Main content

Alert message

Complete Module References

Adamson, L.B. (1996). Communication development during infancy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Adelson, E., & Fraiberg, S. (1974). Gross motor development in infants blind from birth. Child Development, 45(1), 114-126.

AFB Press (Producer), Chen, D., & Schachter, P.H. (Writers). (1997). Making the most of early communication: Strategies for supporting communication with infants, toddlers, and preschoolers whose multiple disabilities includes vision and hearing loss [Video]. (Available from AFB Press, American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, Suite 3000, New York, NY 10001)

Alpert, C.L., & Kaiser, A.P. (1992). Training parents as milieu language teachers. Journal of Early Intervention, 16, 31-52.

Als, H., Tronick, E., & Brazelton, T.B. (1980). Affective reciprocity and the development of autonomy: The study of a blind infant. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 19(1), 22-40.

American Printing House for the Blind (Producer). (1995). Discovering the magic of reading: “Elizabeth’s story” [Video]. (Available from APH, 1839 Frankfort Avenue, P.O. Box 6085, Louisville, KY, 40206-0085)

Andersen, E.S., Dunlea, A., & Kekelis, L. (1993). The impact of input: Language acquisition in the visually impaired. First Language, 13(37, pt. 1), 23-49.

Anthony, T.L. (1997). Adapted version of Koenig and Holbrook’s sensory channel form. Unpublished document.

Anthony, T.L. (1997). Individual sensory learning profile interview. Unpublished document.

Anthony, T.L. (2004). Individual sensory learning profile interview (ISLPI). In I.

Topor, L.P. Rosenblum, & D.D. Hatton, Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues (participant packet, pp. 238-245). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Anthony, T.L. (2004). Observational assessment of sensory preferences of infants and toddlers (OASP). In I. Topor, L.P. Rosenblum, & D.D. Hatton, Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues (participant packet, pp. 246-247). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Anthony, T.L., Bleier, H., Fazzi, D.L., Kish, D., & Pogrund, R.L. (2002). Mobility focus: Developing early skills for orientation and mobility. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 326-355). New York: AFB Press.

Appel, K., & Masterson, J.J. (2001). Beyond babytalk: From sounds to sentences, a parent’s complete guide to language development. New York: Crown Publishing.

Armbruster, B.B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2003). A child becomes a reader: Birth through preschool (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation.

Baird, S.M., Mayfield, P., & Baker, P. (1997). Mothers’ interpretations of the behavior of their infants with visual and other impairments during interactions. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91(5), 467-483.

Bardige, B.S., & Segal, M. (2004). Conversations in child care. Zero to Three, 25(1), 16-22.

Barnett, S.W. (1998). Long-term effects on cognitive development and school success. In S.W. Barnett & S. Boocock (Eds.), Early care and education for children in poverty (pp. 11-44). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Barraga, N.C., & Erin, J.N. (2001). Visual impairment and learning (4th ed.)Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Bates, E. (1976). Language and context: The acquisition of pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.

Bates, E., Camaioni, L., & Volterra, V. (1975). The acquisition of performatives prior to speech. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 21(3), 205-226.

Beckwith, B. (1992). Baby, can we talk? (Teaching children to talk). Essence, 22(12), 105.

Behl, D.D., Akers, J.F., Boyce, G.C., & Taylor, M.J. (1996). Do mothers interact differently with children who are visually impaired? Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 90(6), 501-511.

Bennett, K.K., Weigel, D.J., & Martin, S.S. (2002). Children’s acquisition of early literacy skills: Examining family contributions. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17(3), 295-317.

Bigelow, A.E. (1987). Early words of blind children. Journal of Child Language, 14(1), 47-56.

Bowman, B., Donovan, M.S., & Burns, M.S. (Eds). (2000). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Bozic, N., Cooper, L., Etheridge, A., & Selby, A. (1995). Microcomputer based joint activities in communication interventions with visually impairments children: A case study. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 11(1), 91-105.

Brambring, M. (2001). Motor activity in children who are blind and partially sighted.  Visual Impairment Research, 3(1), 41-51.

Brambring, M., & Tröster, H. (1994). The assessment of cognitive development in blind infants and preschoolers. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88(1), 9-18.

Brown, M.W., & Hurd, C. (1942). The runaway bunny. New York: HarperCollins.

Brown, M.W., & Hurd, C. (1947). Goodnight moon. New York: HarperCollins.

Bus, A.G., Belsky, J., van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Crnic, K. (1997). Attachment and bookreading patterns: A study of mothers, fathers, and their toddlers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(1), 81-98.

Butler, D. (1979). Cushla and her books. Boston: Horn Book. Carol Hurst’s Children’s Literature Site. (1999). Expanded table of contents.

Retrieved March 14, 2005, from http://www.carolhurst.com/toc.html

Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63(4, Serial No. 255).

Carter, K.P. (2002). Speech development: What’s normal for your child might not be normal for mine. Pediatrics for Parents, 20(1), 3-4.

Castellano, C. (1999). Because books matter: Reading braille books with young blind children. Boston: National Braille Press.

Chen, D. (1995). Understanding and developing communication. In D. Chen & J.

Dote-Kwan (Eds.), Starting points: Instructional practices for young children whose multiple disabilities include visual impairment (pp. 57-72). Los Angeles: Blind Childrens Center.

Chen, D. (1996). Parent-infant communication: Early intervention for very young children with visual impairment or hearing loss. Infants and Young Children, 9(2), 1-12.

Chen, D. (1999). Beginning communication with infants. In D. Chen (Ed.), Essential elements in early intervention: Visual impairment and multiple disabilities (pp. 337-377). New York: AFB Press.

Chen, D. (1999). Interactions between infants and caregivers: The context for early intervention. In D. Chen (Ed.), Essential elements in early intervention: Visual impairment and multiple disabilities (pp. 22-54). New York: AFB Press.

Chernus-Mansfield, N., Hayahi, D., & Kekelis, L. (1985). Talk to me II: Common concerns [Brochure]. Los Angeles: The Blind Childrens Center

Coleman, P.P.  (1991). Literacy lost: A qualitative analysis of the early literacy experiences of preschool children with severe speech and physical impairments.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Coleman, P.P. (1992/1993, Winter). Classroom observation checklist for literacy artifacts and events. Clinical Connection,12.

Conti-Ramsden, G., & Pérez-Pereira, M. (1999). Conversational interactions between mothers and their infants who are congenitally blind, have low vision, or are sighted. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 93(11), 691-703.

Council for Exceptional Children. (2000). National plan for training personnel to serve children with blindness and low vision. Reston, VA: Author.

Craig, C.J. (1996). Family support for the emergent literacy of children with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 90(3), 194-200.

Craig, S., Hull, K., Haggart, A.G., & Crowder, E. (2001). Storytelling: Addressing the literacy needs of diverse populations. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(5), 46-51.

Crimmins, D.B., Gothelf, C.R., Rowland, C., Stillman, R.D., Linam, A., &

Williams, C. (1995). Basic concepts of commmunication. In K.M. Huebner, J.G. Prickett, T.R. Welch, & E. Joffee (Eds.), Hand in hand: Essentials of communication and orientation and mobility for your students who are deaf-blind (Vol. 1, pp. 159-184). New York: AFB Press.

Curran, E. (1988). Just enough to know better: A braille primer. Boston, MA: National Braille Press.

Cutspec, P.A. (2004). Influences of dialogic reading on the language development of toddlers. Bridges, 2(2), 1-12.

DeBruin-Parecki, A. (1999). Assessing adult/child storybook reading practices. Retrieved March 8, 2005, from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement Web site: http://www.ciera.org/library/reports/inquiry-2/2-004/2-004.pdf

Degan, B. (1983). Jamberry. New York: HarperCollins.

DeMott, R.M. (1972). Verbalism and affective meaning for the blind, severely visually impaired, and normally sighted children. New Outlook for the Blind, 66(1), 1-8, 25.

DiCarlo, C., Banajee, M., & Stricklin, S.B. (2000). Embedding augmentative communication within early childhood classrooms. Young Exceptional Children, 3(3), 18-26.

Dimcovic, N., & Tobin, M.J. (1995). The use of language in simple classification tasks by children who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 89(5), 448-459.

Dodici, B.J., Draper, D.C., & Peterson, C.A. (2003). Early parent-child interactions and early literacy development. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23, 124-136.

Dote-Kwan, J., Chen, D., & Hughes, M. (2001). A national survey of service providers who work with young children with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(6), 331.

Drezek, W. (1999). Emergent braille literacy with move, touch, read. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 93, 104-108.

Duffy, G.G., & Hoffman, J.V. (1999). In pursuit of an illusion: The flawed search for a perfect method. The Reading Teacher, 53(1), 10-16.

Dunst, C.J. (1978). A cognitive-social approach for assessment of early nonverbal communicative behavior. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders, 2, 110-123.

Dunst, C.J. (2002). Family-centered practices: Birth through high school. Journal of Special Education, 36(3), 139-147.

