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by Nancy Levack
© TSBVI 1994 - 264 pages Order # 59422LVP (20 oz.)

Also available on disk - MAC or DOS (textfile-no forms) Order # 59422LVD 

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Plan and implement programming by using these guidelines and suggestions for assessing and enhancing your student's visual functioning.

  • Diagnosing, assessing, and evaluating:
    • students who are young or delayed
    • common ophthalmological terms
    • suggested assessment instruments
    • genetic counseling
  • Medical information:
    • eye conditions/diseases
    • eye medications and their effects
    • physical conditions and the sensory systems
    • psychosocial implications
  • Strategies for teaching and adaptations:
    • enhancing visual functioning
    • modifying instruction
    • adapting materials and environment
    • low vision devices

Contents of Low Vision: A Resource Guide with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments

by Nancy Levack

Purpose of the Resource Guide

  • Intended Users
  • Intended Student Population

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Components of Programming

  • Philosophy
  • The Challenge of Programming for Students Who Are Visually Impaired
  • The Role of the Instructor
    • Assessment
    • Educational Programming
    • Support
  • Different Student Groups and Their Programming Needs
  • Programming for Students Who are Near, At, or Above Their Developmental Level
  • Programming for Students Who are Significantly Developmentally Delayed
  • Programming for Students Who Have Severe Cortical Visual Impairments
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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  • The Assessment Process
    • Detection
    • Vision Screening
    • Examination by an Eye Specialist
    • Clinical Low Vision Evaluation
    • Functional Vision Evaluation
    • Learning Media Assessment
  • The Medical Examination and Report
  • Clinical Procedures
  • Common Medical Terms
  • Special Considerations for Successful Examinations
    • When the Students are Young or Have Developmental Disabilities
    • When the Students Are Capable of Communicating with the Doctor
  • Clinical Low Vision Evaluation
  • The Functional Vision Evaluation and Report
  • How to Use the Functional Vision Evaluation Observation Form
  • Recommended Components for the Functional Vision Evaluation Report
  • Assessing Students Who are Very Young or Who Have Significant Developmental Disabilities
  • The Learning Media Assessment
    • What it is
    • When a Student is Determined to be Functionally Blind
    • Guidelines for Making Decisions About Learning and Literary Media
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Assessing for Learning Disabilities
  • Additional Readings and Resources
    • Functional Vision Evaluations
    • Functional Vision Evaluations Designed for Students Who are Multiply Impaired

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Planning, Teaching and Evaluation

  • How to Choose the Tasks and Visual Skills That Need to be Taught
  • Choosing the Instructional Approach
    • Visual Environment Management
    • Visual Skills Training
    • Visually Dependent Task Training
  • General Guidelines for Modifying Instruction
  • Evaluation
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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  • Adaptations in Color and Contrast
  • Adaptations in Illumination
  • Adaptations in Space and Arrangement
  • Adaptations in Size and Distance
  • Examples of Print Sizes
  • Low Vision Devices
    • Optical Devices
      • Magnifiers
      • Telescopes
      • Microscopes
      • Field Utilization Aids
      • Other Optical Devices
    • Nonoptical Devices
    • Closed Circuit Televisions (CCTVs)
    • Computer Access
    • Evaluating for Technology Needs
    • Other Nonoptical Devices
  • Adaptations to Visual Cues
  • Adapting the Materials
  • Modifying the Immediate Workspace
  • Modifying the Larger Environment
  • Guidelines When Planning Adaptations
  • Identifying the Least Restrictive Adaptation
  • Adaptations for Students Who Also Have Cognitive Impairments
  • Adaptations for Students Who Also Have Learning Disabilities
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Medical Information Related to Visual Impairment

  • The Anatomy of the Eye
  • How the Eye Works
  • Normal Vision Development
  • Outline of Visual Abilities
  • Eye Conditions
    • Genetic Conditions
    • Syndromes Which Impact Eye Conditions
    • Specific Eye Conditions and Diseases With Corresponding Adaptations
    • Chart
    • Other Conditions That Could Have Implications for the Eye
    • Eye Medications and Their Effects
    • Other Medications Which May Influence Eye Conditions
  • Additional Readings and Resources
    • Information About the Eye
    • Developmental Sequence of Vision
    • Eye Conditions

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Physical Conditions, the Sensory Systems, and How They Affect Visual Performance

  • Changes in Muscle Tone
    • Low Muscle Tone
    • Increased Muscle Tone
    • Fluctuating Muscle Tone
  • Movement Disorders
    • Athetosis
    • Spasticity
    • Ataxia
  • Reflex Activity Affecting Posture
    • Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR)
    • Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR)
  • Postural Control
    • Poor Balance
    • Poor Ocular-Motor Control
    • Poor Head Control
    • Poor Sitting Posture
    • Muscle Weakness
  • The Sensory Systems
  • Perception and the Integration of Vision with Other Forms of Sensory Input
    • How Perception Integrates Sensory Input
  • Impairment of the Tactile System
  • Impaired Proprioceptive Functioning
  • Inability to Fully Utilize Vestibular Sensation
  • Difficulty with Depth Perception
  • Difficulty with Form Perception
  • Difficulty Perceiving the Relative Position in Space
  • Additional Readings and Resources

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Psychosocial Implications of Visual Impairment

  • Personal Factors Which Affect Psychosocial Functioning
  • Social Factors Which Affect Psychosocial Functioning
  • The Students' Identity as a Person Who is Visually Impaired
  • Programming for the Issues Related to Social Skills
  • Positive Steps for Building Self-Esteem
  • Additional Readings and Resources
  • State of Texas Interagency Eye Examination Report (Master for Duplication)
  • Observations for the Functional Vision Evaluation (Master for Duplication)
  • Functional Vision Evaluation Report (Sample)
  • Instruments for Assessing Low Vision




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