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,T1*]S' ,ATTITUDES ,T[>DS ,BRL3
,! ,IMPACT ( ,T1*] ,PREP>,N 9 ! #IJ'S
 
,/U>T ,WITT5/E91 ,$4,D4
,SUP]9T5D5T1 ,CALI=NIA ,S*OOL =! ,BL
,FREMONT1 ,CALI=NIA
 
,%EILA ,AMATO1 ,$4,D4
,T1*] (! ,VISU,Y ,IMPAIR$
,EA/PORT ,S\? ,MANOR ,S*OOL ,4TRICT1
,NEW ,YORK
 
,PRES5T$ AT ! #BJJB ,,AER ,9T]N,NAL
,3F];E
,JULY #AG-BA1 #BJJB
,TORONTO1 ,CANADA
 
,R,NALE = ,/UDY
99 8,BL *N >E N 2+ TAU<T BRL 2C ! T1*]S
:O >E SUPPOS$LY TRA9$ 6D S !MVS D N "K !
BRL CODES SU6ICI5TLY1 M* LESS ! T1*+
ME?ODOLOGY40 ,SPUNG91 #AIHI1 9 ! ,J\RNAL
( ,VISUAL ,IMPAIR;T & ,BL;S
99 8,A LL H"O/ REFLEC;N AB ? SITU,N
7DECL9E 9 BRL LIT]ACY7 SU7E/S T ! R1L

CULPRIT "H IS ! 9ADEQUATE &           #B
9APPROPRIATE $UC,N (! SPECIAL $UC,N
T1*]S :O >E N -PET5T OR 3FID5T !MVS 9
US+ ,BRL & :O AL 2LIEVE T _! /UD5TS %D N
2 EXPECT$ 6-PETE SU3ESS;LLY 9 S*OOL OR 9
LIFE40 ,IANUZZI1 #AIIB 9 ,BRL ,MONITOR
 
,BRL ,TRA9+ ,GR\PS
7Z SELECT$ 0RESPOND5TS7
,GR\P #A -- TRANSCRIP;N1 RULE K1 =MATT+1
PRO(R1D+
,GR\P #B -- SAME Z ABV PLUS "S 7#AJ@3P (
CLASS "T7 ME?ODOLOGY 9 ! T1*+ ( BRL R1D+
,GR\P #C -- SAME Z ABV PLUS AN EMPHASIS
7M ?AN #AJ@3P7 ON ME?ODOLOGY 9 ! T1*+ (
BRL R1D+
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

,FIGURE #A3 ,BRL ,TRA9+ ,GR\PS        #C
#AIIA
,GR\P #A -- TRANSCRIP;N1 RULE K1 =MATT+1
PRO(R1D+2 #DB.I@3P
,GR\P #B -- SAME Z ABV PLUS "S 7#AJ@3P (
CLASS "T7 ME?ODOLOGY 9 ! T1*+ ( BRL
R1D+2 #CE.I@3P
,GR\P #C -- SAME Z ABV PLUS AN EMPHASIS
7M ?AN #AJ@3P7 ON ME?ODOLOGY 9 ! T1*+ (
BRL R1D+2 #BA.B@3P
 
,FIGURE #B3 ,ATTITUDES ,AF ,TRA9+
,BRL ,SKILLS ,V4 ,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y
,GR\P #A ,BRL ,SKILLS #FG.G@3P
,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y #BH.F@3P
,GR\P #B ,BRL ,SKILLS #HJ.F@3P
,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y #EJ.A@3P
,GR\P #C ,BRL ,SKILLS #HF.D@3P
,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y #GD.E@3P
 
 
 
 
 
 

,FIGURE #C3 ,CURR5T ,ATTITUDES        #D
,BRL ,SKILLS ,V4 ,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y
,GR\P #A ,BRL ,SKILLS #FA.G@3P
,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y #EJ.A@3P
,GR\P #B ,BRL ,SKILLS #GA.B@3P
,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y #FI.C@3P
,GR\P #C ,BRL ,SKILLS #GC.I@3P
,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y #GI.J@3P
 
,FIGURE #D3 ,3FID;E 9 ,BRL ,SKILLS
,AF ,TRA9+ ,V4 ,CURR5T
,GR\P #A ,3FID;E ,AF ,TRA9+ #FG.G@3P
,CURR5T ,ATTITUDE #FA.G@3P
,GR\P #B ,3FID;E ,AF ,TRA9+ #HJ.F@3P
,CURR5T ,ATTITUDE #GA.B@3P
,GR\P #C ,3FID;E ,AF ,TRA9+ #HF.D@3P
,CURR5T ,ATTITUDE #GC.I@3P
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

,FIGURE #E3 ,3FID;E -- ,T1*+          #E
,ABIL;Y
,AF ,TRA9+ ,V4 ,CURR5T
,GR\P #A ,3FID;E ,AF ,TRA9+ #BH.F@3P
,CURR5T ,ATTITUDE #EJ.A@3P
,GR\P #B ,3FID;E ,AF ,TRA9+ #EJ.A@3P
,CURR5T ,ATTITUDE #FI.C@3P
,GR\P #C ,3FID;E ,AF ,TRA9+ #GD.E@3P
,CURR5T ,ATTITUDE #GI.J@3P
 
,FIGURE #F3 ,T1*] ,ATTITUDES ,T[>DS ,BRL
,5JOY T1*+ BRL
#GC.G@3P YES2 #D.I@3P NO
,TE*NOLOGY %D N REPLACE BRL
#HI.D@3P YES2 #B.F@3P NO
,BRL IS N IMPORTANT
#A.A@3P YES2 #IF.H@3P NO
,TE*NOLOGY MAKES BRL UNNEC
#B.G@3P YES2 #IA.C@3P NO
 
 
 
 
 
 

,FIGURE #G4 ,MO/ ,LIKELY ,DECL9E =    #F
,BRL ,LIT]ACY
,9CR1SE 9 ,MULTIPLY-H&ICAPP$ POPUL,N
#ED.A@3P
,RELI.E ON TE*NOLOGY #DJ.A@3P
,CASELOADS/IT9]ANT MODEL #BG.G@3P
,EMPHASIS ON VI.N UTILIZ,N #BA.J@3P
,9ADEQUATE T1*] PREP>,N #AH.E@3P
,T1*] ATTITUDE #AD.D@3P
,T1*] 9COMPET;E #H.F@3P
,-PLEX;Y ( BRL #H.C@3P
 
,FIGURE #H4 ,BRL ,TRA9+ ,GR\PS #BJJA
,GR\P #A -- TRANSCRIP;N1 RULE K1 =MATT+1
PRO(R1D+ #CC.J@3P
,GR\P #B -- SAME Z ABV PLUS "S 7#AJ@3P (
CLASS "T7 ME?ODOLOGY 9 ! T1*+ ( BRL R1D+
#DJ.D@3P
,GR\P #C -- SAME Z ABV PLUS AN EMPHASIS
7M ?AN #AJ@3P7 ON ME?ODOLOGY 9 ! T1*+ (
BRL R1D+ #BF.F@3P
 
 
 
 

,FIGURE #I4 ,A ,-P>ISON ( ,GR\PS      #G
0,YE>
#AIIA ,GR\P #A #DB.I@3P
,GR\P #B #CE.I@3P
,GR\P #C #BA.B@3P
#BJJA ,GR\P #A #CC.J@3P
,GR\P #B #DJ.D@3P
,GR\P #C #BF.F@3P
 
,FIGURE #AJ4 ,RCVD ,BRL ,TRA9+
#AIIA "UGRADUATE #CD.A@3P
GRADUATE #FA.F@3P
#BJJA "UGRADUATE #AI.I@3P
GRADUATE #HB.A@3P
 
,FIGURE #AA4 ,BRL ,TRA9+ Z ,"P ( ,DEGREE
,PROGRAM
#AIIA "P ( DEGREE #FI.E@3P
#BJJA "P ( DEGREE #DB.H@3P
 
 
 
 
 
 

,REQUIRE;TS ,: ,7 ,9CLUD$ 9 ,BRL      #H
,TRA9+
,PROFICI5CY ) BRLWRIT]
,ABIL;Y 6R1D BRL
,K ( BRL R1D+ ME?ODOLOGY
,PROFICI5CY ) SLATE & /YLUS
,PROFICI5CY 9 ,NEME? ,CODE
,DEVELOP;T ( T1*] MADE MAT]IALS
,WRITE LESSON PLANS
,PRES5T SAMPLE LESSONS
,EVALUATE CURRICULA
,REVIEW J\RNAL >TICLES
 
