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Functional Skills Screening Inventory (FSSI)
17 Point Scoring Scale
PointsCriteria
0 The person never, ever does this. No matter what efforts are made, the person does not participate or perform any part of this activity
.25 There is minimal tolerance of the activity but total supervision is required and performance is done by someone else.
.50 The individual is starting to be part of the activity beyond passive tolerance.
.75 The individual is involved in the activity even though instruction and supervision are required to complete even part of this task
1.00 (25%) The individual will comply to supervised completion of the task but does not initiate or complete any part of the task independently
1.25 The person is doing minimal compliance of the performance of a task and may indicate through behavior (resistance or acceptance) that the person knows the task and the sequence is being done
1.50 The person is complying to the sequence of the task but still requires instruction, supervision, and total monitoring of each step
1.75 The person is complying with the performance of the task but still is dependent upon others to start, do, stop the task and is still a passive participant even though aware of the task
2.00 (50%) The person will complete the task with supervision
2.25 The person will participate with minimal involvement that still requires supervision, instruction, and monitoring of each step
2.50 The person requires supervision but is starting to anticipate steps in the procedure or indicates by behavior that the procedure is happening
2.75 The person still requires supervision but is aware of the task, may even show interest in some parts of the task and participate while still needing extensive prompting and monitoring
3.00 (75%) The person does the task inconsistently with some prompting
3.25 The person does the task inconsistently, requires some prompting, but is also signaling that the event is happening and seems to be aware of sequences of the task or steps of the procedure
3.50 The person still requires prompting but is beginning to initiate by signaling the event or task and showing some active involvement in the procedures
3.75 There is inconsistent participation and some prompting may be needed at times but the individual is emerging as being able to do the task with minimal prompts
4.00 (100%) The individual does the task independently without prompting

 

Functional Skills Screening Inventory (FSSI)
9 Point Scoring Scale
This scale was modified from the full 17 point scale used on the Functional Skills Screening Inventory.  For ease of use, the median “x.25” and “x.75” have been removed. 
0 The person never, ever does this. No matter what efforts are made, the person does not participate or perform any part of this activity
.50 The individual is starting to be part of the activity beyond passive tolerance.
1.00 (25%) The individual will comply to supervised completion of the task but does not initiate or complete any part of the task independently
1.50 The person is complying to the sequence of the task but still requires instruction, supervision, and total monitoring of each step
2.00 (50%) The person will complete the task with supervision
2.50 The person requires supervision but is starting to anticipate steps in the procedure or indicates by behavior that the procedure is happening
3.00 (75%) The person does the task inconsistently with some prompting
3.50 The person still requires prompting but is beginning to initiate by signaling the event or task and showing some active involvement in the procedures
4.00 (100%) The individual does the task independently without prompting

 

Functional Skills Screening Inventory (FSSI)
Environmental Conditions: 17 Point Scoring Scale
PointsCriteria
0
(0%)
This skill is never used in this setting or environment. The skill is not important at any time in this setting.
.25 This skill is rarely used but may be called upon in this setting with total use of prompting, physical guidance, or step-by-step monitoring.
.50 This skill is used on occasion but could be called upon in this setting which requires prompting and monitoring.
.75 This skill is used but is not a central component in this environment but if used it would need prompting, supervision, and tracking.
1
(25%)
This skill is used some time in this setting, but support is required to assure the effective use of This skill.
1.25 This skill is used in this setting some time with supports and supervision to meet the requirements of the environment.
1.50 This skills is needed in this setting even if reminders are required and supervision is needed
1.75 This skill is needed in this setting almost half of the time with prompting and supports needed.
2
(50%)
This skill is needed at least half of the time in this setting with some support and/or supervision necessary to assure effective use of the skill.
2.25 This skill is used at lest half of the time with decreased support or supervision to assure effective use of This skill to complete tasks
2.50 The skill is used often in this environment and some support or supervision is required to assure effective use of the skill to complete tasks.
2.75 The skill is used most of the time and some support or supervision continues to be needed to assure effective use of the skill.
3.00
(75%)
This skill is used in this setting most of the time. Minimal support or supervision is expected to help with completion of tasks.
3.25 This skills is needed in this setting and may need some support, reminders, or prompting to complete the use of the skill.
3.50 This skill is needed in this setting and is done with independent function by the person most of the time.
3.75 This skill is needed in this setting and independent function is necessary with minimal reminders or prompts or scheduling.
4
(100%)
This skill is expected at all times in this setting. Supervision, support or reminding is not required for the person to use This skill independently.

 

Functional Skills Screening Inventory (FSSI)
Environmental Conditions: 9 Point Scoring Scale
This scale was modified from the full 17 point scale used on the Functional Skills Screening Inventory.  For ease of use, the median “x.25” and “x.75” have been removed. 
PointsCriteria
0
(0%)
This skill is never used in this setting or environment. The skill is not important at any time in this setting.
.50 This skill is used on occasion but could be called upon in this setting which requires prompting and monitoring.
1
(25%)
This skill is used some time in this setting, but support is required to assure the effective use of This skill.
1.50 This skills is needed in this setting even if reminders are required and supervision is needed
2
(50%)
This skill is needed at least half of the time in this setting with some support and/or supervision necessary to assure effective use of the skill.
2.50 The skill is used often in this environment and some support or supervision is required to assure effective use of the skill to complete tasks.
3.00
(75%)
This skill is used in this setting most of the time. Minimal support or supervision is expected to help with completion of tasks.
3.50 This skill is needed in this setting and is done with independent function by the person most of the time.
4
(100%)
This skill is expected at all times in this setting. Supervision, support or reminding is not required for the person to use This skill independently.

 

Functional Skills Screening Inventory
Employment Edition: 17 Point Scoring Scale
For use when assessing job site or workstation.
PointsCriteria
0
(0%)
The job never, ever uses this skill. The skill is not important at any time with this activity.
.25 The job does not rely on this skill but it may be present if used only 5% of the time.
.50 The skill is required at most 10% of the time and is not central to completion of the task.
.75 The skill is used, but not more than 20% of the time and is not crucial to completion of the task.
1.0
(25%)
The job requires use of this skill about 25% of the time and may require supervision or monitoring by another to assure completion of task.
1.25 The job requires some use of this skill but supervision or monitoring is expected to assure completion of task.
1.50 The job requires has use of this skill but supervision, prompting, and monitoring is expected to assure that the task is completed.
1.75 The job uses this skill some of the time with supervision, prompting, and monitoring to assure completion of the task.
2.00
(50%)
The job uses this skill about half the time. Minimal supervision or monitoring is also used on this work task.
2.25 means that this job uses the skill a little more than half time and may imply that prompting or monitoring is expected to assure completion.
2.50 The job relies on this skill more than half time and that the individual is expected to initiate part of the task (beginning with minimal prompts, stops when completed.
2.75 The job requires this skill and that the individual may be reminded to start, do, stop activity as part of the process of completion of the task.
3.00
(75%)
The job uses this skill a majority of the time and would expect little if any supervision or monitoring to complete the task.
3.25 The job uses this skill and needs minimal support (reminding, verbal prompting, scheduling or listing) to complete the task.
3.50 The job requires this skill most of the time and the individual is expected to do the task with little prompting or reminding.
3.75 The job uses this skill all of the time and there will be irregular reminders to complete the task.
4.0
(100%)
This job requires this behavior/skill all of the time in every aspect of the task. No supervision or monitoring is expected in having this task complete.
Functional Skills Screening Inventory
Employment Edition: 9 Point Scoring Scale
For use when assessing job site or workstation.
This scale was modified from the full 17 point scale used on the Functional Skills Screening Inventory.  For ease of use, the median “x.25” and “x.75” have been removed. 
PointsCriteria
0
(0%)
The job never, ever uses this skill. The skill is not important at any time with this activity.
.50 The skill is required at most 10% of the time and is not central to completion of the task.
1.0
(25%)
The job requires use of this skill about 25% of the time and may require supervision or monitoring by another to assure completion of task.
1.50 The job requires has use of this skill but supervision, prompting, and monitoring is expected to assure that the task is completed.
2.00
(50%)
The job uses this skill about half the time. Minimal supervision or monitoring is also used on this work task.
2.50 The job relies on this skill more than half time and that the individual is expected to initiate part of the task (beginning with minimal prompts, stops when completed.
3.00
(75%)
The job uses this skill a majority of the time and would expect little if any supervision or monitoring to complete the task.
3.50 The job requires this skill most of the time and the individual is expected to do the task with little prompting or reminding.
4.0
(100%)
This job requires this behavior/skill all of the time in every aspect of the task. No supervision or monitoring is expected in having this task complete.
Invierno 2000 Tabula de Contenido
English version of this article (Versión Inglesa)

Por: Joyce Rodríguez, Consultora VI
Centro de Servicios Educacionales Región 2, Corpus Christi, Texas Publicado con permiso de VI Newsletter, Otoño 1999

Nota del editor: El artículo original fue Email que Marty Murrell especialista en educación, de la Agencia de Educación de Texas, envió a Joyce Rodríguez consultora de la vista en la Región 2 en respuesta a unas preguntas que le hizo. En parte, el trabajo de Marty consiste de ayudar a los distritos escolares y al personal que le hacen preguntas sobre los servicios para los estudiantes incapacitados de la vista. La versión original que se publicó en el VI Newsletter ha sido actualizada por Marty para que se pudiera publicar en VER/Oír.

