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The following formula was created by the Connecticut Association of Teachers of the Visually Impaired and the State of Connecticut: Board of Education and Services for the Blind. The formula is based on a scale used by teachers of the visually impaired in the states of Colorado and North Dakota. For more information contact David Banigan-White or Catherine Summ at 860-602-4154.

Rating Scale

The individual student is assigned a rating of 0 to 4 in each of the following areas: medical, reading medium, compensatory skill needs, and environmental/instructional adjustments. The total points offer a baseline in the amount of vision-related service that the individual might need from a teacher of the visually impaired.


0 Points:

  • Visual acuity between 20/20 and 20/60 with full visual field
  • No significant pathology

1 Point:

  • Possible progressive disease, but one eye still within normal limits
  • Mild nystagmus
  • Bilateral strabismus, which cannot be corrected: pre/post eye surgery
  • Other severe temporary eye treatments, such as patching; significant bilateral field loss

2 Points:

  • Acuity 20/70 to 20/200 in best eye after correction
  • A visual field of more than twenty degrees
  • Cortical visual impairment

3 Points:

  • Acuity 20/200 to object perception in best eye after correction
  • A visual field of twenty degrees or less

4 Points:

  • Object perception to total blindness
  • A visual field of ten degrees or less

Primary Reading Medium

0 Points:

  • Regular print with no modifications
  • Nonreader
  • Grade 1 braille reader mastery level

1 Point:

  • Regular print with occasional magnification (i.e. CCTV, handheld magnification) in addition to correction

2 Points:

  • Regular print with consistent use of magnification in addition to correction
  • Grade 2 braille reader mastery level
  • Tape or large print

3 Points:

  • Grade 1 braille reader instructional level

4 Points:

  • Grade 2 braille reader instructional level

Compensatory Skill Needs/Adaptive or Developmental Training

0 Points:

  • Needs no compensatory skills instruction.

1 Point:

  • Needs compensatory skills consultation in fine and gross motor areas, PE/recreational activities, basic concept development/sensory awareness, augmentative communication devices, and/or functional life skills for supported living and work environment.
  • Large print computer user, mastery level.

2 Points:

  • Needs compensatory skill consultation and/or instruction in use of residual vision and low vision aids, calculator usage, pre-vocational skills, and/or use of adaptive equipment.
  • Large print computer user, instructional level.

3 Points:

  • Needs compensatory skill consultation and/or instruction in computer/typing, map reading, geographical and science concepts; and/or competitive career and vocational training
  • Auditory computer user, mastery level

4 Points:

  • Needs compensatory skill instruction in tactual development, abacus, slate and stylus, and/or independent daily living skills
  • Screen Reader computer user, instructional level
  • Tactual development: raised line drawing, abacus

Environmental Instructional Adjustments

0 Points:

  • Needs no adaptations of instructional materials or presentations

1 Point:

  • Needs some adapted written materials, special seating, some magnification and/or adaptive lighting
  • Consultation regarding best vision use with augmentative communication and/or positioning

2 Points:

  • Classroom teacher needs some consultation/support in materials modifications
  • Needs some adaptation of maps/graphs, frequent magnification
  • Points:
  • Paraprofessional needs minimal consultation regarding tactile modifications/enlargement, adaptation of maps/graphs, pictures, and Braille production
  • Needs all curricular materials in Braille and/or tactual format
  • Points:
  • Paraprofessional needs significant support/instruction in material modifications and Braille production


0-1 Total Points: This individual may be monitored by their optometrist or ophthalmologist. No services from a vision teacher are necessary.

2-6 Total Points (Minimal Service): This is an individual with mild needs who will benefit from a low degree of consultation services provided by a teacher of the visually impaired to an individual, education personnel, and parents.

7-9 Total Points (Light Service): This is an individual who has moderate needs. This individual needs a higher amount of consultation services and may benefit from direct instruction from a teacher of the visually impaired.

10-12 Total Points (Moderate Service): This is an individual who needs direct instruction from a teacher of the visually impaired and a moderate amount of curricular adaptations.

13-16 Total points (Heavy Service): This is an individual who will need intense direct instruction from a teacher of the visually impaired and extensive adaptations in multiple specialized areas (Braille, daily living skills, technology, careers and orientation and mobility).

When determining an appropriate caseload, a number of variables have been determined within the guidelines. These variable include direct instruction, consultation time to staff and parents, securing and adapting materials, attending PPTs, and writing reports.

Points to Consider When Assigning a Caseload

The type and quantity of service provided to a student with a visual impairment will be based on the results of comprehensive assessment and recommendations by the student""s planning team. When assigning students to a teacher, the following should be considered:

  • There should not be more than three academic Braille students assigned to one teacher of the visually impaired.
  • Travel time must be taken into consideration when developing a caseload.

Caseload Formula Chart

Name LEA Grade Medical Reading

Comp Skills


Total Points























































































































































































































































































Grand Total: