transition Process?
    • When Students are 14 Years or Older
    • The Role of TSBVI in the Transition Process for Students 16 Years and Older
    • Identified Outcomes and the Student's IEP Goals
    • Making Decisions About Future Services
    • When Community Services Have Been Arranged
  • Guidelines for Completing the Individual Transition Plan Summaries
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 4: Developing the IEP

  • What is an IEP?
  • Drafting the Goals and Objectives for the IEP
    • How to Lead the Pre-ARD Meeting
    • How to Use the IEP Form
  • The ARD Committee Meeting
  • After the ARD Committee Meeting
    • TSBVI's Role When Students are Returning to LEAs
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 5: Planning and Documenting Instruction

  • The Daily Schedule
    • Suggestions for Planning the Daily Schedule
  • Lesson Plans and Data Keeping
  • Activity Routines
    • Special Considerations When Using Activity Routines
    • Activity Routine Discrepancy Analysis
  • Diagnostic Teaching
  • Writing and Documenting the Progress Report
  • How to Fill Out the Progress Report
  • Documenting and Closing Out the IEP
  • Documenting the Behavior Plan
  • Documenting Work Training
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 6: Effective Teaching Strategies

  • The Student's Environment
    • Arrangement of the Environment
    • Positioning the Student
    • Materials
  • Activity Routines
    • Developing a Routine
    • Using the Discrepancy Analysis
    • Scheduling Routines
    • Adjusting the Routine to the Student
  • Prompting
    • Forms of Prompting
    • Types of Prompts
    • Methods of Prompting
    • Timing of Prompts
    • Reducing Prompt Dependency
    • Fading and Shaping
  • Rewards, Value Sharing, and Reinforcement
    • Reinforcing for Motivation
    • Human Interaction
  • Behavior Management
    • Problems with Communicating
    • Physical Problems
    • Emotional Problems
    • Problems with Learning New Skills
    • Tuning in to the Student
    • The MANDT System
  • Adaptations
  • Factors Influencing Learning
    • Factors Influencing Visual Learning
    • Auditory Factors That Affect Learning
    • Other Factors That Affect Learning
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 7: The Role of the Residential Instructor

  • Responsibilities of the Prime Advocate
  • Assessment
  • Planning Activities
  • Planning and Documenting Instruction
    • The Daily Schedule
    • Writing the Progress Report
    • Student Notebooks
  • Safety
  • DO and DON'T

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Part Two Content Areas

Chapter 8: Domestic Activities

  • Philosophy
  • Areas of Domestic Activities
  • Assessment
  • Using Activity Routines for Instruction
  • Teaching Strategies and Adaptations
    • Example of Personal Hygiene Strategies
    • Example of a Personal Hygiene Routine
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 9: Career Education

  • The Four Levels of Programming
    • Career Awareness
    • Career Exploration
    • Career Preparation
    • Job Readiness
  • Career Awareness Focus
    • Establishing a Work Routine
    • Introduction of Work Tasks
    • Introduction of Money
    • Self-Management of Routine
    • Site Rotation and Documentation
  • Career Exploration Focus
    • Increase of Tolerance and Stamina
    • Expanding Work Routine
    • Increasing Task Skills
    • Self-Management
  • Assessment
    • Work-Related Activities Assessment
    • Parent Survey on Student Preferences
  • Documentation
    • Career Portfolio
    • Resume of Work Training Experience
    • Career Education Report
  • Guidelines and Strategies
    • Selecting Training Sites
    • New Work Assignments
    • Routines
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 10: Leisure and Recreation

  • Philosophy
    • Importance of Choice
    • Enhancing the Student's Image
    • Importance of Age-Appropriate Activities
    • Building Self-Esteem Through Leisure
  • Assessment
    • Planning/Observation
    • Determining the Student's Strengths
    • Survey of Interests
    • Brainstorming
    • Determination of Needs
  • IEP Recommendations
  • Criteria for Selecting Skills
  • Choosing Goals and Skills
  • Writing IEP Goals and Objectives
  • Instruction
    • What To Teach
    • How To Teach
    • Activity Routines
    • Problem Solving
    • Maintaining a Resume of Recreation/Leisure Activities
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 11: Communication

  • Philosophy
  • The Model for Teaching Communication
  • Major Goal Areas for Communication Programming
  • Principles for Selecting Goals and Objectives in Communication
    • Selecting Objectives
    • Before Teaching a New Skill
    • Communicative Form
    • Communicative Function
  • Selecting Contexts for Teaching Communication
    • Teaching Communication as an Infused Objective
    • Teaching Communication as a Primary Objective
  • General Approaches to Teaching Communication
    • Van Dijk Methods
    • Joint Action Routines
    • Hanen Techniques/Ecological Communication System
    • Unit Teaching
    • Incidental Teaching
  • Selecting the Best Method for Your Student
  • A Standard Tactile Symbol System
    • Who Can Use Tactile Symbols?
    • Why Would a Student Use Tactile Symbols?
    • How the Symbols Have Been Used
    • Considerations in Developing a Tactile Symbol System
    • Conclusion
  • Strategies Related to Communicative Form
    • Forms for Communication are Limited
  • Transitioning to Higher Form Levels
    • Transition from Object Symbols to Pictures
    • Transition from Objects to Tactile Symbols (for Totally Blind Students)
    • Transition from Physical Manipulation to Gesture
  • Developing Social Interactive Skills
    • Establishing Primary Relationships
    • Maintaining Interaction by Actively Participating
    • Initiating Interaction
    • Terminating Interactions or Rejecting Materials Appropriately
    • Responding to or Using Questions
  • Developing and Expanding Communicative Functions
    • Intentional Requesting or Rejecting
    • Making Choices
    • Requesting or Labeling
  • Developing Communicative Content
    • Topics for Interaction and Communication are Limited
    • Expanding Meaning Categories
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Chapter 12: Calendars

  • Philosophy
  • How to Use Calendars to Teach Skills
    • Cognition
    • Communication
    • Time Concepts
    • Social Development
  • Common Characteristics of All Calendars
  • Components of a Calendar
    • Symbols
    • Framework of the Calendar Design
    • Differentiated Time Intervals
    • Routines for the Daily Calendar
    • Routines for the Weekly or Multi-Weekly Calendar
    • Group Calendar vs. Individual Calendar
    • Dialogue
  • Types of Calendars
    • Anticipation Systems
    • Calendar Boxes with Objects
    • Two-Dimensional Calendars with Symbols and/or Pictures
    • Weekly Calendars
    • Multi-Weekly or Monthly Calendars
  • General Guidelines for Effective Implementation of Calendars
  • Additional Readings and Resources

Chapter 13: Social Skills and Behavior Management

  • Social Emotional Skill Development
    • Assessment and Goal Selection
    • Intervention
    • Social Skills Assessment Form
    • Annual Report of Social Skills
  • Sexuality Education
  • Behavior Management
    • Philosophy
    • Positive Approach to Behavior Management
    • Proactive Prevention of Behaviors (or Keeping Problems from Occurring)
    • Intervening After Behavior Has Occured
    • Strategies for Effective Proactive Intervention
    • Crisis Intervention
    • The Role of Stress and Anxiety
  • Formal Behavior Intervention Procedures
    • Assessment Procedures
    • Baseline Data Collection
    • Writing the Intervention Plan
    • Documenting the Plan's Effectiveness by Evaluating Student Behavior
    • Re-Evaluating the Plan/Strategies
    • Incident Reports
    • Summary of Behavior Plan Development
  • Additional Readings and Resources


  • Appendix A. Forms
  • Appendix B. Glossary


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