PREGUNTA:

Nada más necesito información básica sobre cómo establecer elegibilidad por una incapacidad de la vista. Cuando inicialmente recomiendan al estudiante para que se le haga una evaluación porque se sospecha que padece de una incapacidad de la vista, ¿se necesita que el reporte del especialista de los ojos diga que el estudiante tiene una pérdida seria de la vista (después de correcciones) ANTES que se pueda hacer una evaluación de su vista funcional? Yo sé que la elegibilidad está basada en la combinación de estas dos piezas de información, pero ¿el examen de los ojos tiene que decir que la pérdida de la vista es seria (después de hacerse las correcciones?

En otras palabras, si el examen de los ojos NO dice que el estudiante tiene una pérdida seria de la vista después de correcciones, ¿eso significaría que el proceso de la recomendación ahí termina? O, la persona VI todavía debe evaluar al estudiante (de acuerdo a la recomendación que hizo el comité ARD?

RESPUESTA

La respuesta es: depende si el distrito escolar determina que la evaluación es necesaria para entrar a educación especial.

El distrito determina que las evaluaciones son necesarias para entrar a educación especial

Si el niño recibe una recomendación para ser evaluado para entrar a educación especial porque se sospecha que existe una incapacidad de la vista y el distrito está de acuerdo en hacer la evaluación, hay dos normas principales que nos guían en lo que se refiere a su pregunta:

Primero, la decisión para elegibilidad la hace el comité ARD. Segundo, los reglamentos federales establecen que no se debe usar un solo procedimiento como el único criterio para determinar si un niño es un niño con incapacidades.

Lo primero que se debe hacer es obtener el reporte de un doctor de los ojos. Esto debe ser sin costo al padre. La información que el doctor dé en el reporte debe servir de guía para la evaluación de la vista funcional (FVE) y la evaluación del medio de aprendizaje (LMA) Los datos de estas dos evaluaciones debe guiar el resto del proceso.

Si el reporte que dio el doctor dice que no existe una incapacidad seria, como quiera se deben llevar a cabo las evaluaciones del FVE y LMA y el resto de la evaluación. Los resultados de estas evaluaciones indicarán ya sea que concuerdan con lo que el doctor dijo, o que no concuerdan con lo que el doctor dijo. En caso que los FVE/LMA indiquen que sí existe un problema serio de la vista se deberá hablar con el doctor para tratar de descubrir porqué existe una diferencia de opiniones.

(En Texas, al principio, cuando los reglamentos de la vista fueron formulados, el intento era asegurar que el doctor no fuera quien tuviera la última palabra en los asuntos de educación. Esa es una de las razones por la que el criterio de elegibilidad no depende únicamente de la acuidad visual) Recuerde, la evaluación que hace el doctor refleja cómo ve su niño en un lugar que no es muy típico. Algunas veces el doctor tiene muy poca experiencia en hacer exámenes a niños que son difíciles de examinar, podría haber marcado el cuadrito equivocado, o podría no darse cuenta de las consecuencias que su diagnóstico va a causar.

En algunas ocasiones, con ayuda técnica del especialista de la vista, el doctor estará dispuesto a corregir sus errores o reinstalar conclusiones basado en la información adicional que le proporciona el distrito. Si el doctor no cambia de opinión, pero los FVE/LMA indican que existe un problema serio y la evaluación amplia indica que existe la necesidad de educación especial debido a eso, el distrito debe buscar la opinión de otro doctor de los ojos. Como último recurso, si el desacuerdo continúa, pero la maestra de la vista y el resto del comité ARD piensan que existe una incapacidad de la vista que requiere la educación especial, el comité ARD puede continuar y clasificar al estudiante. Para hacer esta decisión debe existir documentación detallada. (¡parecido al Método II para VI!) No se espera que esta opción se use frecuentemente.

Cuando el distrito determina que no se necesita una evaluación para inscripción en educación especial

Bajo las siguientes condiciones el distrito puede rehusarse a evaluar:

  • Si el padre presenta un reporte de examen de los ojos y pide que se haga una evaluación para educación especial porque sospecha que existe una incapacidad de la vista
  • y la información en el reporte no indica que existe una pérdida seria de la vista después de corrección,
  • y con base a las observaciones que se han hecho en el aula de clases, desempeño académico y otra información pertinente, el distrito cree que no existe justificación para más evaluaciones,
  • en este caso el distrito puede rehusarse a hacer la evaluación.

En el caso anterior, el distrito debe dar al padre un aviso por escrito indicando que se rehúsa a evaluar. Los padres también reciben una explicación de los procedimientos de defensa. Esto le dará a los padres la documentación que su petición ha sido negada, para que puedan solicitar, si lo desean, el proceso de apelación, presentar una queja o ir a una audiencia.

  • Before initiating this section of the assessment, open a prepared word processor file with the text displayed at 12 point in the preferred font of the student. This file will need to contain several paragraphs, enough to fill up about 3/4 of the screen.
  • The examiner will also need to open an application that will display a graphic, picture or map.
  • Finally, open the screen magnification program. During this section the examiner will need to switch between the two applications, the text displayed in the word processor and the graphics displayed by the other program to demonstrate the flexibility of the various features of the screen magnification software.
  • Leave the computer display set on the graphics application for now.
  • Have the student sit up straight in the chair with their back against the back rest of the chair.
  • Measure the viewing distance to insure that the student is approximately 13 inches from the display.
  • After the stage is set, so to speak, switch the computer to the word processor application.
  • Adjust the magnification of the image until the student is able to read the text and view the material without having to lean forward.
  • Demonstrate the polarity options and ask the student if he/she prefers black text on a white background, or white text on a black background.
  • Note the magnification size and any polarity preference on the checklist.

Most screen magnification programs offer several different viewing modes or ways in which the enlarged image can be displayed; full, lens, area, horizontal split, etc. Demonstrate the different viewing modes offered by the program and explain to the student how these effect spatial orientation. When the image or text is enlarged, only a portion of it can be viewed at any one time.

  • A full screen viewing mode at 2X magnification will only allow the user to view 1/4 of the unmagnified image. Ask the student to move the mouse around to change the image being displayed and notice how only part of the paragraph is viewable at any one time..
  • Ask the student to move back to the left edge of the screen and read a line of the text. Note if there is any difficulty in locating the left edge and how well he/she is able to track across the line of text.
  • Ask the student to find the beginning of the second paragraph. Note the strategy he/she uses to locate it. Does he/she get lost or can he/she reorient themselves.
  • Move the mouse so that the display is in the middle of the line of text and about ½ way down the unenlarged screen of text. Explain to the student how easy it is to get disoriented and that when using this type of computer access program the user must reorient themselves by returning to a known point such as the top left corner of the screen.
  • Ask the student to use this strategy and then move to the beginning of the third paragraph. Note their ability to maintain or regain their orientation.
  • Switch to the graphics application.
  • Ask the student to again navigate around the image and verbally identify the information being displayed.
  • Ask the student to locate specific parts of the image: top right corner, bottom left corner, middle of image, etc. Again, note their ability to stay oriented.
  • Change the screen magnification software to the lens setting. The lens mode will display the entire image, but only a small rectangular area will be enlarged. Point out to the student how much easier this is for navigating around the graphic image.
  • Switch to the word processor program and ask the student to read a line of text. Note how much more difficult it is for the student to stay on track.
  • Change the screen magnification software back to the full viewing mode.
  • Instruct the student to open menus and select items from it, choose items in a dialog box and select icons on a toolbar.
  • Finally, set up the parameters for the review or panning mode for automatic reading and have the student read paragraphed text. Adjust the speed so that the student can read the text easily. Note the speed setting for this option. (This may be one of the steps in which the examiner will wish to have completed by the AT specialist.)

This document was developed by Ike Presley, American Foundation for the Blind, (100 Peachtree Street, Suite 620, Atlanta, GA 30303) Permission to photocopy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this credit is retained.


For Students with Visual Impairments

Download vieval.rtf (32k) free for use or modification

Student Name __________________________ Date of assessment _______ School/System ______________________

Additional Vision Background Information
Please complete with input from vision teacher
Vision Teacher ____________________________ Phone _____________________________

Date of most recent eye exam _________________

Visual status: Right/OD - _____________ Left/OS - ____________________________
Field loss (Please describe in detail) __________________________________________
Optimal placement of stimuli _______________________________________________
Age/Date of onset ______________________________________________________
Cause of visual impairment (Etiology) ________________________________________
Is visual condition stable? _________________________________________________
Describe any deficiencies in color vision ______________________________________

Date of most recent Low Vision Exam _______________________

Was Low Vision Aid prescribed? Specify _____________________________________

Date of most recent Learning Media Assessment _______________

Results _________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Does student experience visual fatigue? (Describe conditions under which fatigue occurs) ________________________________________________________________________

 During this assessment, informal measures were utilized to evaluate the student's ability to access print, produce written communication, access the computer and use various assistive technologies .