Easterbrooks, S.R. (2003). Communication. In S.R. Hooper & W. Umansky (Eds.), Young children with special needs (4th ed., pp. 372-409). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

EIVI Training Center. (2002). Effective IFSP meetings [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8185, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8185)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Observational assessment of sensory preferences: Jasmine [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040 UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Alex and his mother look at books and play [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Alphabet awareness [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Assistive technology resources for very young children. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Austin: Social games [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Books for Patti: Choosing books for children with multiple impairments [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Communication and emergent literacy vignettes, Session 2. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Communication and emergent literacy vignettes, Session 3. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Communication and emergent literacy vignettes, Session 5. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Communication in young children with visual impairments [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Dialogic reading. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Distancing prompt: What is in your bedroom? [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Distancing prompt: Where do you go to play? [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Early access to braille books [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Early literacy routines. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Early reading experiences of a highly literate child[Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Emergent literacy skills for future braille readers.Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Environmental print [Video clip]. (Available fromEarly Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Interacting during daily routines [Video clip].(Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Matching communication [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Michaela at preschool [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Millie Smith: Early cognitive, communicative, and motor skills impact language and literacy [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Millie Smith: Object symbols and first books [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Millie Smith—Quality of life and emergent literacy [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Missions and roles for professionals with expertise in communication and language development. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). A model of oral and written language development. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Mother-child storybook reading [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Mother-infant communication [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Nonlinguistic/prelinguistic conversation between infant and mother [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Observation and interview of literacy artifacts and events for young children with visual impairments. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Open-ended prompt: Saying goodnight [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Preview of Five Little Ducks [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Principles of communication and language intervention. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Rhyming with The Maestro Plays [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Sierra: Real life experiences develop concepts [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Sources for print/braille books. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Storybook objects: Teddy bears [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Storybook objects: Toolbox [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Strategies to enhance motor/movement and development for literacy. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training         Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Suggested resources for families. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Takoda: Early communication of a child with multiple impairments  [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). TVIs provide support to families [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Using decontextualized language [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2005). Ways to make print “talk” to childen. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Erickson, K.A. (2000). All children are ready to learn: An emergent versus readiness perspective in early literacy assessment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 21, 193-202.

Erickson, K.A., & Koppenhaver, D.A. (1995). Developing a literacy program for children with severe disabilities. The Reading Teacher, 48(8), 676-684.

Erikson, M., & Berglund, E. (1999). Swedish early communicative development inventories: Words and gestures. First Language, 19(55, Pt. 1), 55-90.

Erin, J.N. (1986). Frequencies and types of questions in the language of visually impaired children. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 80(4), 670-674.

Erin, J.N. (1990). Language samples from visually impaired four- and five-year olds. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders, 13, 181-191.

Erwin, E.J. (1993). Social participation of young children with visual impairments in specialized and integrated environments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88(2), 132-139.

Fazzi, D.L., & Klein, M.D. (2002). Cognitive focus: Developing cognition, concepts, and language. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 107-153). New York: AFB Press. 

Feldman, R., & Greenbaum, C.W. (1997). Affect regulation and synchrony in mother-infants play as precursors to the development of symbolic competence. Infant Mental Health Journal, 18(1), 4-23.

Ferrell, K.A. (1985). Reach out and teach: Meeting the training needs of parents of visually and multiply handicapped young children. New York: AFB Press.

Ferrell, K.A. (1996). Your child’s development. In M.C. Holbrook (Ed.), Children with visual impairments: A parents’ guide (pp. 73-96). Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Ferrell, K.A. (1998). Project PRISM: A longitudinal study of developmental patterns of children who are visually impaired: Final report. Greeley: University of Northern Colorado.

Field, E.I. (2005). Suggestions for caregivers of children with echolalia. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Fleming, D. (1991). In the small, small pond. New York: Henry Holt.

Fraiberg, S. (1977). Insights from the blind: Comparative studies of blind and sighted infants. New York: Basic Books.

Gard, A., Gilman, L., & Gorman, J. (1993). Speech and language development chart (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Glazer, S.M. (1989). Oral language and literacy development. In D.S. Strickland & L.M. Morrow (Eds.), Theory and practice of early reading (Vol. 1, pp. 137-154). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gosch, A., Brambring, M., Gennat, H., & Rohlmann, A. (1997). Longitudinal study of neuropsychological outcome in blind extremely-low-birthweight children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 39(5), 297-304, 313-318.

Hala, S. (Ed.) (1997). The development of social cognition. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.

Hanline, M.F. (2001). Supporting emergent literacy in play-based activities. Young Exceptional Children, 4(4), 10-15.

Harley, R.K., Truan, M.B., & Sanford, L.D. (1997). Communication skills for visually impaired learners: Braille, print, and listening skills for students who are visually impaired (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Harrell, L. (1992). Children’s vision concerns: Look beyond the eyes! Placerville, CA: L. Harrell Productions.

Harris, M., Barlow-Browne, F., & Chasin, J. (1995). The emergence of referential understanding: Pointing and the comprehension of object names. First Language, 15(43, Pt. 1), 19-34.

Harris, M., Jones, D., & Grant, J. (1984). The social-interactional context of maternal speech to infants: An explanation for the event-bound nature of early word use? First Language, 5(14, Pt. 2), 89-99.

Hatton, D.D. (2004). Empowering families of young children with visual impairments., 49(3), 15-20.

Hatton, D.D., Bailey, D.B., Burchinal, M.R., & Ferrell, K.A. (1997). Developmental growth curves of preschool children with vision impairments. Child Development, 68(5), 788-806.  

Hatton, D.D., McWilliam, R.A., & Winton, P.J. (2003). Family-centered practices for infants and toddlers with visual impairments. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Hatton, D.D., & Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment

Collaborative Group. (2001). Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment: First year results. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(7), 418-433.

Howes, C., & Wishard, A.G. (2004). Revisiting shared meaning: Looking through the lens of culture and linking shared pretend play through proto-narrative development to emergent literacy. In E.F. Zigler, D.G. Singer, & S.J. Bishop-Josef (Eds.), Children’s play: The roots of reading (pp. 143-158). Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press.

Huebner, C.E. (2000). Community-based support for preschool readiness among children in poverty. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 5(3), 291-314.

Hussey-Gardner, B. (1996). Understanding my signals [Brochure]. Palo Alto, CA: VORT Corporation. 

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, H.R. 1350, (2004).

International Reading Association, & National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1998). Learning to read and write: Developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Young Children, 53(4), 30-46.

Jan, J.E., Sykanda, A.M., & Groenveld, M. (1990). Habilitation and rehabilitation of visually impaired and blind children. Pediatrician, 17(3), 202-207.

Jesien, G., & Tuchman, L. (1991). Mission, roles, and working environments for professionals from eleven key disciplines. University of Wisconsin: Waisman Center. Carolina Conference on Infant Personnel Preparation. (1988). Georgetown Marbury Hotel, Washington, D.C.

Justice, L.M., & Kaderavek, J.N. (2003). Topic control during shared storybook reading: Mothers and their children with language impairments. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23(3), 137-150.

Justice, L.M., & Pullen, P.C. (2003). Promising interventions for promoting emergent literacy skills: Three evidence-based approaches. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23(3), 93-113. 

Kaderavek, J.N., & Justice, L.M. (2000). Children with LD as emergent readers: Bridging the gap to conventional reading. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36(2), 82-93.

Kaderavek, J.N., & Sulzby, E. (1998). Parent-child joint book reading: An observational protocol for young children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 7(1), 33-47.

Kaiser, A.P., Yoder, P.J., & Keetz, A. (1992). Evaluating milieu teaching. In S.F. Warren & J. Riechle (Eds.), Causes and effect in communication and language interventions (pp. 9-47). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Kasari, C., Freedman, S., & Paparela, T. (2001). Early intervention in autism: Joint attention and symbolic play. In L.M. Glidden (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 23, pp. 207-237). San Diego: Academic Press.

Katims, D.S. (2000). Literacy instruction for people with mental retardation: Historical highlights and contemporary analysis. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 35(1), 3-15.

Kekelis, L.S. (1992). A field study of a blind preschooler. In S.Z. Sacks (Ed.), The development of social skills by blind and visually impaired students (pp. 39-58). New York: AFB Press.

Kekelis, L.S., & Andersen, E.S. (1984). Family communication styles and language development. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 78(2), 54-65.

Kekelis, L.S., & Chernus-Mansfield, N. (1984). Talk to me: A language guide for parents of blind children [Brochure]. Los Angeles: The Blind Childrens Center.

Kekelis, L.S., & Prinz, P.M. (1996). Blind and sighted children with their mothers: The development of discourse skills. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 90(5), 423-436.

Kirk, D. (1999). Little Miss Spider. New York: Scholastic.

Klein, H.A. (2001). The world of words. Childhood Education, 77(4), 234-235.

Koenig, A.J. (1996). Growing into literacy. In M.C. Holbrook (Ed.), Children with visual impairments: A parents’ guide (pp. 227-255). Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Koenig, A.J., & Farrenkopf, C. (1997). Essential experiences to undergird the early development of literacy. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91(1), 14-25.

Koenig, A.J., & Holbrook, M.C. (1995). Learning media assessment of students with visual impairments: A resource guide for teachers (2nd ed.). Austin: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Koenig, A.J., & Holbrook, M.C. (2002). Literacy focus: Developing skills and motivation for reading and writing. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 154-187). New York: AFB Press.

Koppenhaver, D.A. (2000). Literacy in AAC: What should be written on the envelope we push? AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 16, 270-279.