,FIGURE #AB4 ,OBS]V$ ,*ANGES 9
,REQUIRE;TS = ,BRL ,TRA9+
,PROFICI5CY ) SLATE & /YLUS
#AIIA #CI.F@3P2 #BJJA #FE.H@3P
,PROFICI5CY 9 ,NEME? ,CODE
#AIIA #EJ.B@3P #BJJA #FG.G@3P
,DEVELOP;T ( T1*] MADE MAT]IALS
#AIIA #EC.I@3P2 #BJJA #FE.C@3P
,K ( BRL R1D+ ME?ODOLOGY
#AIIA #EJ.D@3P2 #BJJA #EF.J@3P
 
 

,FIGURE #AC4 ,T1*] (! ,BL             #I
,C]TIFIC,N
#AIIA #IC.H@3P YES2 #F.B@3P NO
#BJJA #HI.B@3P YES2 #AJ.H@3P NO
 
,FIGURE #AD4 ,RESPOND5T'S ,SELEC;N (
,T1*+ ,ASSIGN;TS
RESID5TIAL S*OOLS
#AIIA #BF.C@3P2 #BJJA #BH.J@3P
SELF 3TA9$ CLASSROOM
#AIIA #E.B@3P2 #BJJA #I.H@3P
RES\RCE ROOM
#AIIA #I.G@3P2 #BJJA #G.B@3P
IT9]ANT
#AIIA #DB.E@3P2 #BJJA #DC.C@3P
3SULTANT
#AIIA #AJ.C@3P2 #BJJA #AJ.C@3P
E>LY 9T]V5;N
#AIIA #B.D@3P2 #BJJA #H.A@3P
O!R #AIIA
#C.G@3P2 #BJJA #AC.D@3P
 
 
 
 

,FIGURE #AE4 ,TOTAL ,NUMB] (         #AJ
,/UD5TS ON ,CASELOAD
#A-AJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #CI.G@3P2 #BJJA #DB.A@3P
#AA-BJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #CD.D@3P2 #BJJA #BH.I@3P
#BA-CJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #AD.F@3P2 #BJJA #AA.G@3P
#CA-DJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #F.D@3P2 #BJJA #C.H@3P
M ?AN #DJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #D.I@3P2 #BJJA #D.H@3P
 
,FIGURE #AF4 ,NUMB] ( ,/UD5TS ON
,CASELOAD ,:O ,USE ,BRL
#A-E /UD5TS
#AIIA #HA.G@3P2 #BJJA #EH.G@3P
#F-AJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #AA.G@3P2 #BJJA #F.C@3P
#AA-AE /UD5TS
#AIIA #D.C@3P2 #BJJA #B.C@3P
#AF-BJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #A.D@3P2 #BJJB #A.J@3P
M ?AN #BJ /UD5TS
#AIIA #A.J@3P2 #BJJA #A.H@3P

,FIGURE #AG4 ,TOTAL ,NUMB] ( ,YE>S   #AA
,T1*+ ,EXP]I;E
#A-AJ YE>S
#AIIA #CB.G@3P2 #BJJA #FG.F@3P
#AA-BJ YE>S
#AIIA #DG.G@3P2 #BJJA #BB.F@3P
#BA-CJ YE>S
#AIIA #AE.I@3P2 #BJJA #I.J@3P
M ?AN #CJ YE>S
#AIIA #C.G@3P2 #BJJA #.JE@3P
 
,FIGURE #AH4 ,PRIM>Y ,R1D+ ,MODE
,BRL #AIIA #B.D@3P2 #BJJA #A.B@3P
,PR9T #AIIA #IF.I@3P2 #BJJA #IH.A@3P
,TAPE #AIIA #A.B@3P2 #BJJA #.G@3P
 
,FIGURE #AI4 ,ATTITUDES ,AF ,TRA9+ ,BRL
,SKILLS ,V4 ,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y
,BRL SKILLS SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #GF.C@3P2 #BJJA #GD.I@3P
,ABIL;Y 6T1* SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #DF.A@3P2 #BJJA #DD.E@3P
 
 
 

,FIGURE #BJ4 ,CURR5T ,ATTITUDES      #AB
,BRL ,SKILLS ,V4 ,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y
,BRL SKILLS SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #FG.G@3P2 #BJJA #EI.F@3P
,ABIL;Y 6T1* SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #FC.A@3P2 #BJJA #EB.B@3P
 