Accessing Print
Regular Print

When accessing printed information, the
_____ Student was able to read print materials without adaptations.
_____ Student was able to read print materials with adaptations.

_____ acetate overlays for "dittos". Specify color(s) ____________________________
_____ materials produced with felt tip pen on bold line paper
_____ materials enlarged on photocopying machine - Specify (i.e. 130%, 3 times) _____

_____ Student was not able to read print materials with or without adaptations. (If checked, skip to Braille section.)

Large Print
When accessing large print the student was able to read

_____ 72 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 60 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 48 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 36 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 30 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 24 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 18 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 14 point print at approximately _____ inches.
_____ 12 point print at approximately _____ inches.

Optical Aids
When accessing printed materials through the use of an optical aid, the student was able to use

_____ glasses _____ contact lens
_____ hand held/stand magnifier, power _____
_____ telescope, power ________
_____ a CCTV (Closed Circuit TeleVision).
_____ inch text on a _____ inch monitor
viewing distance _____ inches
polarity preference; _____ dark on light _____ light on dark

Use of CCTV controls. The student was able to:

_____ adjust size of image.
_____ focus image.
_____ adjust vertical brake on X/Y table.
_____ independently use X/Y table for viewing materials.
_____ adjust left/right margin stops.

Use of the VisAbility program with an optical scanner connected to a computer

preferred magnification ___________
viewing distance _____ inches
polarity preference; _____ dark on light _____ light on dark

Use of VisAbility features. The student was able to:

_____ select menu items and tools from the toolbar with the mouse.
_____ navigate around the magnified image with the mouse.
_____ read text in the panning/review mode with speed setting of _____.

Braille and Tactile
When accessing information through Braille and tactile graphics, the

_____ Student was able to use simple tactile graphics.
_____ Student was able to read materials in Braille. Briefly describe student's Braille skills. ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

_____ Student was able to read Braille on an electronic Braille display.

Auditory
When accessing printed information auditorally, the

_____ Student was able to comprehend a passage when it is read to him/her (relate details/answer.)
_____ Student was able to paraphrase information presented orally (sentence or story.)
_____ Student was able to write, type, or Braille what he/she heard (sentence dictation) without having it repeated more than twice.
_____ Student was able to understand and comprehend "fast" speech..
_____ Student was able to put tape in and remove tape from player/recorder.
_____ Student was able to activate play, pause, stop, fast forward and rewind functions (please circle).
_____ Student was able to utilize variable speed and pitch controls.

Reading Rates (This is an optional section used when needed to convince student of the benefits of using adaptations when reading.)
When reading printed information, the

Student was able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with 12 point materials.
Student was able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with materials in optimum size for viewing at 8-10 inches (_____ point print).
Student was able to read _____ wpm orally when using a CCTV.
Student was able to read _____ wpm orally when using VisAbility.
Student was able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with materials in Braille.
Student was able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with recorded materials.

Other
When using a large print calculator, the

_____ Student was able to see _____ numbers displayed on a large print calculator.
_____ Student was able to accurately manipulate keys on a large print calculator.
_____ Student was able to perform basic functions with prompts.

When using a talking calculator, the

_____ Student was able to understand speech produced by a talking calculator.
_____ Student was able to accurately manipulate keys on a talking calculator.
_____ Student was able to perform basic functions with prompts.

When using a talking dictionary, the

_____ Student was able to understand speech produced by a talking dictionary.
_____ Student was able to accurately manipulate keys on a talking dictionary.
_____ Student was able to perform basic functions with prompts.

When accessing information presented on black board or overhead projector, the student reported that he/she

_____ sits close enough to read board.
_____ gets a copy from the teacher
_____ gets a copy from other students.
_____ uses a hand held or spectacle mounted telescope
_____ has information read aloud to student and

_____ writes information on paper
_____ types information into computer or portable note taker.
_____ brailles on Braille writer
_____ records on tape recorder.
_____ Other, please specify ________________________________________________

Producing Written Communication
When using standard writing tools, the

_____ Student's manuscript writing was legible
_____ Student's cursive writing was legible
_____ Student's spacing was intact
_____ Student's writing was labored and difficult
_____ Student was able to write _____ words/minute

When writing with the following adaptation the student's _____ manuscript, _____ cursive writing was legible.

_____ a screen board
_____ bold line paper
_____ raised line paper
_____ a felt tip pen
_____ a white board and erasable marker
_____ Other modifications _________________________________________

When using an electronic writing device, the

_____ Student was able to write characters, words and sentences.
_____ Student was able to understand synthesized speech.
_____ Student was able to perform basic functions with prompts.

When using a Braille writing device, the

_____ Student was able to use a manual Braille writer to emboss characters, words and sentences.
_____ Student was able to use the slate & stylus to emboss characters, words and sentences.
_____ Student was able to use the Mountbatten Brailler to emboss characters, words and sentences.
_____ Student was able to use the Braille 'n Speak to write characters, words and sentences.
_____ Student was able to understand synthesized speech of Type 'n Speak.
_____ Student was able to perform basic functions with prompts.

When using standard or adaptive writing tools, the

_____ Student was able to read his/her own handwriting.
_____ Student was able to copy accurately from textbook or worksheet.
_____ Student was able to sign his/her name legibly in cursive.

Comments: _________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Accessing the Computer

Visually:
When accessing computer based information, the

_____ Student was able to read 12 point print on the standard computer monitor at approximately _____ inches.
_____ Student was able to read bold _____ point print displayed on the computer monitor at approximately 13 inches.
_____ Student was able to see information on the standard computer monitor with adaptations.

_____ screen enlarging hardware - Specify ____________________________________
_____ flexible arm monitor stand (viewing distance, 2-4 inches)
_____ screen enlarging software with _____ magnification

When accessing the computer through the use of screen enlarging software, the

_____ Student was able to read 12 point print enlarged to _____x magnification at a viewing distance of approximately 13 inches.
_____ Student expressed a polarity preference for; _____ dark on light _____ light on dark
_____ Student was able to select menu items and tools from the toolbar with the mouse.
_____ Student was able to navigate around the magnified image with the mouse.
_____ Student was able to read text in the panning/review mode with speed setting of _____.

_____ Student was unable to access the computer visually.


Auditorally:
When accessing computer based information auditorily, the

_____ Student was able to understand synthesized speech.

Software synthesizer
_____ Kids Time Deluxe
_____ Write Outloud
_____ Flextalk
_____ TrueVoice
_____ Dectalk Access 32
_____ Eloquence

Hardware synthesizer
_____ Braille/Type 'n Speak
_____ Double Talk
_____ Accent SA
_____ Dectalk

Tactually:
When accessing computer based information tactually, the

_____ Student was able to use an electronic refreshable Braille display

Keyboard use:

_____ Student was able to use a standard keyboard without adaptation.

_____ Student was able to identify alphanumeric keys.
_____ Student was able to identify function keys.
_____ Student was able to activate two keys simultaneously.
_____ Student does not have miss-hits or key repeats.
_____ Student used good mechanics when typing.
_____ Student utilized _____ fingers of right hand _____ fingers of left hand.

_____ Student demonstrated keyboard awareness (has a general knowledge of the key locations).
_____ Student was able to touch type while looking at his/her hands.
_____ Student was able to touch type while not looking at his/her hands.

_____ Student was able to utilize standard computer keyboard with adaptations.

_____ zoom caps _____ keyguard _____ finger guard/pointer
_____ keylatch _____ wrist/arm support _____ head pointer
_____ moisture guard _____ tactile locator dots _____ mouthstick
_____ other Specify _____________________________________________________

Student was able to utilize the following keyboard utilities

__ sticky keys __ repeat keys __ slow keys __ toggle keys __ mouse keys _____

_____ Student was not able to utilize standard keyboard with or without adaptations. (If checked, please complete the Computer Access Evaluation protocol.)

Mouse control:

_____ Student was able to navigate the desktop with the standard mouse/trackball.
_____ Student was able to maintain the mouse position while clicking/double-clicking.
_____ Student was able to maintain eye contact with the screen while navigating the desktop.
_____ Student was able to access pull-down menus with the standard mouse.
_____ Student was not able to use a standard mouse: (If checked, please complete the Computer Access Evaluation protocol.)
Additional Assessment Information: ________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Recommendations
Based on the results of this assessment, the following recommendations are made regarding assistive technology to support this student's educational objectives. See Attachments for additional information on numbered items.

Accessing Printed Materials (Students with visual impairments will use a combination of strategies to access printed information. Some will be appropriate for short reading assignments and others will be necessary for longer passages.)

_____ Student should use regular print materials for

_____ short reading assignments.
_____ most reading assignments.

_____ Student should use materials written with felt tip pen on bold line paper.
_____ Student should use regular print materials with optical aids.

_____ glasses/contact lenses
_____ hand held magnifier
_____ stand magnifier

_____ Student should use regular print materials enlarged on a photocopying machine.
_____ Student should use large print books.