Koppenhaver, D.A., Coleman, P.P., Kalman, S.L., & Yoder, D.E. (1991). The implications of emergent literacy research for children with developmental disabilities. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 1, 329-335.

Koppenhaver, D.A., Erickson, K.A., Harris, B., McLellan, J., Skotko, B.G., & Newton, R.A. (2001). Storybook-based communication intervention for girls with Rett syndrome and their mothers. Disability and Rehabilitation, 23, 149-159.

Koppenhaver, D.A., Pierce, P.L., Steelman, J.D., & Yoder, D.E. (1995). Contexts of early literacy intervention for children with developmental disabilities. In M.E. Fey, J. Windsor, & S.F. Warren (Eds.), Language intervention: Preschool through the elementary years (pp. 241-274). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Kuhl, P.K., & Meltzoff, A.N. (1984). The intermodal representation of speech in infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 7(3), 361-381.

Kuhl, P.K., Williams, K.A., & Meltzoff, A.N. (1991). Cross-modal speech perception in adults and infants using nonspeech auditory stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17(3), 829-840.

Lane, S.J., & Mistrett, S. (2002). Let’s play! Assistive technology interventions for play.Young Exceptional Children, 5(2), 19-27.

Lawhon, T., & Cobb, J.B. (2002). Routines that build emergent literacy skills in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 30(2), 113-118.

Lewis, S., & Tolla, J. (2003). Creating and using tactile experience books for young children with visual impairments. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(3), 22-28.

Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (1993). Literacy and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC): The expectations and priorities of parents and teachers.  Topics in Language Disorders, 13(2), 33-46.

Light, J., & Smith, A.K. (1993). Home literacy experiences of preschoolers who use AAC systems and of their nondisabled peers. AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 9(1), 10-25.

Lu, M. (2000). The social root of language development (Report No. EDO-CS-00 05). Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication. (ERIC Digest D154)

Mahoney, G., & Powell, A. (1988). Modifying parent-child interaction: Enhancing the development of handicapped children. Journal of Special Education, 22(1), 82-96.

Malone, D.M., & Langone, J. (1999). Teaching object-related play skills to preschool children with developmental concerns. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 46(3), 325-336.

Markus, J., Mundy, P., Morales, M., Delgado, C.E.F., & Yale, M. (2000). Individual differences in infant skills as predictors of child-caregiver joint attention and language. Social Development, 9(3), 302-315.

Martin, B., & Radunsky, V. (1994). The maestro plays. New York: Henry Holt.

Marvin, C. (1994). Home literacy experiences of preschool children with single and multiple disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 94, 436-455.

Marvin, C., & Mirenda, P. (1993). Home literacy experiences of preschoolers enrolled in Head Start and special education programs. Journal of Early Intervention, 17(4), 351-367.

Mason, J.M., & Stewart, J.P. (1990). Emergent literacy assessment for instructional use in kindergarten. In L.M. Morrow & J.K. Smith (Eds.), Assessment for instruction in early literacy (pp. 155-175). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

McCathren, R.B., & Allor, J.H. (2002). Using storybooks with preschool children: Enhancing language and emergent literacy. Young Exceptional Children, 5(4), 3-10.

McCathren, R.B., Yoder, P.J., & Warren, S.F. (1999). The relationship between prelinguistic vocalization and later expressive vocabulary in young children with developmental delay. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42(4), 915-924.

McComiskey, A.V. (1996). The braille readiness skills grid: A guide to building a foundation for literacy. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 90(3), 190-193.

McConachie, H.R. (1990). Early language development and severe visual impairment. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 16(1), 55-61.

McConachie, H.R., & Moore, V. (1994). Early expressive language of severely visually impaired children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 36(3), 230-240.

McGaha, C.G., & Farran, D.C. (2001). Interactions in an inclusive classroom: The effects of visual status and setting. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(2), 80-94.

McGee, L.M., & Richgels, D.L. (2000). Literacy’s beginnings: Supporting young readers and writers (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

McLane, J.B., & McNamee, G.D. (1991). The beginnings of literacy. Zero to Three, 12(1), 1-8.

McWilliam, R.A. (2003). Routines-based assessment. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-Chapel Hill.

McWilliam, R.A. (2005). DEC recommended practices: Interdisciplinary models: Introduction. In S. Sandall, M.L. Hemmeter, B. Smith, & M.E. McLean (Eds.), DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education (pp. 127-128). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Melmed, L.K. (1993). I love you as much . . . New York: William Morrow & Company.

Miller, D.D. (1985). Reading comes naturally: A mother and her blind child’s experiences. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 79, 1-4.

Minde, K. (2000). Prematurity and serious medical conditions in infancy: Implications for development, behavior, and intervention. In C.H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed., pp. 176-194). New York: Guilford Press. 

Minton, C. (1969). Sex differences in generality and continuity of verbal responsivity. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 4(Pt. 1), 263-264.

Moore, V., & McConachie, H. (1994). Communication between blind and severely visually impaired children and their parents. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12(4), 491-502.

Morgan, L., & Goldstein, H. (2004). Teaching mothers of low socioeconomic status to use decontextualized language during storybook reading. Journal of Early Intervention, 26(4), 235-252.

Morrow, L.M. (2000). Literacy development in the early years: Helping children read and write (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Muñoz, M.L. (1998). Language assessment and intervention with children who have visual impairments. Austin: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Murphy, J.L. (2005). Facilitating motor skills in outdoor settings. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Murphy, J.L. (2005). Literacy-enriched play. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Murphy, J.L. (2005). Movement in nature. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Murphy, J.L. (2005). Shared storytelling. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Murphy, J.L. (2005). Topics in early childhood literature. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Murphy, M., & Abbeduto, L. (2005). Indirect genetic effects and the early language development of children with genetic mental retardation syndromes: The role of joint attention. Infants and Young Children, 18(1), 47-59.

Nagaishi, P. (1993). Motor development. In Blind Childrens Center (Ed.), First steps: A handbook for teaching young children who are visually impaired (pp. 99-114). Los Angeles: Editor.

National Center for Family Literacy. (2003). National center for family literacy. Retrieved May 24, 2004, from http://www.famlit.org/

Neisworth, J.T., & Bagnato, S.J. (2005). DEC recommended practices: Assessment: Introduction. In S. Sandall, M.L. Hemmeter, B.J. Smith, & M.E. McLean (Eds.), DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education (pp. 45-46). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Neuman, S.B. (1996). Children engaging in storybook reading: The influence of access to print resources, opportunity, and parental interaction. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 11, 495-513.

Newbold, S. (2000). Emergent literacy for young blind children. Phoenix, AZ: The Foundation for Blind Children.

Norris, J.A., & Damico, J.S. (1990). Whole language in theory and practice: Implications for language intervention. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 21(4), 212-220.

Ortiz, C., Stowe, R.M., & Arnold, D.H. (2001). Parental influence on child interest in shared picture book reading. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 16, 263-281.

Owens, R.E. (2001). Language development: An introduction (5th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Palazesi, M.A. (1986). The need for motor development programs for visually impaired preschoolers. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 80(2), 573-576.

Pan, B.A., & Gleason, J.B. (1997). Semantic development: Learning the meanings of words. In J.B. Gleason (Ed.), The development of language (4th ed., pp. 122-158). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Paparella, T., & Kasari, C. (2004). Joint attention skills and language development in special needs populations: Translating research to practice. Infants and Young Children, 17(3), pp. 269-280.

Parlakian, R. (2004). Early literacy and very young children. Zero to Three, 25(1), 37-44.

Parsons, S. (1986). Function of play in low vision children (part 2): Emerging patterns of behavior. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 80(6), 777-784.

Payne, A.C., Whitehurst, G.J., & Angell, A.L. (1994). The role of home literacy environment in the development of language ability in preschool children from low-income families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9(3-4), 427-440.

Pebly, M., & Koppenhaver, D.A. (2001). Emergent and early literacy interventions for students with severe communication impairments. Seminars in Speech and Language, 22, 221-230. 

Pérez-Pereira, M., & Castro, J. (1992). Pragmatic functions of blind and sighted children’s language: A twin case study. First Language, 12(34, pt. 1), 17-37.

Pérez-Pereira, M., & Castro, J. (1997). Language acquisition and the compensation of visual deficit: New comparative data on a controversial topic. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15(4), 439-459.

Pierce, P.L., Catlett, C., & Winton, P.J. (2003). Resources within reason. Young Exceptional Children, 6(4), 28-29.

Pierce, P.L., & McWilliam, P.J. (1993). Emerging literacy and children with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI): Issues and possible intervention strategies. Topics in Language Disorders, 13(2), 47-57.

Preisler, G.M. (1991). Early patterns of interaction between blind infants and their sighted mothers. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 17(2), 65-90.

Preisler, G.M. (1993). A descriptive study of blind children in nurseries with sighted children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 19(5), 295-315.

Preisler, G.M. (1997). Social and emotional development of blind children: A longitudinal study. In V. Lewis & G.M. Collis (Eds.), Blindness and psychological development in young children (pp. 69-85). Leicester, U.K.: British Psychological Society.

Prickett, J.G. (1995). Manual and spoken communication. In K.M. Huebner, J.G.

Prickett, T.R. Welch, & E. Joffee (Eds.), Hand in hand: Essentials of communication and orientation and mobility for your students who are deaf-blind (Vol. 1, pp. 261-288). New York: AFB Press.

