Main content

Alert message

Study Questions for Recommended Reading A: Fazzi & Klein

Fazzi, D.L., & Klein, M.D. (2002). Cognitive focus: Developing cognition, concepts, and language. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 107-153). New York: AFB Press. 

  1. Explain the first two stages of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: the sensorimotor stage and the preoperational stage.
  2. What did Vygotsky mean by the “zone of proximal development”?
  3. Define scaffolding and give an example.
  4. What are the five stages of concept development?
  5. What are five ways children may communicate during the prelinguistic stage?
  6. What are eight purposes of prelinguistic communication?
  7. List eight differences in language development that children with visual impairments may experience.

Study Questions and Answers for Recommended Reading A: Fazzi & Klein

Fazzi, D.L., & Klein, M.D. (2002). Cognitive focus: Developing cognition, concepts, and language. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 107-153). New York: AFB Press. 

  1. Explain the first two stages of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: the sensorimotor stage and the preoperational stage.
    • Sensorimotor stage
      This stage is from birth to approximately 2 years. Children learn to make sense of their world by physically reacting and interacting with it. They experience the world through their senses. In this stage children develop intentionality, trial-and-error exploration, and object permanence.
    • Preoperational stage
      This stage is from 2 to 7 years, approximately. In this stage children develop the ability to think and represent the world symbolically through language and pretend play. They begin to learn how to problem solve. Their thought patterns are inflexible, and they can only consider their own perspective.
  2. What did Vygotsky mean by the “zone of proximal development”?
    • The zone of proximal development is the link between what children can do independently and what children can do with assistance from a more competent peer or adult. In the zone of proximal development, learning is most efficient. 
  3. Define scaffolding and give an example.
    • Scaffolding is the support given to children when completing a task within the zone of proximal development.
    • Examples will vary among participants but may include the ideas listed below:
    • A mother places a shirt over a toddler’s head, but the toddler puts his arms through the hole.
    • A TVI assists an infant in reaching out for a bottle and bringing it to his mouth.
  4. What are the five stages of concept development?
    • awareness that something exists
    • opportunity and desire to interact with objects
    • exposure to people who supply labels for objects
    • multiple experiences with different types within the same classification
    • ability to appropriately classify different examples of the concept
  5. What are five ways children may communicate during the prelinguistic stage?
    • eye contact
    • pointing and reaching
    • laughing or crying
    • facial expressions
    • babbling sounds and voice tone
  6. What are eight purposes for prelinguistic communication?
    • requesting someone to start or stop an activity
    • requesting an object
    • attracting or maintaining someone’s attention
    • sharing attention for items of interest
    • greeting a familiar person
    • seeking comfort or satisfying needs/wants
    • anticipating routines or events
    • modeling or imitating language
  7. List eight differences in language development that children with visual impairments may experience.
    • increased use of labels over functional words
    • less overextension of words used to categorize concepts
    • increased reference to their own experiences rather than actions of others
    • difficulty changing perspective and increased confusion with pronouns
    • frequent and often inappropriate use of questions
    • high frequency of echolalia
    • decreased ability to sustain conversations
    • development of inaccurate or inappropriate meanings for words