_____ Student should use regular print materials scanned into a computer, edited and printed out in ______ point print.

_____ Student should use regular print materials with CCTV (Closed Circuit TeleVision).
_____ Student should use regular print materials with the VisAbility program.
_____ Student should use materials in Braille.
_____ Student should use recorded materials.
_____ Student should use computer assisted reading system

_____ Kurzweil 1000 _____ Open Book _____ VERA
_____ Other: ____________________________________________________________

_____ Student should use a large print calculator with at least 1/2" numeral display.
_____ Student should use a talking calculator.
_____ Student should use calculator program on computer.
_____ Student should use a large print dictionary with at least 18 point print.
_____ Student should use dictionary/thesaurus program on computer..
_____ Student should use an electronic dictionary.

_____ Talking Dictionary

_____ Student should use crayons and a screen board to develop basic tactile skills using tactile graphics.
Comments: ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Producing Written Communication (Students with visual impairments will use a combination of strategies to produce written communication. Some will be appropriate for short writing assignments and others will be necessary for longer assignments.)

_____ Student should use pen/pencil and paper

_____ for short writing assignments.
_____ for most writing assignments.

_____ Student should use felt tip pen and bold line paper.
_____ Student should use bold line graph paper for math.
_____ Student should use crayons and a screen board for beginning handwriting.
_____ Student should a white board with erasable markers.
_____ Student should use a computer with the word processing software most commonly used in the student's school.
_____ Student should use computer with form filling software such as VisAbility.
_____ Student should use manual Braille writer.
_____ Student should use slate & stylus.
_____ Student should use an electronic Braille writer. Specify: __________________________
_____ Student should use portable word processor (Braille 'n Speak/Type 'n Speak, etc.)
Comments: ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Accessing the Computer
Input Mode

_____ Student should use a standard keyboard.
_____ Student should develop/improve keyboarding skills.
_____ Student should use a standard keyboard with adaptations - Specify _________________
_____ Student should use an alternative keyboard - Specify ____________________________
_____ Student should use a standard mouse or other pointing device.

Output Mode

_____ Student should use a standard computer monitor - Optimal size: ___________________
_____ Student should use a standard computer monitor with hardware adaptations

_____ adjustable monitor arm     _____ Compu Lens

_____ Student should use screen enlarging software

_____ CloseView _____ Enlarge _____ ZoomText Extra Level 1 / Level 2
_____ Other: __________________________________________________________

_____ Student should use a talking word processing - Specify ___________________________
_____ Student should use a speech synthesizer/sound card and screen reading software-

Specify ________________________________________________________________

_____ Student should use a Braille Display - Specify __________________________________

Additional Hardware & Software
Student should be provided with access to the following hardware & software;

_____ Macintosh computer system with

_____ Mb memory _____ hard drive
_____ CD drive _____ modem

_____ IBM compatible computer system with

_____ Mb memory _____ hard drive
_____ CD drive _____ modem

_____ Optical Scanner
_____ Printer
_____ Word processor used in student's school
_____ CD Encyclopedia _____ Dictionary _____ Atlas
_____ Internet access
_____ Other: _____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Equipment needed to produce materials for student in appropriate format.

_____ Mac or IBM compatible computer system
_____ Optical scanner
_____ OCR software
_____ Word processing software
_____ Braille translating software
_____ Inkjet or laser printer
_____ Braille embosser/printer
Additional comments/recommendations: ____________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

The recommendations made above do not all have to be implemented immediately. The suggestions are designed for a 2 - 3 year plan in which the student masters certain skills and is provided access to additional technologies that can facilitate his/her educational program. During that time, new technologies will become available that will enhance his/her ability to maximize his/her educational potential. The specific devices recommended may no longer be the most appropriate, but the assistance that they provide will continue to be a need for this student. At such time, a consultation, and maybe a re-evaluation will be prudent. Please do not hesitate to contact GPAT at that time.
Please contact me when you have made a decision about what equipment you will be purchasing so that we can be certain we have exactly what is needed. I will be happy to help in any way that I can. If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact me at GPAT (404)362-2024.

Assessment Completed by _____________________________________
Position____________________________________

 _____________________________
Date Assessment Report Completed

Thanks to Ike Presley from GPAT for sharing this information.

Winter 2000 Table of Contents
Versión Español de este artículo (Spanish Version)

By Joyce Rodriguez, Vision Consultant
Region 2 Education Service Center, Corpus Christi, Texas
Reprinted with permission from VI Newsletter Fall, 1999

Editor's note: The original article was an e-mail response to questions submitted to Marty Murrell, Education Specialist at Texas Education Agency by Joyce Rodriguez, Vision Consultant at Region 2 Education Service Center. It is part of Marty's role to assist districts and staff with questions about services for students with visual impairments. The original response which appeared in the Fall 1999 VI Newsletter has been updated by Marty for inclusion in SEE/HEAR.

QUESTION:

I just need some basic information about establishing initial eligibility for a visual impairment. When a student is initially referred for suspected visual impairment, is an eye specialist's report stating that the student has a serious vision loss after correction needed BEFORE they do a functional vision evaluation? I know eligibility is based on the combination of the two pieces of information, but doesn't the eye exam have to state serious vision loss even after correction?

In other words, if the eye exam says the student does NOT have a serious vision loss after correction, then should the referral come to a halt at that point? Or would the VI person still be obligated to evaluate the student (per ARD committee recommendation)?

RESPONSE:

The answer would depend on whether or not the district determines that an evaluation for special education is needed.

The district determines an evaluation is needed for special education

If the child is referred for evaluation for special education because of a suspected visual impairment, and the district agrees to evaluate, there are two guiding principals related to your question:

First, eligibility is an ARD committee decision, and secondly, federal regulations state that no single procedure is used as the sole criterion for determining whether a child is a child with a disability.

The first step of the evaluation is to obtain the eye doctor report. This should be provided at no cost to the parent. The information from that evaluation should serve as a guide for the functional vision evaluation (FVE) and learning media assessment (LMA). Information from both should guide the rest of the evaluation process.

If the eye report comes back saying there is not a serious impairment, there still must be the FVE/LMA and the rest of the evaluation. These evaluations will either support the doctor's findings or challenge them. If the FVE/LMA indicates there really is a serious visual problem, then there should be discussion with the doctor to try to determine why there is a difference of opinion.

(In Texas, when the vision rules were first developed, the intent was to ensure an eye doctor did not have the final say about educational issues. That is one reason the eligibility criteria does not depend solely on acuities. Remember, the doctor's evaluation reflects how a child sees in a very atypical setting. Sometimes the doctor has limited expertise with hard-to-test children, may have checked the wrong box by accident, or may not realize the significance of his choice.)

Sometimes, with technical assistance from the vision specialist, the doctor will be willing to correct mistakes, or restate conclusions based on the additional information from the district. If the doctor does not change his opinion, but the FVE/LMA indicates there is a serious problem and the comprehensive evaluation indicates there is an education need because of it, the district should seek another eye doctor evaluation. As a last resort, if there is disagreement, but the vision teacher and the rest of ARD committee feel very strongly that there is a visual impairment resulting in educational need, the ARD committee may go ahead and qualify the student. There should be detailed documentation supporting this decision. (Kind of an unwritten Method II for VI!) One would not expect this option to be used very frequently.

The district determines an evaluation for special education is not needed

The district could refuse to evaluate under the following conditions:

  • If the parent brings in an eye report and asks for an assessment for special education because of a suspected visual impairment,
  • and the information from the eye report does not indicate a severe visual loss after correction,
  • and, based on classroom observations, academic performance, and other relevant information, the district does not believe that there is justification for further assessment,
  • then the district could refuse to evaluate.

If this is the case, the district must give the parent written notice of refusal to evaluate. The parents must also receive a full explanation of their procedural safeguards. This will give the parents documentation that their request was denied, so that they can request mediation, file a complaint, or go to hearing, if they so choose.

Name:
Age:
Grade:

Change Placement: (what grades will student move to a  new school)

Future Goals: (what are the student's goals for the future)

Future Placement (where will the student be in 1, 3,and 5 years)

Typing Rate

  • Repeat same sentence
  • Generate own information
  • Gross words per minute
  • Errors-keyboarding
  • Errors-spelling

Brailling Rate on braille writer and any electronic device

  • Repeat same sentence
  • Generate own information
  • Gross words per minute
  • Errors-Brailling
  • Errors-spelling

Keyboarding skills (obtain typing information on familiar keyboard and migration keyboard)

  • Number Row
  • Shift Number Row
  • Punctuation and Shift Punctuation
  • Function Keys
  • Numeric Keypad
  • Modifiers-Control, ALT (Command Key for the Macintosh)
  • Modifiers-Caps Lock, Shift
  • Movement-Tab, Home, End, Arrows, Page Down, Page Up
  • Others-Backspace, Insert, Delete, Print Screen, Pause, Scroll Lock

Reading Rate

  • Regular
  • Large Print
  • CCTV
    • Without filters
    • With filters
  • Low Vision Aids
  • Computer Screen
    • Without filters
    • With filters
  • Paper Braille
  • Refreshable Braille

Reading distance

  • CCTV
    • Without filters
    • With filters
  • Computer Screen
    • Without filters
    • With filters

Listening

  • Auditory Discrimination
  • Sentence Repetition
  • Auditory Comprehension

Describe the devices (synthesizer) used, learning style, motor planning, following directions, memory, time involved

  1. Position student in chair with feet on floor and sitting up straight.
  2. Move student's chair or CCTV so that student's eyes are approximately 13 inches from viewing screen. It is imperative that this viewing distance remain constant when measurements are made during the assessment.
  3. Adjust CCTV height to student's eye level.
  4. Place a one inch (1") line drawing under camera, turn on CCTV, zoom to maximum enlargement and focus image. Adjust brightness and contrast if necessary.
  5. Reduce magnification of image until entire drawing fits on the screen and ask student to identify object. Allow student to move closer to screen if necessary, but note the approximate viewing distance.
  6. Show student how to control the zoom lens to adjust magnification. Ask him/her to adjust the size of the image to largest magnification, smallest magnification, make the drawing fill up the screen, and finally, to the magnification where he/she can see it best.
  7. Check the student's distance from the screen. Make sure he/she is approximately 13" from the screen.
  8. Ask the student to adjust the size of the image to the smallest magnification. Place a different one inch (1") line drawing under the camera. The image should remain in focus because the distance between the camera lens and the image has not changed.
  9. Ask the student to adjust the magnification to the best viewing size. Make sure he/she does not lean forward. Ask him/her to identify the drawing.
  10. Measure the approximate height of the image he/she is able to identify and note it on the checklist. Also note the size of the screen being used.
  11. Repeat these steps with text.
  12. Adjust the magnification to its maximum. Adjust the focus to make the image out of focus. Place a different image under the camera.
  13. Ask the student to adjust the focus until the image is clear and then adjust the magnification of the image until it is at the size he/she can see best. Note the student's ability to adjust the size and focus of the image on the checklist.
  14. Most CCTVs have a switch which controls the polarity of the image; black on white, or white on black. Show the student both settings with a graphic image and a text image. Note their preference on the checklist.
  15. Some CCTVs have a feature which allows the setting of various color combinations of the image being enlarged. If the CCTV being used has this feature, explore it with the student and note his/her preference. (Students will sometimes choose what to the examiner may seem like an unusual color combination because it looks, "cool." After working with that combination for awhile they often will choose another combination. However, some students will have a definite color preference and be able to function more efficiently with that color combination. If the CCTV being used for the assessment does not offer color and it is noted that the student has a color preference when he/she works with a computer system offering that feature, then this should be pointed out to the AT specialist or rehabilitation engineer who will do the follow-up assessment. They will be able to bring a color system for the follow-up or arrange with a vendor to borrow one for the assessment.)
  16. Place the CCTV Tracking Samples sheet (located in the References section of the notebook) under the camera and ask the student to adjust the magnification to his/her desired size.
  17. Adjust the friction brake so that the top to bottom movement of the page is stiff but movable. Set the left and right margin stops so that only the desired images are viewable on the screen.
  18. Ask the student to move the X/Y table to locate the target image on the left and then move the X/Y table to locate the same image in the row.
  19. Then ask the student to move to the next row and repeat the task.
  20. Repeat this process for all four samples. Note how the student manipulates the table while viewing from right to left, and how he/she returns to the left edge and moves down to the next line. Many younger students will not be able to perform this task efficiently. However, the information gained from observing this task will allow the examiner to determine if the student has the potential to master the physical and cognitive skills required to use the device. Note the observations on the checklist.
  21. Place a regular sheet of writing paper under the camera and readjust the margin stops accordingly.
  22. Ask the student to write their name on one line and a sentence on the next line.
  23. Replace the regular writing paper with bold line paper and ask the student to write their name on one line and a different sentence on the next line. Record the examiner's evaluation of the print's legibility on the checklist.
  24. Remove the writing assignment and replace it with an appropriate grade level reading selection. Select a passage that is just one column of text. Ask the student to adjust the magnification to his/her desired size.
  25. Adjust the friction brake and the margin stops for this reading selection. Conduct an informal reading rate assessment to be used for comparison purposes later and note it on the assessment checklist.
  26. Place the student's writing samples completed earlier under the camera and as the student to read them. Note their ability to read their own handwriting under the CCTV with regular or bold line paper.

This information will allow the examiner to determine if the student has the potential to use the CCTV effectively as a tool to access printed information.

References

Materials from the following resources were used during the assessment. I leave it to the tester to determine the appropiate pages.

Ann Arbor Tracking Program, (1988) Letter Tracking; Sentence Tracking; Symbol/Letter Tracking; Word Tracking, Novato, CA; Academic Therapy Publications.

D'Andrea, Frances Mary and Farrenkopf, Carol, (2000) Looking to Learn: promoting literacy for students with low vision. New York, NY; AFB Press.

Frostig, Marianne; Horne, David and Miller (1972): Pictures and Patterns, Teacher's Guide, Follet Publishing Co.

Lev, L. Jay, EdD, (1988) Eye-Hand Coordiantion Boosters, Novato, CA; Academic Therapy Publications.

Lund, R. & Watson, G. R. (1997). The CCTV BOOK: Habilitation and rehabilitation with closd circuit television systems. Synsforum ans. Frolund: Norway.

McCall, Karen, (2001) The Box Came Today, Now What Do I Do? A Resource for CCTV Assessment and Training, unpublished.

What Fun! Over 150 Activities. from the editors of Highlights for Children, (1997) Honesdale, PA; Boyds Mills Press.

Super Colossal Book of Hidden Pictures, Vol 2. (2001) Honesdale, PA; Boyds Mills Press.

Home Work Books; Mazes, Pre-K - 1. (1997) Grennsboro, NC; Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Inc.

Home Work Books; Hidden Pictures, Pre-K - 1. (1997) Greensboro, NC; Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Inc.

Home Work Books; Matching: Similarities & Differences, Pre-K - 1. (1997) Greensboro, NC; Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Inc.

Home Work Books; Getting Ready for Kindergarten, Kindergarten. (1998) Greensboro, NC; Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Inc.

This document was developed by Ike Presley, American Foundation for the Blind, (100 Peachtree Street, Suite 620, Atlanta, GA 30303) Permission to photocopy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this credit is retained.

Winter 99 Table of Contents
Versión Español de este artículo (Spanish Version)

By Cyral Miller, TSBVI, Outreach Director

Educational systems seem to thrive on acronyms. FVE, or FVA, is the short cut term for a functional vision evaluation or assessment, and is one acronym of especial importance when programming for students with visual impairments. Successfully educating these students depends upon access to accurate, current information about each child's use of his/her vision. In Texas, a functional vision assessment report is the legally required document for bringing this information to an ARD committee. The report helps determine eligibility for services as a special education student with visual impairments. A second report, known as the learning media assessment, or LMA, is also required, to determine (in part) what kinds of literacy and functional learning materials are appropriate.

The FVA report is also shared with the family and entire educational team, including assessment personnel, to ensure general knowledge of how to adapt and modify testing and instruction to best meet the unique needs of each eligible student. A good understanding of each student's needs is necessary in order to properly modify materials, the distance at which materials should be displayed, lighting, seating, reading and writing tools, and other critical aspects of educational programming. Every child uses their vision differently, and even children with similar visual acuities and eye conditions may actually "see" in unique ways. For those who don't see, or whose vision fluctuates and is unreliable, information on how to adapt instruction into tactual or auditory modes is critical for all staff. The functional vision assessment must be performed by a teacher certified in the area of visual impairments and/or an orientation and mobility specialist.

The Federal law governing special education increasingly emphasizes active participation of parents in determining needed areas of assessment. Now, at the annual admission, review and dismissal meeting (ARD) or at specially called meetings, teams discuss together with family members what kinds of assessments should be conducted in order to best develop appropriate programming for each child. In a few cases, such as a stable eye condition or a student who wears prosthetics in both eyes, the functional vision assessment may not be needed to determine whether a student is still eligible as visually impaired. However, the FVA report is still an important report. It should be administered at least every three years, to assess whether programming modifications once appropriate to an earlier age and grade level are still applicable in new settings. Some students will be accessing the community more as they get older. Staff will need to look at visual information or modifications in work settings. In the early grades, materials are presented at quite different rates than in upper grades. Lighting, seating and activity requirements for student learning certainly change over time. The functional use of vision is dependent on many factors in addition to the medical cause of impairment. Medications, the presence of other disabilities, positioning, the type of school and classroom setting, expectations for demonstrating skills both in and out of school, motivation, age, and overall health can all be factors. A period of observation is critical in determining how each visually impaired child's visual and learning needs should be addressed at regular intervals. This ensures adequate and appropriate modifications and instruction. This kind of information is captured in the FVA and can then be shared across the team.

The functional vision assessment (FVA) complements information available from an ophthalmologist or optometrist regarding medical diagnosis, care, prognosis, and health of the visual system. These medical eye specialists assess a child's vision and visual system in their clinics and offices using specific techniques and equipment. That information should be summarized on the FVA report. It will inform and guide the assessment of functional vision by the certified educational staff. The FVA, paired with medical information, helps the VI teacher/O&M describe how each eye condition translates into real life situations. Most of us have experienced reporting a problem to the doctor that simply doesn't show up during examination. On the other hand, we may have problems at the doctor's office that go away once we're safely back home. The FVA report describes how a medical condition such as cataracts impacts the individual child's functioning in the daily environment.

A FVA must be based on observations of a child in a variety of settings, both indoors and out. It should be conducted at different times of day, across different environments, in the situations where the child is going to be asked to learn. Some children may need to be observed in a variety of positions since positioning may also impact visual functioning. Information from parents may indicate that going to the home is important, especially if they report that the child's vision seems different in that setting. (For example, "He does fine until twilight, then he falls and bumps into things. Does he fall at school?") The process can be quite straightforward for updating information on a familiar child whose vision is stable. However, repeated sessions over time may be required for new referrals, very young children, or children whose vision seems to be inconsistent.

There are children in the population with no vision, and functional vision reports are required for them, as well. In that case, the report confirms the absence of vision and presents recommendations on how to modify instruction for the student. The FVA report legally must also address, for all students, whether there is need for a low vision clinical evaluation, or assessment for orientation and mobility services.

The recommendations section of the functional vision assessment report presents guidelines on programming. It discusses the kinds of adaptations and modifications which will most impact learning. This section can be a primary vehicle for the VI professional to communicate the needs of this unique student to all other staff. Staff will want to post these recommendations on their walls and include them in their folders. It is also important that they use these recommendations to determine needed modifications during the IEP process.

The FVA report is critical for ensuring coordination and consistency in educational programming and should be widely shared. There have been dozens of functional vision assessment forms developed. Some are essentially checklists, some are computerized forms customized for each child, and others include mainly narrative. There are a wide variety of styles and methods for testing and reporting. Recognizing that these reports are developed for infants, toddlers, school-aged children and young adults, it makes sense that the format and emphasis will differ by the child. It is helpful if it as free of jargon as possible so that all members of the educational team and the family can understand and implement the recommendations.

We are fortunate in Texas to have a system that requires the FVA. It provides teachers and assessment personnel with critical information about the impact of a child's specific visual loss on learning. It guides them in modifying materials and the environment to build on each child's strengths. The functional vision assessment is the cornerstone upon which an individualized student program can be created. This is one acronym to be sure to LOOK OUT for!

Download Tech Assessment Checklist in RTF (61K)

Student Name _______________________ Date of assessment _____________

Person Completing Checklist _______________________ Position ______________________

During this assessment, informal measures were utilized to evaluate the student's ability to access print, produce written communication, access the computer and use various assistive technologies. Some of the information requested may be obtained from the Learning Media Assessment, the Clinical Low Vision Evaluation or the Functional Low Vision Evaluation.

Accessing Print

Regular Print

When accessing printed information, the

_____ Student is able to read regular print materials at _____ inches without adaptations.

_____ Student is able to read regular print materials with adaptations.

_____ using prescribed glasses or contacts

_____ materials enlarged on photocopying machine - Specify (i.e. 130%, 3 times) __________ Student is able to read regular print materials with or without adaptations for _____ min before experiencing either visual or physical fatigue.

Large Print

When accessing large print with prescribed optical aid (if appropriate) the student is able to read

72 point print at approximately _____ inches.
60 point print at approximately _____ inches.
48 point print at approximately _____ inches.
36 point print at approximately _____ inches.
30 point print at approximately _____ inches.
24 point print at approximately _____ inches.
18 point print at approximately _____ inches.
14 point print at approximately _____ inches.
12 point print at approximately _____ inches.

Student's font preference ___ Arial, ___ Antique Olive, ___ Tahoma, ____ Verdana

Student's preferred point size without prescribed optical aids.

___ 14 ___ 18 ___ 24 ___ 30 ___ 36 ___ 48 ___ 60 ___ 72

Optical Aids

When accessing printed materials with the use of an optical aid, the student is able to use

_____ glasses _____ contact lens

_____ hand held/stand magnifier, power _____

_____ telescope, power ________

Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV)

_____ inch graphic _____ inch text on a _____ inch monitor at approximately 13 inches

polarity preference: _____ dark on light _____ light on dark

color combination preference (if available) ______________________________

Use of CCTV controls - The student is able to:

_____ adjust size of image.

_____ focus image.

_____ independently use X/Y table for viewing materials with friction brake and margin stops adjusted by examiner.

_____ write name and a short sentence legibly on regular writing paper.

_____ write name and a short sentence legibly on bold line paper.

read approximately _____ wpm orally when the friction brake and margin stops are adjusted properly by the examiner.

_____ read the sentence he/she wrote on regular writing paper.

_____ read the sentence he/she wrote on bold line paper.

Use of the VisAbility program with optical scanner connected to computer

preferred magnification ____ for viewing at approximately 13-16 inches

polarity preference: _____ dark on light _____ light on dark

color combination preference _________________________________________

Use of VisAbility features - The student was able to:

_____ select menu items and tools from the toolbar with the mouse.

_____ navigate around the magnified image with the mouse.

_____ read text in the panning/review mode with a speed setting of _____.

Non-Optical Aids

When accessing information through the use of non-optical aids, the

_____ student reads materials produced with felt tip pen on bold line paper.

_____ student prefers ___ incandescent lighting, ___ flourescent lighting ___ window lighting.

_____ student experiences glare problems from ___ overhead lighting ___ window lighting

_____ student prefers less lighting than currently available.

_____ student prefers to have materials placed on a reading stand or copy holder.

Braille and Tactile

When accessing information through braille and tactile graphics, the

_____ student is able to use simple tactile graphics.

_____ student is able to read materials in braille. Attach results of formal/informal Braille Assessments conducted by TVI.

_____ student's oral braille reading rate is _____ wpm

_____ student is able to read braille on an electronic/refreshable braille display.

Auditory

When accessing printed information auditorally, the

_____ student is able to demonstrate comprehension by answering simple questions & relating details about a passage when it is read to him/her.

_____ student is able to paraphrase information presented orally (sentence or story.)

_____ student is able to write, type, or braille what he/she heard (sentence dictation) without having it repeated more than twice.

_____ student is able to put tape in and remove tape from player/recorder.

_____ student is able to activate play, pause, stop, fast forward and rewind functions (please underline those demonstrated.)

_____ student is able to understand and comprehend compressed or "fast" speech.

_____ student is able to manipulate variable speed and pitch controls.

Reading Rates

(This is an optional section used when needed to demonstrate to the student, parents, teachers or administrators the benefits of using adaptations when reading.)

When reading printed information, the

student is able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with 12 point materials.

student is able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with materials in the optimum size for viewing at 10 -13 inches (_____ point print.)

student is able to read _____ wpm orally when using a CCTV.

student is able to read _____ wpm orally when using VisAbility.

student is able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with materials in braille.

student is able to read _____ wpm orally when provided with recorded materials.

Other

When using a large print calculator, the

_____ student is able to see _____ inch numerals displayed on a large print calculator.

_____ student is able to accurately manipulate keys on a large print calculator.

student is able to perform basic functions ___ with, ___ without instruction.

When using a talking calculator, the

_____ student is able to understand synthesized speech produced by a talking calculator.

_____ student is able to accurately manipulate keys on a talking calculator.

student is able to perform basic functions ___ with, ___ without instruction.

When using a talking dictionary, the

_____ student is able to understand synthesized speech produced by a talking dictionary.

_____ student is able to accurately manipulate keys on a talking dictionary.

student is able to perform basic functions ___ with, ___ without instruction.

When accessing information presented on black board or overhead projector, the student reported that he/she

_____ sits close enough to read board.
_____ gets a copy from the teacher
_____ gets a copy from other students.
_____ uses a hand held or spectacle mounted telescope
_____ has information read aloud to student and
_____ writes information on paper
_____ types information into computer or portable note taker.
_____ brailles on braille writer
_____ records on tape recorder.
_____ Other, please specify ________________________________________________

Are these options working adequately? ___ yes ___ no Explain briefly: ______________

________________________________________________________________________

Producing Written Communication

When using standard writing tools, the

_____ student's manuscript writing is legible.
_____ student's cursive writing is legible.
_____ student's spacing is intact.
_____ student's writing is labored and difficult.
_____ student is able to write _____ wpm from ___ dictation, ___ copy.
_____ student is able to read his/her own writing.
_____ student is able to sign his/her name legibly in cursive ___ with, ___ without a signature guide.

When writing with the following adaptation the student's _____ manuscript, _____ cursive writing is legible.

_____ a screen board _____ bold line paper
_____ raised line paper _____ a felt tip pen
_____ a white board and erasable marker
_____ Other modifications _________________________________________

When using a braille writing device, the

_____ student is able to use a manual braille writer to emboss characters, words and sentences at ___ wpm from ___ dictation, ___ copy.

_____ student is able to use the slate & stylus to emboss characters, words and sentences at ___ wpm from ___ dictation, ___ copy.

_____ student is able to use the MountBatten brailler to emboss characters, words and sentences at ___ wpm from ___ dictation, ___ copy.

_____ student is able to use a portable note taking device such as the Braille 'n Speak to enter characters, words and sentences at ___ wpm from ___ dictation, ___ copy.

When using an electronic writing device, (computer, portable note taker) the

_____ student is able to write characters, words and sentences.

_____ student is able to perform basic functions ___ with, ___ without instruction from the examiner.

Comments: _________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

Computer Access

Visual

When accessing electronic information on a stand alone computer or in the computer lab, the

_____ student is able to read menus and other system text items on a _____ inch monitor at approximately _____ inches.

student was able to read bold _____ point print in an ___ Arial, ___ Antique Olive, ___ Tahoma, ___ Verdana font displayed on a _____ inch monitor at approximately 13 inches.

student is able to see information on the standard computer monitor with

_____ screen magnification hardware (Compu-Lenz) at approximately ____ inches.
_____ flexible arm monitor stand at approximately _____ inches.
_____ screen enhancements provided with computer operating system
_____ WIN 95/98 High Contrast
_____ WIN 95/98 Large
_____ WIN 95/98 Extra Large
_____ screen magnification software with _____ magnification

When accessing the computer through the use of screen magnification software, the

_____ student is able to read 12 point print enlarged to _____x magnification at a viewing distance of approximately 13 inches.

_____ student expressed a polarity preference for; _____ dark on light, _____ light on dark.

_____ student is able to locate and select menu items, buttons and icons with the mouse/pointing device.

_____ student is able to navigate around the magnified image with the mouse/pointing device.

student ___ is, ___ is not able to maintain orientation when navigating around the screen.

_____ student is able to read text in the panning/review mode with a speed setting of _____.

_____ student expressed a viewing mode preference. Specify ___________________________

_____ Student is unable to access the computer visually.

Auditory

When accessing computer based information auditorally, the

_____ student is able to understand synthesized speech produced by

Software synthesizer

_____ Kids Time Deluxe _____ Write Outloud _____ Other

_____ Flextalk _____ TrueVoice

_____ Dectalk Access 32 _____ Eloquence

Hardware synthesizer

_____ Braille/Type 'n Speak _____ Double Talk _____ Other

_____ Accent SA _____ Dectalk

_____ student is able to execute navigation commands with instruction.

Tactile

When accessing computer based information tactually, the

_____ student is able to read braille text displayed on an electronic refreshable braille display.

_____ student is able to execute navigation commands with instruction.

_____ student is able to enter text through the braille keyboard.

Input Devices

Keyboard Use

_____ The student is able to use a standard keyboard without adaptation.
_____ The student is able to locate and identify alphanumeric keys.
_____ The student is able to locate and identify function keys.
_____ The student is able to activate two keys simultaneously.
_____ The student does not demonstrate excessive miss-hits or key repeats.
_____ The student uses good mechanics when typing. (Posture, wrist elevation, etc.)
_____ The student types with ___ fingers of right hand and ___ fingers of left hand.
_____ The student demonstrates keyboard awareness (has a general knowledge of the key locations).
_____ The student is able to touch type while looking at his/her hands.
_____ The student is able to touch type without looking at his/her hands.
_____ The student is able to utilize a standard computer keyboard with adaptations. (Seek assistance from occupational and physical therapist as needed.)

_____ zoom caps _____ keyguard _____ finger guard/pointer

_____ keylatch _____ wrist/arm support _____ head pointer

_____ moisture guard _____ tactile locator dots _____ mouthstick

_____ other Specify _____________________________________________________

The student is able to utilize a standard computer keyboard with the following keyboard utilities. (Seek assistance from general technology specialist, OT or PT to complete this section.)

__ sticky keys __ repeat keys __ slow keys __ toggle keys __ mouse keys _____

_____ The student is not able to utilize a standard keyboard with or without adaptations. (If checked, refer student for a Computer Access Evaluation.)

Use of a Pointing Device

_____ The student is able to navigate the desktop with the standard mouse/trackball.

_____ The student is able to maintain the mouse position while clicking/double-clicking.

_____ The student is able to maintain eye contact with the screen while navigating the desktop.

_____ The student is able to access pull-down menus with the standard mouse.

_____ The student is not able to use a standard mouse. (If checked, please request a Computer Access Evaluation.)

Additional Assessment Information: _________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Recommendations for Assistive Technology

Based on the results of this assessment, the following recommendations are made regarding assistive technology to support this student's educational objectives.

Accessing Printed Materials (Students with visual impairments will use a combination of strategies to access printed information. Some will be appropriate for short reading assignments and others will be necessary for longer passages.)

Check all that apply

_____ Student should use regular print materials for
_____ short reading assignments.
_____ most reading assignments.

_____ Student should use regular print materials with optical aids.
_____ glasses/contact lenses
_____ hand held magnifier
_____ stand magnifier

_____ Student should use materials written with felt tip pen on bold line paper.

_____ Student should use regular print materials enlarged on a photocopying machine.

_____ Student should use large print books.

_____ Student should use regular print materials scanned into a computer, edited and printed out in ______ point print.

_____ Student should use regular print materials with CCTV (Closed Circuit TeleVision).

_____ Student should use regular print materials with the VisAbility program.

_____ Student should use materials in braille.

_____ Student should use recorded materials.

_____ Student should use a computer assisted reading system such as Kurzweil 1000, Open Book, etc.

_____ Student should use a ___ basic, ___ scientific calculator with at least 1/2" numeral display.

_____ Student should use a ___ basic, ___ scientific talking calculator.

_____ Student should use calculator program on computer.

_____ Student should use a large print dictionary with at least 18 point print.

_____ Student should use dictionary/thesaurus program on computer.

_____ Student should use a talking dictionary

_____ Student should use crayons and a screen board to develop basic tactile skills using tactile graphics.

_____ Student should use tactile graphics to access maps, charts, diagrams, etc.

Comments: ____________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Producing Written Communication (Students with visual impairments will use a combination of strategies to produce written communication. Some will be appropriate for short writing assignments and others will be necessary for longer assignments.)

Check all that apply

_____ Student should use pen/pencil and paper

_____ for short writing assignments.

_____ for most writing assignments.

_____ Student should use felt tip pen and bold line paper.

_____ Student should use bold line graph paper for math.

_____ Student should use crayons and a screen board for beginning handwriting.

_____ Student should use a white board with erasable markers.

_____ Student should use a computer with the word processing software most commonly used in the student's school.

_____ Student should use computer with form filling software such as VisAbility.

_____ Student should use manual braille writer.

_____ Student should use manual braille writer with extended keys.

_____ Student should use a unimanual braille writer.

_____ Student should use slate & stylus.

_____ Student should use an electronic braille writer. Specify: __________________________

_____ Student should use portable word processor (Braille 'n Speak/Type 'n Speak, etc.)

Comments: ____________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Computer Access

Input Method

_____ Student should use a standard keyboard.

_____ Student should develop/improve keyboarding skills.

_____ Student should use a standard keyboard with adaptations. Specify __________________

_____ Student should use an alternative keyboard. Specify _____________________________

_____ Student should use a standard pointing device like a mouse or trackball.

_____ Student should use an alternate point device. Specify ____________________________

_____ Student should have access to a copy holder that allows printed materials to be positioned at a comfortable viewing distance.

Output Mode

_____ Student should use a standard computer monitor - Optimal size: ___________________

_____ Student should use a standard computer monitor with hardware adaptations

_____ adjustable monitor arm _____ Compu Lens

_____ Student should use screen magnification software

_____ CloseView _____ inLARGE _____ WIN xxx Accessibility enlargement

_____ Dedicated screen magnification software - Specify ________________________

_____ Student should use a talking word processor. Specify ___________________________

_____ Student should use a speech synthesizer/sound card and screen reading software. Specify

________________________________________________________________________

_____ Student should use an electronic braille display. Specify _________________________

Additional Hardware & Software

Student should be provided with access to the following hardware & software;

_____ Macintosh computer system with

___ Mb memory ___ hard drive ___ CD drive ___ modem

_____ IBM compatible computer system with

___ Mb memory ___ hard drive ___ CD drive ___ modem

_____ Optical Scanner ___ Printer

_____ Word processor used in student's school ___ Internet access

_____ CD Encyclopedia ___ Dictionary ___ Atlas

_____ Other: -_________________________________________________________________

Equipment needed to produce materials for student in appropriate format.

_____ Mac or IBM compatible computer system

_____ Optical scanner _____ OCR software

_____ Word processing software _____ Inkjet or laser printer

_____ braille translating software _____ braille embosser/printer

_____ Tactile graphics production equipment, specify _________________________________

Additional comments/recommendations: ____________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

The recommendations made above do not all have to be implemented immediately. The suggestions are designed for a 2 - 3 year plan in which the student masters certain skills and is provided access to additional technologies that can facilitate his/her educational program. During that time, new technologies will become available that will enhance his/her ability to maximize his/her educational potential. The specific devices recommended may no longer be the most appropriate, but the assistance that they provide will continue to be a need for this student.

_____________________________________   ____________________________________
Assessment Completed by (Signature)             Position

This document was developed by Ike Presley, American Foundation for the Blind, (100 Peachtree Street, Suite 620, Atlanta, GA 30303) Permission to photocopy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this credit is retained.


by Millie Smith, Education Specialist and Stacy Shafer, Early Childhood Specialist, TSBVI Outreach

Biobehavioral states are levels of arousal ranging from asleep to agitated. Students with profound disabilities may not respond to the stimulation and interactions around them because they have difficulty establishing and maintaining alert arousal states. They, like any other student, are available for learning only when they are alert. The primary task of teachers serving this population is to become skillful at using environmental management to create conditions that facilitate establishment and maintenance of alert states. Once students are alert, appropriate learning materials and social interactions must then be provided in order for learning to occur.

Many external as well as internal factors influence arousal states. All significant factors must be considered in determining the best way to facilitate alert states with any given student. For that reason, biobehavioral state assessment is crucial before interventions occur. Under no circumstances should it be assumed that a student is nonresponsive under all conditions before biobehavioral assessment and subsequent intervention has been provided.

Two of the most well known biobehavioral assessments that have come from the research and literature developed during the last twenty-five years are the Carolina Record of Individual Behavior (CRIB) and the Analyzing Behavior State and Learning Environments Profile (ABLE). Each of these tools has strengths, but cost and accessibility limit their use for some teachers. The informal, teacher-made assessment tool which follows this article attempts to assist teachers in their efforts to identify factors influencing their students' arousal states. Teachers are encouraged to change this tool as needed to meet the unique needs of an individual student. Teachers are also encouraged to read the resource material listed and to take advantage of training opportunities related to these tools as they arise.

The success of this type of assessment is highly dependent upon the sharing of information. Parents and staff members who will be recording states and other information should plan the assessment together. All assessors must agree on the characteristics of each state for the student they are assessing. Using a video tape of the student to practice recognition of states before the actual assessment takes place is very helpful.

Resources

Guess, D., Mulligan-Ault, M., Roberts, S., Struth, J., Siegal-Causey, E., Thompson, B., Bronicki,
G.J., & Guy, G. (1988). Implications of biobehavioral states for the education and treatment of students with the most handicapping conditions. JASH, 13 (3), 163-174.

Guy, B., Ault, M., & Guess, D. (1993). Project ABLE manual: Analyzing behavior state and learning environments profile. Lawrence: University of Kansas Department of Special Education.

Rainforth, B. (1982). Biobehavioral state and orienting: Implications for education of profoundly retarded students. TASH Journal, Volume 6, Winter, 33-37.

Simeonsson, R.J., Huntington, G.S., Short, R. J., & Ware, W. B. (1988). The Carolina record of individual behavior (CRIB): Characteristics of handicapped infants and children. Chapel Hill: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Editors note: If you have questions regarding the forms that follow contact Millie Smith at (512) 206-9271 or write to her at TSBVI Outreach, 1100 W. 45th Street, Austin, TX 78756, Attention: Millie Smith. The actual forms may be found in Teaching Students with Visual and Multiple Impairments (1996). Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired, Austin, TX.


Assessment of Biobehavioral States and Analysis of Related Influences

by Millie Smith and Stacy Shafer

Student's Name: Catherine              Date of Assessment: 3/5/95

Name(s) of Assessor(s): M. Smith, P. Castro (mother), N. Jones

Assessment Period

School day starts at: 8:15 a.m
School Day ends at: 3:30 p.m.

Nonschool environments:
Place: Home From: 4:00 p.m. To: 8:30 p.m.
Place:           From:                  To:

The total assessment period should be at least one school day. Assessment of the student in nonschool environments on the same day would be extremely helpful.

Recording Schedule

Indicate the length of the interval between recordings in Part II. Intervals should be no shorter than one minute and no longer than 15 minutes. The intervals should be consistent throughout the assessment period. Part II information will be recorded every 15 minutes.

Part I

Provide the information called for in the grids for the 24 hours preceding the beginning of the assessment and throughout the assessment period. Under "Comment" indicate any significant factor that comes to mind and be sure to note when the recorded information is a departure from the student's typical routine. If there are significant departures or if the student is ill on the day of assessment, postpone the assessment.

Note: This is an informal teacher-made assessment based on the Carolina Record of Individual Behavior (CRIB), by R. J. Simeonsson et al. and the Project ABLE Manual: Analyzing Behavior State and Learning Environments Profile by B. Guy et al.

Food and Liquid Information

Each time the student eats something, drinks something, or is tube fed, enter the following information on the grid:
(the grid has five columns titled Type, Start Time, Stop Time, Amount, and Comment)

TypeTime StartTime StopAmountComment
Ensure. 8:20 8:40 16 oz  
Water. 8:40 8:45 6 oz  
Ensure 12:30 1:20 16 oz.  
Water 1:10 1:15 6 oz.  
Ensure 4:30 4:50 16 oz.  
Water 4:50 5:00 6 oz.  
Ensure 8:00 8:20 16 oz.  
Water. 8:20 8:25 6 oz  

Medication Information

Each time the student takes a prescription or over the counter medication enter the following information on the grid:

TypeTimeAmountComment
Tegretol Suspension 8:20 a.m. 200 mg  
Dimetap Elixir 8:20 a.m. 10 cc for congestion
Dimetap Elixir 12:30 p.m. 10 cc  
Tegretol Suspension 4:30 p.m. 200 mg  
Dimetap Elixir 4:30 p.m. 10 cc  

Seizure Information

Each time a seizure occurs, enter the following information on the grid:

Start Time Stop TimeDescriptionComment
       
    none observed  
       
       
       

Sleep Information

Each time the student sleeps for more than five minutes, enter the following information on the grid. If the student's sleep is interrupted for longer than three minutes, enter a stop time and begin a new sleep episode on the next line:

Start TimeStop TimeLocationComments
9:00 p.m. 12:00 p.m. Bedroom Cried to request in bed change in position
12:15 p.m. 3:20 p.m. " "
3:28 p.m. 6:15 p.m.. " Playing quietly in bed when checked at 6:15

Part II - Instructions

Time: Record the clock time for every third interval recorded. This will help show the continuity of the assessment.

State: Record the state at the moment of observation, not the prevalent state for the entire interval.

Position: Indicate the position the student is in at the moment of observation (e.g., sitting, side-lying, prone, supine, standing).

Specific External Stimuli Available: Describe the specific external stimuli available to the student at the moment of observation (e.g., music, vibrator, swing, water, food, Little Room, mobile). If no material is available, enter a zero.

Ambient Conditions: Describe the characteristics of the surrounding (e.g., room temperature, noise level, conspicuous smells, lighting) for the first state recorded and whenever conditions change. When no change occurs, put ditto marks in the column.

Social Conditions: Record the name of the person interacting with the student at the moment of observation. The person must be talking to the student, touching the student, and/or co-actively manipulating an object with the student. The passive presence of another person should not be recorded. If no person is interacting with the student, enter zero.

Key to Part II Assessment

State Key: _ = Seizure; S = Sleep; D = Drowsiness; QA = Quiet Awake;
AA = Active Awake; FA = Fussy Awake; MA = Mild Agitation;
UA = Uncontrollable Agitation.

TimeActivityStatePosition Spec. Ext. Stimuli Avai.lAmbient ConditionsSocial Conditions
8:15 Arrival QA Seated 0 Outdoors cold, windy, noisy chairlift in bus Greeted by TA  Linda
8:30 Breakfast D Supine 0 Normal temperature and lighting 0
8:45 Tooth-brushing MA Seated Toothbrush, toothpaste, water, towel Noisy bathroom,very bright lighting Hand-over-hand   manipulation; L
9:00 Hair Drying QA Seated Hairdryer, mousse, brush Normal temperature and lighting Talking; Linda
9:15 Hair Brushing QA Seated Hairdryer, mousse, brush Normal temperature and lighting Talking; Linda
9:30 Drama Class AA Seated Papier mache material Dark stage area, echoes Surrounded by peers
10:00 Changing AA Supine Cold wipes, talcum  powder Normal temperature  and lighting Patting, talking; Linda
10:15 Mail Delivery AA Rolling  prone stander Variety visual & auditory stimuli avail. Many changes; different noise levels Interaction with 6 different adults
        Remainder of day not shown    

Part III - Summary

Typical duration of alert states: 15 to 20 minutes

(Note: If the student is typically alert less than one minute, a different type of biobehavioral assessment will be necessary. Consider assessing one activity at 30 second intervals. The purpose of this assessment would be to try to determine what influences cause state changes and to provide modifications associated with changes to more alert states.)

Positions during alert states: Seated, standing (in prone stander)

Specific external stimuli available during alert states: Movement; tactual materials (e.g., paper, hairbrush); auditory, especially human voice

Ambient conditions during alert states: Normal lighting, temperature, low noise level

Social conditions during alert states: Talking and touching

Less than alert states typically occurred when: There was no social interaction

Agitated states typically occurred when: There was too much noise or strong smells and just before feeding

If you have concerns about food and liquid intake or medications, talk with parents and other team members about getting more information.

Do you have concerns about food and liquid intake being adequate for maintenance of alert states:

___X__ Yes  ______ No

Do you have concerns about medication and/or medication schedules facilitating alert states at optimum programming times:

___X___Yes   _____  No