,FIGURE #BA4 ,3FID;E 9 ,BRL ,SKILLS ,AF
,TRA9+ ,V4 ,CURR5T
,BRL SKILLS SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #GF.C@3P2 #BJJA #GD.I@3P
,CURR5T SKILLS SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #FG.G@3P2 #BJJA #EI.F@3P
 
,FIGURE #BB4 ,3FID;E -- ,T1*+ ,ABIL;Y
,AF ,TRA9+ ,V4 ,CURR5T
,ABIL;Y 6T1* SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #DF.A@3P2 #BJJA #DD.E@3P
,CURR5T ABIL;Y SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #FC.A@3P2 #BJJA #EB.E@3P
 
 
 
 
 

,FIGURE #BC4 ,AGREE;T ) ,/ATE;TS     #AC
,REG>D+ ,BRL ,-PET5CY
,K ( ,NEME? ,CODE IS SATISFACTORY
#AIIA #CE.H@3P2 #BJJA #DJ.G@3P
,SLATE & ,/YLUS %D 2 TAU<T
#AIIA #GJ.D@3P2 #BJJA #FC.B@3P
 
,FIGURE #BD4 ,LEGISL,N ,REQUIR+ ! ,T1*+
( ,BRL
,AGREE #AIIA #BA.I@3P2 #BJJA #CE.I@3P
,NEUTRAL #AIIA #AI.C@3P2 #BJJA #CJ.D@3P
,4AGREE #AIIA #EH.G@3P2 #BJJA #CC.E@3P
 
,FIGURE #BE4 ,MO/ ,LIKELY ,CAUSE (A
,DECL9E 9 ,BRL ,LIT]ACY
,9CR1SE 9 MULTIPLY H&ICAPP$ POPUL,N
#AIIA #ED.A@3P2 #BJJA #DE.I@3P
,VI.N UTILIZ,N
#AIIA #BA.J@3P2 #BJJA #AJ.H@3P
,L>GE CASELOADS
#AIIA #BG.G@3P2 #BJJA #CH.D@3P
,9ADEQUATE T1*] PREP>,N
#AIIA #AH.E@3P2 #BJJA #BE.H@3P
 
 

,REF];ES                             #AD
,AMATO1 ,S4,S4 7#BJJB7 ,/&>DS & ,CRIT]IA
= ,-PET;E 9 ,BRL ,LIT]ACY ,)9 ,T1*]
,PREP>,N ,PROGRAMS 9 ! ,UNIT$ ,/ATES &
,CANADA4 ,J\RNAL ( ,VISUAL ,IMPAIR;T &
,BL;S4
,SPUNG91 ,S4,J4 7#AIHI74 ,BRL LIT]ACY3
,ISSUES = BL P]SONS1 FAMILIES1
PROFES.NALS1 & PRODUC]S ( BRL4 ,NEW
,YORK3 ,AM]ICAN ,F.D,N =! ,BL4
,WITT5/E91 ,S4,H4 7#AIIC74 ,BRL TRA9+ &
T1*] ATTITUDES3 ,IMPLIC,NS = P]SONNEL
PREP>,N4 ,,RE3VIEW1 #BE1 7#C74 #AJC-AAA4
,WITT5/E91 ,S4,H4 7#AIID74 ,BRL LIT]ACY3
,PRES]VICE TRA9+ & T1*]S' ATTITUDES4
,J\RNAL ( ,VISUAL ,IMPAIR;T & ,BL;S1 #HH
7#F74 #EAF-EBD4
,WITT5/E91 ,S4,H41 & ,P>DEE1 ,M4,L4
7#AIIF74 ,T1*]S' VOICES3 ,-;TS ON BRL &
LIT]ACY F ! FIELD4 ,J\RNAL ( ,VISUAL
,IMPAIR;T & ,BL;S -- ,SPECIAL ,ISSUE ON
,LIT]ACY #IJ 7#C74 #BJA-BJI4
,SEE AL 8,BRL LIT]ACY0 ,SPUNG91 ,S4,J4 &
,D',&REA1 ,F4,M4 7#BJJA7 9 ,LIBR>Y (
,3GRESS1 ,BRL 96! NEXT MILL5NIUM1 PP4

#DDD-DDF4                            #AE
,SEE AL ,JUNE1 #AIHI SPECIAL ISSUE ON
LIT]ACY (! ,J\RNAL ( ,VISUAL ,IMPAIR;T &
,BL;S4