Prizant, B.M., & Meyer, E.C. (1993). Socioemotional aspects of language and social communication disorders in young children and their families. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 3, 197-211.

Prizant, B.M., & Rydell, P.J. (1993). Assessment and intervention considerations for unconventional verbal behavior. In J. Reichle & D.P. Wacker (Eds.), Communicative alternatives to challenging behavior: Integrating functional assessment and intervention strategies (pp. 263-297). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Prizant, B.M., Wetherby, A.M., & Roberts, J.E. (2000). Communication problems. In C.H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed., pp. 282-297). New York: Guilford Press.

Raab, M. (2003). Relationship between types of toys and young children’s social behavior [Electronic version]. Bridges, 1(5), 1-13.

Recchia, S.L. (1987). Learning to play: Common concerns for the visually impaired preschool child. Los Angeles: Blind Childrens Center.

Recchia, S.L. (1997). Play and concept development in infants and young children with severe visual impairments: A constructivist view. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91(4), 401-406.

Recchia, S.L. (1997). Social communication and response to ambiguous stimuli in toddlers with visual impairments. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18(3), 297-316.

Reinhartsen, D.B., Edmonson, R., & Crais, E.R. (1997). Developing assistive technology strategies for infants and toddlers with communication difficulties. Seminars in Speech and Language, 18(2), 283-301.

Rettig, M. (1994). The play of young children with visual impairments: Characteristics and interventions. Journal of Visual Impairment &     Blindness, 88(5), 410-420.

Rex, E.J., Koenig, A.J., Wormsley, D.P., & Baker, R.L. (1994). Foundations of braille literacy. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Robinson, J.L., & Acevedo, M.C. (2001). Infant reactivity and reliance on mother during emotion challenges: Prediction of cognition and language skills in a low-income sample. Child Development, 72(2), 402-415.

Rogers, S.J., & Puchalski, C.B. (1984). Development of symbolic play in visually impaired young children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 3(4), 57-63.

Rogers, S.J., & Puchalski, C.B. (1984). Social characteristics of visually impaired infants’ play. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 3(4), 52-56.

Rogers, S.J., & Puchalski, C.B. (1986). Social smiles of visually impaired infants. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 80(7), 863-865.

Roper, N., & Dunst, C.J. (2003). Communication intervention in natural learning environments: Guidelines for practice. Infants and Young Children, 16(3), 215-226.

Rosenkoetter, S.E., & Barton, L.R. (2002). Bridges to literacy: Early routines that promote later school success. Zero to Three, 33-38.

Rosenkoetter, S.E., & Knapp-Philo, J. (2004). Learning to read the world: Literacy in the first 3 years. Zero to Three, 25(1), 4-9.

Rosetti, L.M. (1997). Happy talking: Understanding and promoting a child’s communication development. The Exceptional Parent, 27(2), 22-23.

Roskos, K.A., Christie, J.F., & Richgels, D.J. (2003). The essentials of early literacy instruction. Young Children, 58(2), 52-62.

Roskos, K.A., Tabors, P.O., & Lenhart, L.A. (2004). Oral language and early literacy in preschool: Talking, reading, and writing. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Roth, F.P., & Baden, B. (2001). Investing in emergent literacy intervention: A key role for speech-language pathologists. Seminars in Speech and Language, 22(3), 163-173.

Rowland, C. (1984). Preverbal communication of blind infants and their mothers. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 78(7), 297-302.

Rowland, C., & Schweigert, P.D. (1998). Enhancing the acquisition of functional language and communication. In S.Z. Sacks & R.K. Silberman (Eds.), Educating students who have visual impairments with other disabilities (pp. 413-438). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Rowland, C., & Schweigert, P.D. (2000). Generic intervention goals. In C.

Rowland & P.D. Schweigert (Eds.), Communication development and teaching strategies for children with severe and multiple disabilities: Presymbolic communication and tangible symbol systems (p. 7). Portland: Oregon Health and Science University Design to Learn Projects.

Rowland, C., & Schweigert, P.D. (2000). Presymbolic communication: Key elements of individualized instruction. In C. Rowland & P.D. Schweigert (Eds.), Communication development and teaching strategies for children with severe and multiple disabilities: Presymbolic communication and tangible symbol systems (p. 8). Portland: Oregon Health and Science University Design to Learn Projects.

Rowland, C., & Schweigert, P.D. (2000). Seven levels of communicative competence. In Communication development and teaching strategies for children with severe and multiple disabilities: Presymbolic communication and tangible symbol systems (p. 2). Portland: Oregon Health and Science University Design to Learn Projects.

Rowland, C., Schweigert, P.D., & Prickett, J.G. (1995). Commmunication systems, devices, and modes. In K.M. Huebner, J.G. Prickett, T.R. Welch, & E. Joffee (Eds.), Hand in hand: Essentials of communication and orientation and mobility for your students who are deaf-blind (Vol. 1, pp. 219-260). New York: AFB Press.

Rowland, C., & Stremel-Campbell, K. (1987). Share and share alike: Conventional gestures to emergent language for learners with sensory impairments. In L. Goetz, D. Guess, & K. Stremel-Campbell (Eds.), Innovative program design for individuals with dual sensory impairments (pp. 49-75). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Sachs, J. (1997). Communication development in infancy. In J.B. Gleason (Ed.),  The development of language (4th ed., pp. 40-68). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Sandall, S., Hemmeter, M.L., Smith, B., & McLean, M.E. (Eds.). (2005). DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Sapp, W.K. (2001). Maternal perceptions of preverbal communication in children with visual impairments. RE:view, 33(3), 133-144.

Sapp, W.K. (2003). Communication and emergent literacy vignettes, Session 4. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp, W.K. (2005). Abbreviated sequence of typical language development. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp, W.K. (2005). Communication and emergent literacy vignettes, Session 1. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp, W.K. (2005). Examples of adaptive and nonadaptive transactional interactions that impact communication development. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp, W.K. (2005). Five components of language and the impact of visual impairments. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp, W.K. (2005). Naturalistic intervention strategies. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp, W.K. (2005). Stages of nonlinguistic/prelinguistic communication development. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Saxon, T.F., Colombo, J., Robinson, E.L., & Frick, J.E. (2000). Dyadic interaction profiles in infancy and preschool intelligence. Journal of School Psychology, 38(1), 9-25.

Schore, A.N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neu­robiology of emotional development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sénéchal, M., & LeFevre, J. (2001). Storybook reading and parent teaching: Links to language and literacy development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 92, 39–52.

Sénéchal, M., LeFevre, J., Smith-Chant, B.L., & Colton, K.V. (2001). On refining theoretical models of emergent literacy: The role of empirical evidence. Journal of School Psychology 39(5), 439-460.

Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Skellenger, A.C., & Hill, E.W. (1994). Effects of a shared teacher-child play intervention on the play skills of three young children who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88(5), 433-445.

Skellenger, A.C., Rosenblum, L.P., & Jager, B.K. (1997). Behaviors of preschoolers with visual impairments in indoor play settings. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91(6), 519-530.

Skotko, B.G., Koppenhaver, D.A., & Erickson, K.A. (2004). Parent reading behaviors and communication outcomes in girls with Rett syndrome. Exceptional Children, 70(2), 145-166.

Smith, M., & Bishop, V. (2005). Millie Smith: Communication and emergent literacy. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Smith, M., & Bishop, V. (2005). Quality of life and emergent literacy. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Smith, M., & Levack, N. (1996). Teaching students with visual and multiple impairments: A resource guide. Austin: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Snow, C.E., Nathan, D., & Perlman, R. (1985). Assessing children’s knowledge about book-reading. In L. Galda & A. Pellegrini (Eds.), Play, language, and stories: The development of children’s literate behavior (pp. 167-181). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Sonksen, P.M., Levitt, S., & Kitzinger, M. (1984). Identification of constraints acting on motor development in young disabled children and principles of remediation. Child: Care, Health & Development, 10, 273-286.

Stern, D.N. (2000). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York: Basic Books.

Stratton, J.M. (1996). Emergent literacy: A new perspective. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 90, 177-183.

Stremel, K. (2005). DEC recommended practices: Technology application: Introduction. In S. Sandall, M.L. Hemmeter, B. Smith, & M.E. McLean (Eds.), DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education (p. 147). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Striano, T., & Rochat, P. (1999). Developmental link between dyadic and triadic social competence in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17(4), 551-562.

Strickland, D.S., & Barnett, W.S. (2003). Literacy interventions for preschool children considered at risk: Implications for curriculum, professional development, and parent involvement. In C.M. Fairbanks, J. Worthy, B. Maloch, J.V. Hoffman, & D.C. Schallert (Eds.), National Reading Conference Yearbook (Edition 2003, pp. 104-116). Oak Creek, WI: National Reading Conference, Inc.

Strickland, D.S., & Shanahan, T. (2004). Laying the groundwork for literacy. Educational Leadership, 61(6), 74-77.

Strickling, C.A., & Pogrund, R.L. (2002). Motor focus: Promoting movement experiences and motor development. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 287-325). New York: AFB Press.

Swenson, A.M. (1999). Beginning with braille: Firsthand experiences with a balanced approach to literacy. New York: AFB Press.

Swenson, A.M., & D’Andrea, F.M. (2003). Resources and information for parents about braille. Retrieved June 7, 2004, from American Foundation for the Blind Web site: http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=6&TopicID=97&DocumentID=1252

Tager-Flusberg, H. (1997). Putting words together: Morphology and syntax in the preschool years. In J.B. Gleason (Ed.), The development of language (4th ed., pp. 159-209). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Tait, P. (1972). Behavior of young blind children in a controlled play session. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 34(3), 963-969.

Tait, P. (1972). A descriptive analysis of the play of young blind children. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 4(1), 12-15.

Teale, W.H. (1986). Home background and young children’s literacy development. In W.H. Teale & E. Sulzby (Eds.), Emergent literacy: Writing and reading (pp. 173-206). Norwood, NJ: ABLEX.

Teale, W.H., & Sulzby, E. (1986). Emergent literacy as a perspective for examining how young children become writers and readers. In W.H. Teale and E. Sulzby (Eds.), Emergent literacy: Writing and reading (pp. vii-xxv). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Teale, W.H., & Sulzby, E. (Eds.). (1986). Emergent literacy: Writing and reading. Norwood, NJ: ABLEX.

Teale, W.H., & Sulzby, E. (1989). Emergent literacy: New perspectives on young children's reading and writing development. In D. Strickland & L. Morrow (Eds.), Emerging literacy: Young children learn to read and write (pp. 1-15). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Tomasello, M. (1992). The social bases for language development. Social Development, 1, 67-87.

Topor, I., Rosenblum, L.P., & Hatton, D.D. (2004). Functional vision assessment and developmentally appropriate learning media assessment. In I. Topor, L.P. Rosenblum, & D.D. Hatton (Eds.), Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues (pp. 279-386). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Topor, I., Rosenblum, L.P., & Hatton, D.D. (2004). Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Trivette, C.M., & Dunst, C.J. (2005). DEC recommended practices: Family-based practices: Introduction. In S. Sandall, M.L. Hemmeter, B.J. Smith, & M.E. McLean (Eds.), DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education (p. 107). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Tröster, H., & Brambring, M. (1992). Early social-emotional development in blind infants. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 18(4), 207-227.

Tröster, H., & Brambring, M. (1993). Early motor development in blind infants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14(1), 83-106.

Tröster, H., & Brambring, M. (1994). The play behavior and play materials of blind and sighted infants and preschoolers. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88(5), 421-432.

Tröster, H., Hecker, W., & Brambring, M. (1994). Longitudinal study of gross motor development in blind infants and preschoolers. Early Child Development and Care, 104, 61-78.

Turnbull, A.P., & Turnbull, H.R. (2001). Building reliable alliances. In A.P. 

Turnbull & H.R. Turnbull, Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Collaboration for empowerment (4th ed., pp. 56-82). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Urwin, C. (1984). Language for absent things: Learning from visually handicapped children. Topics in Language Disorders, 4(4), 24-37.

Vedelsby, J. (1998). Naturborn trives bare bedst. Natur og Miljø, 4, 1-4.

Visually Impaired Preschool Services (Producer). (1991). Can do! Video two, Learning about the world: Concept development [Video]. (Available from Visually Impaired Preschool Services, 1229 Garvin Place, Louisville, KY 40203)

Visually Impaired Preschool Services (Producer). (1996). Can do! Video eight, Hands on experience: Tactual learning and skills [Video]. (Available from Visually Impaired Preschool Services, 1906 Goldsmith Lane, Louisville, KY 40218)

Warren, D.H. (1984). Blindness and early childhood development (2nd ed.). New York: AFB Press.

Warren, D.H., & Hatton, D. (2003). Cognitive development of children with visual impairments. In I. Rapin & S. Segalowitz (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 7, Part II. Child neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 439-458). New York: Elsevier.

Warren, S.F. (2000). The future of early communication and language intervention. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(1), 33-37.

Warren, S.F., & Gazdag, G. (1990). Facilitating early language development with milieu teaching procedures. Journal of Early Intervention, 14, 62-86.

Warren, S.F., & Yoder, P.J. (1998). Facilitating the transition from preintentional to intentional communication. In S.F. Warren & J. Reichle (Series Eds.) & A.M. Wetherby, S.F. Warren, & J. Reichle (Vol. Eds.), Communication and language intervention series: Vol. 7. Transitions in prelinguistic communication (pp. 365-384). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Warren, S.F., Yoder, P.J., & Leew, S.V. (2002). Promoting social-communicative development in infants and toddlers. In S.F. Warren & J. Reichle (Series Eds.) & H. Goldstein, L.A. Kaczmarek, & K.M. English (Vol. Eds.), Communication and language intervention series: Vol.10.  Promoting social communication: Children with developmental disabilities from birth to adolescence (pp. 121-149). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Weinberger, J. (1996). A longitudinal study of children’s early literacy experiences at home and later literacy development at home and school. Journal of Research in Reading, 19(1), 14-24.

Weitzman, E. (1995). Making literacy part of every day in child care [Electronic version]. Interaction, 9(1), 15-20.

Wetherby, A.M., & Prizant, B.M. (1999). Facilitating language and communication development in autism: Assessment and intervention guidelines. In D.E. Berkell Zager (Ed.), Autism identification, education, and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 107-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wetherby, A.M., Warren, S.F., & Reichle, J. (Vol. Eds.). (1998). Transitions in prelinguistic communication. In S.F. Warren & J. Reichle (Series Eds.), Communication and language intervention series (Vol. 7). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Wheeler, A.C., Hatton, D.H., Reichardt, A., & Bailey, D.B. (2005). Correlates of maternal behavior in mothers of children with fragile X syndrome. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Whitehurst, G.J., Epstein, J.N., Angell, A.L., Payne, A.C., Crone, D.A., & Fischel, J.E. (1994). Outcomes of emergent literacy intervention in Head Start. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(4), 542-555.

Whitehurst, G.J., Falco, F.L., Lonigan, J.E., Fischel, J.E., DeBaryshe, M.C.,

Valdez Menchaca, M.C., & Caulfield, M. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Developmental Psychology, 24, 552-559.   

Whitehurst, G.J., & Lonigan, C.J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69(3), 848–872.

Whitehurst, G.J., & Lonigan, C.J. (2002). Emergent literacy: Development from prereaders to readers. In S.B. Neuman & D.K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 11–29). New York: Guilford Press.

Williams, V.B. (1990). “More more more,” said the baby. New York: HarperCollins.

Wolery, M. (1994). Instructional strategies for teaching young children with special needs. In M. Wolery & J.S. Wilvers (Eds.), Including children with special needs in early childhood programs (pp. 119-150). New York: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Wolery, M. (2005). DEC recommended practices: Child-focused practices: Introduction. In S. Sandall, M.L. Hemmeter, B.J. Smith, & M.E. McLean (Eds.), DEC recommended practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application in early intervention/early childhood special education (p. 71). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Woods, J., Kashinath, S., & Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of embedding caregiver implemented teaching strategies in daily routines on children’s communication outcomes. Journal of Early Intervention, 26(3), 175-193.

Wormsley, D.P. (1997). Fostering emergent literacy. In D.P. Wormsley & F.M. D’Andrea (Eds.), Instructional strategies for braille literacy (pp. 17-55). New York: AFB Press.

Yoder, P.J., & Warren, S.F. (2002). Effects of prelinguistic milieu teaching and parent responsivity education on dyads involving children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 45, 1158-1174.

Yoder, P.J., Warren, S.F., Kim, K., & Gazdag, G.E. (1994). Facilitating prelinguistic communication skills in young children with developmental delay II: Systematic replication and extension. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37(4), 841-851.

Zeanah, C.H., & Boris, N.W. (2000). Disturbances and disorders of attachment in early childhood. In C.H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed., pp. 353-368). New York: Guilford Press.

Ziajka, A. (1981). Prelinguistic communication in infancy. New York: Praeger. 

Glossary

Abstract symbolic communication     Level of communicative competence at which children use few abstract symbols or one-word utterances to represent entities in the environment. Symbols are used primarily one at a time.

Acuity     Visual ability to resolve fine detail.

Alphabetic knowledge     Ability to name the letters of the alphabet based on their shapes. Also called “letter-name knowledge,” “knowledge of graphemes,” and “knowledge of letters.”

Anophthalmia     Absence of the globe and ocular tissue from the orbit of one or both eyeballs (most individuals have some remnants of the globe). Sometimes associated with multiple congenital malformations.

Antecedent strategy     Technique for developing echolalia into more advanced forms of language. Antecedent strategy involves modifying environments that are known to produce echolalia, simplifying language input, and providing relevant language as a model.

Assessment     Formal or informal evaluation that provides information about the child’s developmental or functional status.

Assistive technology     Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabili­ties of children with disabilities. Assistive technology service refers to a service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.

Attachment     Formation of significant and stable emotional connections with the important persons in a child’s life. The attachment process begins in early infancy as the child bonds with one or more primary caregivers.

Attentive stillness     Act of staying motionless to better attend to a situation. Attentive stillness can be a form of subtle nonverbal communication.

Atypical development     State-specified criterion for children whose qual­ity of functioning is not the same as typically developing peers even though no delay is evident through testing.

Audiologist     Professional trained to identify and evaluate deafness and hearing impairments as early in life as possible and to provide and direct the audiology services necessary for the successful use of hearing for learning, communication, and social development.

Auditory cue     Stimulus that can be heard and that provides access to information about the environment.

Auditory system     Sensory organs responsible for hearing; made up of the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, brainstem, and brain.

Augmentative or alternative communication (AAC)     Use of devices or techniques to facilitate children’s expressive or receptive communication. AAC may include the use of unaided modes of communication such as body language, gestures, sign language, and facial expressions; or the use of use high- or low-tech devices that require the child to use his or her body to activate a tool for communication.

Behavior regulation     Function of communication that involves an action intended to guide or control another person’s behavior for purposes of requesting or rejecting objects or actions.

Bilateral     Having or affecting two sides.

Blindness     Condition of lacking the sense of sight. Total blindness and legal blindness are different categories of blindness. Legal blindness includes many people with some degree of vision.

Braille     System of embossed characters formed by a matrix of six dots consisting of two vertical columns of three dots each called a braille cell. Braille characters are formed by one or more dots and occupy a full cell.

Braille-print book     Book that includes both braille and print.

Braillewriter     Machine used for producing braille. A braillewriter has six basic keys, one for each dot in the braille cell. It also has space, line-advance, and back-space keys.

Central nervous system      Main information-processing organs of the body, consisting of the brain and spinal cord. Nerve cells in the brain affect mental activity and consciousness; those in the spine affect organs and muscles.

Cerebral palsy     Disorder of posture and movement resulting from brain damage.

Classification     Creation and manipulation of categories of events and information. For children, classification is the ability to form conceptual groups and to recognize that members of a given conceptual group share some attributes but not others. Children also learn that various concepts are subordinate or superordinate to one another. For example, dogs are animals, but not all animals are dogs.

Clinical low vision specialist     Trained professional who tests for visual acuity and visual field, introduces patients to near and distance viewing low-vision devices, and recommends adaptations to patients’ home and work environments.

Closed circuit television (CCTV)     Stand-mounted or handheld video camera that projects a magnified image onto a television monitor.

Coloboma     Congenital malformation in which part of the eye—the choroid, iris, lens, optic nerve, or retina—does not form due to failure of fusion of the intraocular fissure (fetal tissue). A coloboma can occur as an isolated defect or it can be part of a multiple congenital malformation, such as the cat-eye syndrome, aniridia-Wilms tumor association, or trisomy 13.  Associated with decreased visual acuity, nystagmus, strabismus, photophobia, and loss of visual fields.

Collaboration     Style of family-centered practice in which all members of the team, including family members, work together in a supportive and cooperative manner to make decisions jointly.

Communication     Meaningful exchange of ideas, thoughts, wants, or desires with others.

Communicative competence     Range of abilities, skills, and knowledge necessary to engage in the meaningful exchanges of ideas, thoughts, wants, or desires with others.         

Communicative context     Situations and environments—usually the home, child care center, school, and community—within which communication and literacy develop. Communicative context includes linguistic and nonlinguistic interactions between children and adults. See Situational context, Sociocultural context.

Communicative exchange     Interaction between individuals during which a message is sent or received.

Communicative form      Behavior that can be used to send or receive a message.

Communicative function     Purpose served by the act of sending or receiving a message.

Compensatory skill     Ability of children with visual impairments to use alternative strategies for learning.

Concept     Abstract or generic idea generalized from particular instances.

Concrete symbolic communication     Level of communicative competence at which children begin to pair concrete symbolic representations with specific referents in the environment, such as making the sounds of an object (e.g., “vroom, vroom” for “car”) and depictive gestures (i.e., gestures that look like what they mean, such as patting the seat of a chair to indicate “sit”). The symbols are termed concrete because they share features with their referent.

Consequential strategy     Technique for developing echolalia into more advanced forms of language, in which the adult responds to the communicative intent while providing a simple model of appropriate language and providing positive reinforcement for appropriate language. 

Conservation     Understanding that certain objects, such as a quantity of liquid or weight, may stay the same even though it may appear different. For example, even though one glass is tall and narrow and another is short and wide, each contains 8 ounces of liquid.

Contingent responsivity     Caregivers’ ability to perceive infants’ signals and needs and respond to them quickly and appropriately.

Conventional literacy     Ability to write to convey meaning and read with comprehension. See Emergent literacy.

Conventional presymbolic communication     Level of communicative competence at which children use conventional gestures (e.g., pointing, waving, kissing, nodding) to affect caregivers’ behavior. At this stage, children also begin to use intonated sound patterns to express needs.

Conventions of print     Knowledge of standard text formats (e.g., that texts are read from left to right and from top to bottom; that books are read from front to back; etc.).

Corneal ulcer     Lesion on the cornea that is usually caused by an infection.

Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI)     Temporary or permanent visual impairment caused by a disturbance in the posterior visual pathways or the occipital lobe of the brain that results in the visual systems of the brain not consistently understanding or interpreting what the eyes see. Associated with fluctuating visual function, inattention to visual stimuli, light gazing, difficulty discriminating figure-ground, central or peripheral vision loss, scotomas, photophobia, and eccentric fixations.

Cruise     To walk along furniture or walls using one or two hands against a surface for support.

Current level of functioning     Statement, assessment scores, or report of a child’s cognitive, communication, motor, social-emotional, physical, and adaptive skills on the Individualized Family Service Plan.

Decontextualized language     Expression of ideas and concepts that are removed from the immediate situation or physical context.

Deictic gaze     Fixed, direct eye gaze used to draw attention to an object, event, person, etc

Developmentally appropriate learning media assessment (DALMA)     Systematic assessment of a young child’s sensory responses, abilities, and preferences; used to guide the intervention team in making informed and deliberate decisions to facilitate learning.

Developmental delay     Eligibility category for receiving early intervention services. IDEIA (2004) allows states to determine the criteria for developmental delay. Many states use a combination of percent­age delay or standard-deviation delay in a number of developmental domains, such as 1.5 standard deviations below the mean in one area or 1 standard deviation below the mean in two areas. The areas consid­ered are typically cognitive, motor, social-emotional, communication, and adaptive skills.

Dialogic reading     Shared-reading technique in which the adult assumes the role of an active listener and the child learns to become a storyteller. In dialogic reading, the adult reader asks questions, adds information, and prompts the child to increase the sophistication of descriptions of material in the book. The child’s responses are encouraged through praise and repetition.

Dual-media learner     Child who learns to read and write in both print and braille.

Dynamic balance     Ability to maintain body posture while the body is moving.

Early intervention     According to Part C of IDEIA (2004): developmental services that are provided under public supervision; are provided at no cost except where federal or state law provides for a system of payments by families, including a schedule of sliding fees; are designed to meet the developmental needs of an infant or toddler with a disability, as identified by the individualized family service plan team, in any 1 or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication development; social or emotional development; or adaptive development. Early intervention services must meet the standards of the state in which the services are provided and may include family training, counseling, and home visits; special instruction; speech-language pathology and audiology services, and sign language and cued language services; occupational therapy; physical therapy; psychological services; service coordination services; medical services only for diagnostic or evaluation purposes; early identification, screening, and assessment services; health services necessary to enable the infant or toddler to benefit from the other early intervention services; social work services; vision services; assistive technology devices and assistive technology services; and transportation and related costs that are necessary to enable an infant or toddler and the infant's or toddler's family to receive service. Early intervention services are provided by qualified personnel, including special educators; speech-language pathologists and audiologists; occupational therapists; physical therapists; psychologists; social workers; nurses; registered dietitians; family therapists; vision specialists, including ophthalmologists and optometrists; orientation and mobility specialists; and pediatricians and other physicians. To the maximum extent appropriate, early intervention services are provided in natural environments, including the home, and community settings in which children without disabilities participate; and are provided in conformity with an individualized family service plan.

Early interventionist     Person who works with infants and young children with developmental delays or disabilities, or who are at risk of developmental
problems, and their families. Though early interventionists may have different kinds
of professional training, they all have work experience or special training in helping young children with disabilities and their families. 

Eccentric fixation     Compensatory process, such as turning the head, by which an individual establishes focus on an area of the retina other than the fovea.

Eccentric viewing      See Eccentric fixation.

Echolalia     Repetition of previously heard language.

Emergent literacy     Developmental process that begins at birth in which children acquire the skills and knowledge that are the foundation for later reading and writing. Key components of emergent literacy are oral language, including listening comprehension, vocabulary, and narrative knowledge; phonological awareness; concept development; knowledge of the conventions of print and print intentionality; alphabetic knowledge; and environmental factors. See Emergent reading, Emergent writing.

Emergent reading     Behaviors that precede the mastery of reading, such as pretending to read and recognizing environmental print. (Before children can read, they can often recognize labels, signs, etc.) See Emergent literacy, Emergent writing.

Emergent writing     Behaviors that precede the mastery of writing, such as scribbling (pretending to write); learning to write letters; spelling phonetically; and engaging in invented spelling. See Emergent literacy, Emergent reading.

Environmental print     Written words, such as those on street signs, billboards, labels, and business signs, found in an individual’s everyday surroundings.

Expressive communication     Act of sending a message to someone else; ability to share ideas, thoughts, wants, and desires. See Receptive communication.

Extension     Act of moving the two ends of a jointed body part away from each other, as in the straightening of an arm.     

Facilitation     Style of interaction that promotes meaningful communication through following the child’s lead, encouraging a variety of child contributions, and responding with communications that are similar in length to those of the child.

Family centered     Style of practice in which all activities, including assess­ments and interventions, focus on the families’ strengths, priorities, and desired outcomes. Individuals and programs that are family centered recognize and honor diversity, and recognize that family members are the child’s primary teachers, sources of nurturance, lifelong advocates, and key decision makers.

Fine motor     Pertaining to small muscle movements, especially in the hands, used for manipulation of objects.

Finger dexterity     Skill and ease in using the fingers.

Fixate     To coordinate eye movements in order to focus an image on the fovea.

Flexion     Act of moving the two ends of a jointed body part closer to each other, as in the bending of the arm.

Formal symbolic communication     Level of communicative competence at which children begin to understand the semantic and syntactic rules of conventional language. At this stage, children may begin to combine two or more words to communicate and to change word order to change meaning.

Functionality      Usefulness of an outcome. For very young children, functionality promotes engagement, independence, and social relationships in daily routines.

Functional illiteracy     Inability to use reading, writing, and computational skills in daily life.

Functional outcome      Desired goal on an individualized family service plan (IFSP) that is based on family priorities gained through the routines-based assessment and the results of assessments completed by professionals from at least two disciplines. For example, if independent play is a family priority, a functional outcome might be a 3-minute period in which the child interacts with a toy without adult involvement.

Functional task     Activity that is meaningful to a child and family and that promotes children’s engagement, independence, and social interactions.              

Functional vision     Degree of vision sufficient to perform some or all daily activities.

Functional vision assessment (FVA)     Systematic observation and assessment of visual and sensory behaviors to determine how individuals use vision in different activities and environments.

General nominal     Noun that refers to a class of objects.

Gestational age     Age of a fetus as measured by time since fertilization of the egg.

Gestural mode     Use of nonlinguistic movements of the body to send a message.

Gesture     Movement of the body used to send a message.

Glaucoma     Condition caused by excessive buildup of fluid inside the eye that puts pressure on the retina and causes damage to the retina and the optic nerve. Associated with fluctuating vision, peripheral field loss, poor night vision, photophobia, pain, and headaches.

Good fairy syndrome     Misconception, shared by some infants and toddlers with visual impairments, that objects appear out of, and disappear into, nowhere. The good fairy syndrome arises from the tendency of some adult caregivers to place objects into, and remove objects from, children’s hands.

Grammar     System of rules that govern a language. Grammar is made up of phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.

Grapheme     Smallest symbol that functions as a unit in a system of writing. Usually used in reference to letters of the alphabet, graphemes may also include numerals, diacriticals, punctuation marks, etc.

Graphemic awareness     Ability to discriminate among the smallest units of print (i.e., the letters of the alphabet).

Gross motor     Pertaining to large-muscle movements or skills, such as movements used to ambulate (roll, crawl, walk, and so on) from one place to another.

Gustatory system     Sensory organs responsible for the five primary taste sensations: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami (savory); made up of receptor cells in the tastebuds of the tongue; sensory neurons; and the brainstem. The gustatory system can play a role in arousal and alertness.

Hand-under-hand modeling     Strategy in which an adult places his or her hand under the child’s to facilitate a task.

Hyperextension     Act of moving the two ends of a jointed body part away from each other beyond the normal limit.

Idiosyncratic behavior     Manner of acting that is unique to an individual.

Incidental teaching     Intervention strategy that uses naturally occurring communication and learning opportunities during daily routines and play to take advantage of children’s interests and attentional focus. For example, the adult may wait for the child to initiate an interaction, then ask the child to elaborate by saying “Tell me more” or “What about ___?” The adult may further elaborate on the topic or may model how to elaborate for the child.

Individualized family service plan (IFSP)     Written plan for providing early intervention services to a child eligible under IDEIA 2004, Part C, and the child’s family.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA 2004)     Federal legislation that mandates a free and appropriate education for children with identified disabilities between 3 and 21 years of age and provides guidance for early intervention services for children ages birth to 3 years in Part C.

Intentional behaviors     Level of communicative competence at which children engage in actions (e.g., waving the arms) that have purpose but are not consciously designed to communicate a message. Caregivers’ interpretations of these behaviors  and their responses to them result in communication.  

Interactive function     Appropriate function of echolalic language such as turn taking, declarative, yes response, request, verbal completion, providing information, protesting, calling, and directives.

Interactive matching     Strategy in which caregivers adjust their interactive style to match the child’s pace, engage in activities that are at the child’s current level of functioning, and follow the child’s lead.

Invented spelling     Writing words following a more or less phonological, rather than orthographic, strategy. Also called “creative spelling.”

Joint attention     Communicative act in which a child and caregiver interactively attend to the same object, person, or activity.

Kinesic mode     Use of nonlinguistic facial expressions to send a message.

Knowledge of graphemes     See Alphabetic knowledge.

Language     Any complex system of concepts represented by arbitrary symbols that are governed by rules; includes speaking and listening, and reading and writing.

Language play     Experience with sounds in words, rhythms of speech, and word play such as rhyming words.

Lateral flexion     Action in which the two ends of a jointed body part move closer to each other and farther from the middle or center of the body, as in tilting the head toward the shoulder.

Learning medium     Sensory mode (e.g., sight, hearing, touch) used to acquire skills and knowledge. Individuals may use more than one learning medium.

Learning media assessment (LMA)     Systematic assessment of an individual’s sensory responses and preferences; used to guide the intervention team in making informed and deliberate decisions on the range of sensory preferences needed to facilitate learning.

Leber’s congenital amaurosis     Genetic visual disorder characterized by reduced retinal function at birth as documented by an electroretinogram. Visual function can vary widely; however, profound or total visual loss is common. Associated with decreased distance vision, sensitivity to glare, and distortion of visual field.

Legal blindness     In the U.S., visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with corrective lenses (20/200 means the ability to recognize symbols for 20 feet on an eye chart that people with normal vision can identify at 200 feet) or visual field restricted to 20 degrees or less (tunnel vision) in the better eye.

Light perception     Ability to distinguish between light and dark.

Linguistic awareness     Ability to consciously observe or reflect upon language use. Linguistic awareness in children may be demonstrated by phonological awareness or by syntactic awareness. See Metalinguistic.

Linguistic communication     Use of systemized language with conventional vocabulary and rules of grammar, syntax, and so on.

Listening comprehension     Level of understanding of spoken communication, including vocabulary and syntax.

Literacy     Ability to read, write, and otherwise communicate with or comprehend written language. Literacy takes a variety of forms and performs a variety of functions. Literacy develops from children's oral language and their early attempts at reading (usually based on pictures) and writing (at first, scribbling). See Emergent literacy.

Literacy event     Activity or action that directly or indirectly involves reading or writing. 

Literacy medium     Form (e.g., print or braille) used to develop reading and writing. Children’s literacy media are based on their sensory preferences and abilities as assessed in a learning media assessment or developmentally appropriate learning media assessment. Individuals may use more than one literacy medium.

Low vision     Significant reduction of visual function that cannot be fully corrected by ordinary glasses, contact lenses, medical treatment, or surgery. Individuals with low vision have the potential to use vision for daily tasks.

Mand-model procedure     Strategy that uses naturally occurring communication opportunities during daily routines and play. The adult asks the child a question that requires a response other than yes or no and waits expectantly for a response. When the child speaks, the adult expands slightly on the response and continues the interaction.

Manipulative     Any physical object that can be handled, such as a wooden block, a bowl, or a coin.

Metalinguistic     Pertaining to the study of language not just as a means of communication, but as something that can be conceived of in its own right. Metalinguistic thinking involves consciously observing or reflecting upon language use.

Microphthalmia      Reduction in the size of one or both eyes as result of congenital malformation or disease. Associated with decreased visual acuity, photophobia, fluctuating visual abilities, cataracts, glaucoma, aniridia, and coloboma. Also called microphthalmos.

Milieu language teaching techniques     A naturalistic strategy for promoting functional communication and language based on children's initiations. It includes incidental teaching, the mand-model technique, and time-delay procedures.

Morphology     System of rules that govern, for a given language, the internal organization of words, especially as expressed in declensions, conjugations, word building, etc.

Motor development     Process of acquiring large-muscle movement and control.

Muscle tone     See Postural tone

Myopia     Blurred distance vision that results from images being focused in front of the retina rather than on the retina due to an elongated eyeball; nearsightedness. 

Narrative knowledge     Set of expectations about the ways in which stories conventionally proceed. For example, through experience young children learn that stories often begin with “Once upon a time” and end with “The end.” Also called “narrative schema” or “story schema.”

Narrative structure     Organization of a story.

Natural environment     Setting in which children and families typically function and interact.

Natural learning opportunity     The varied learning opportunities found within children’s everyday experiences and events that can promote behavioral and developmental competencies.

Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)     Hospital that provides intensive care for premature and ill newborn babies.

Nonconventional presymbolic communication     Level of communicative competence at which children purposely use nonconventional gestures (i.e., body motions that are not part of a shared set of rules) to affect observers’ behavior. Laughing, nonspeech sounds, reaching, pushing, tugging, smiling, approaching, and moving away are nonconventional behaviors that may be used to communicate messages such as a request for more, rejection, protest, confirmation, and so on.

Nonlinguistic communication     Form of receptive and expressive communication that does not involve language, such as facial expressions, gestures, and nonspeech vocalizations.

Nonverbal cue     Wordless message by means of facial expression, gaze, gesture, posture, behavior, or tone of voice.

Nystagmus      Rapid, rhythmic, involuntary movement of the eyes in horizontal, vertical, or mixed motion. Associated with reduced visual acuity, eye fatigue, and inability to maintain steady fixation.

Object concept     Understanding that things continue to exist even when they are not providing sensory input. Also called “object permanence.”

Object cue     Everyday item or piece of everyday item associated with an activity or person that represents the activity or person.

Ocular mode     Use of the eyes to send a message.

Olfactory system     Sensory organs responsible for smell, consisting of the outer nose, nasal cavities, and central nervous system. Smell plays a role in arousal and emotional associations.

Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH)     Underdevelopment of the optic nerve during fetal development, sometimes appearing as a small, pale or gray nerve head surrounded by a light halo. Associated with central nervous system or endocrine disorders, field defects, and nystagmus.          

Oral language     Spoken communication.

Orientation and mobility specialist (OMS)     Professional trained to promote goal-directed movement, exploration, and sensory organization that will facilitate development and independence of individuals with visual impairments.

Outcome     Meaningful goal on an individualized family service plan (IFSP) that addresses a concern or priority of the family and the developmental needs of the child as identified in an assessment completed by professionals from at least two disciplines. To be effective, an outcome should specify mea­surable criteria for evaluation, a timeline for acquisition and review, and the persons responsible for implementing interventions to achieve the desired result

Pelvis     Lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones.

Perseveration     Inappropriate repetition of a behavior, words, or language.

Phoneme     Smallest unit of sound that can change the meaning of a spoken word.

Phoneme-grapheme correspondence     Knowledge of the relationships between sounds and letters.

Phonemic awareness     Ability to detect and manipulate the smallest units of sound within words.

Phonological awareness     Ability to detect and manipulate the sound structures of oral language. Children’s proficiency at identifying rhymes, deleting or adding syllables or phonemes from words, and counting the phonemes in a word may indicate phonological awareness. Also called “phonological sensitivity.”

Phonological memory     Ability to immediately recall sound-based information. Children’s proficiency at recalling a series of numbers or nonwords may indicate phonological memory.

Phonological naming     Ability to say aloud, as quickly as possible, an array of digits, letters, colors, or objects presented visually. Also called “rapid naming.

Phonological processing      Brain activity that involves the ability to access the memory of the sounds of language and manipulate or discriminate among them.

Phonological sensitivity     See Phonological awareness.

Phonology     System of rules that govern, for a given language, the use of speech sounds.

Picture system     System for expressive and receptive communication in the form of pictures.

Postural control     State that involves movement and stability.

Postural tone     Amount of tension in the muscles of the body.

Posture     Position of the body.

Pragmatic awareness     Monitoring of comprehension; the ability to know when one does not understand something.

Pragmatics     System of rules that governs how a given language is used in different social contexts and environments.

Preintentional behaviors      Level of communicative competence at which children engage in reflexive behaviors in response to their internal states (e.g., hunger, discomfort, exhaustion). Caregivers’ interpretation of the behaviors and responses to them result in communication.

Prelinguistic communication     Before the acquisition of language, the exchange of ideas, thoughts, wants, or desires through such means as facial expressions, gestures, or nonspeech vocalizations.

Prelinguistic milieu teaching     An adapted version of milieu teaching that is used with children who are prelinguistic.

Premature      Gestational age of less than 37 weeks.

Presymbolic communication     Use of conventional or nonconventional gestures, as well as intonated nonspeech sound patterns, to express ideas, thoughts, wants, or desires. See Conventional presymbolic communication, Nonconventional presymbolic communication.

Primary early interventionist      See Primary home visitor

Primary home visitor      Point person for team members addressing multiple needs of the family and child. The primary home visitor is the regular contact for the family and supports the family in many ways, including implementing interventions suggested by other service providers. The primary home visitor may be an early childhood special educator, a speech-language pathologist, a TVI, or other professional. See early interventionist.

Print intentionality     Knowledge of the functions of texts (e.g., that texts can tell stories, give directions, provide information, etc.). Also called “print knowledge.”

Print motivation     Children’s relative interest in reading and writing activities.

Prone     On one’s stomach; face down. See Supine.

Proprioception     Awareness, arising from the muscles, tendons, and joints, of the position and movement of the body.

Proprioceptive system     Set of receptors in the muscles, tendons, and joints that provide information about the orientation of the body in space and the positions of body parts relative to one another. 

Proxemic mode     Nonlinguistic use of space (e.g., by moving toward or away from an object or person) to send a message.

Rapid naming    See Phonological naming.

Reading      Act of interpreting a written message. Reading involves, but does not consist entirely of, translating graphemes (units of print) into phonemes (units of sound). See Emergent reading.

Receptive communication     Act of understanding a message sent by another person; ability to comprehend that person’s ideas, thoughts, or desires. See Expressive communication.

Reliable alliance     Dynamic relationship among family members and profession­als that empowers individuals through joint decision making and through the sharing of knowledge, skills, and resources  Reliable alliances require that professionals know themselves; know families; honor diversity within the context of families, communities, and cultures; recognize and build on family and child strengths; affirm high expectations; communicate in a positive manner; and warrant trust and respect.

Responsivity     Responding to another’s cues—including subtle, nonverbal, unconventional cues—quickly and appropriately.

Retina     Inner sensory nerve layer that lines the posterior two-thirds of the eyeball and converts light into electrical impulses for interpretation in the brain.

Retinal detachment     Separation of the retina from the choroid. Associated with central vision loss, blurred vision, scotomas, myopia, and possible loss of all vision.

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)     Damage to the retina often associated with prolonged life-sustaining oxygen therapy of infants born prematurely; characterized by a discontinuation of normal retinal vessel growth and abnormal growth of new vessels. Associated with myopia, scarring and subsequent field loss, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and strabismus. Formerly known as retrolental fibroplasia.

Rhetorical question     Question asked to make an assertion and not to elicit a reply.    

Routine     Everyday or frequently occurring event that serves to main­tain family life. Routines may reflect cultural and personal values; may vary from day to day; may appear chaotic or rigid, organized or disorganized; and may reflect the family’s goals. Routines allow families to function.

Routines-based assessment (RBA)     Assessment derived from the routines-based interview in which the family prioritizes its goals for the child and itself.

Scaffolding     Specialized support by an adult to a child that provides information and assistance to link objects, actions, and categories to one another. Examples of scaffolding behavior include using questions, directives, or statements that associate objects and specific locations; relating an object, activity, or topic in which the child is engaged to a previous experience; associating feelings and emotions with a reason for the emotion; and linking objects with specific categories. Scaffolding is used to help children acquire new skills in a developmentally appropriate manner. Schema     (Plural “schemas” or “schemata.”) Meaningfully organized cognitive template or framework, typically derived from experience, that represents a person’s knowledge about objects, people, events, activities, or situations. Schemas help organize concepts so that they can be retrieved efficiently and assist in predicting what is likely to happen in a given context. For example, a young child might form a schema that equates four-legged creatures with dogs. After multiple experiences, the child’s schema would change to that of animals—including cats, cows, horses, and so on.

Seizure     Sudden, involuntary change in behavior, muscle control, consciousness, or sensation due to temporary disruption in electrical activity of the brain.

Semantics    System of rules that govern, for a given language, the meanings of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Sensorimotor     Pertaining to the coordination and integration of sensory perceptions and muscular movements.

Sensory information     Input received by the sensory receptors.

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD)     Birth defect characterized by a malformed optic disk and nerve, pituitary deficiencies, and, often, the absence of the septum pellucidum, which separates the ventricles of the brain. Associated with visual impairment and inadequate growth hormones.

Service coordinator    Case manager who enables families to access services and assures their rights and procedural safeguards. Service coordination may be this person's only role. In a blended service provider model, all of the professionals on the early intervention team may perform the functions of service coordination for their assigned families in addition to providing a specific early intervention service. In some instances, one of the service providers on the team coordinates services as well as provides specific early intervention service. This person may be referred to as the primary early interventionist or primary home visitor.

Sign language         Communication expressed manually through hand shapes and movement.

Signing     Communicative use of a formal set of signs, such as American Sign Language, or signs that are particular to an individual.

Situational context     Physical characteristics of a child’s living and learning environments, including the home, daycare center, and community within which communication and literacy develop. The situational context encompasses not only the communicative context but, more broadly, the availability of literacy and communication materials, opportunities for literacy and communication experiences, and the literacy and communication skills of adults and other children in the child’s living and learning environments. See Communicative context, Sociocultural context.

Slate and stylus     Device for writing braille by hand. The slate is a hinged metal or plastic frame inset with rows of rectangles representing braille cells. To create braille dots, the user inserts a sheet of paper in the frame and presses the stylus, a pointed steel punch, into the paper. Because braille characters are read from left to right, they must be written from right to left so that, when the paper is turned over, they will be oriented properly.

Social attachment relationship     See Attachment.

Social development     Process of acquiring the abilities, skills, and knowledge necessary to interact successfully with other people. Social development includes developing trust; engaging in socially appropriate interactions and behavior, learning to get along with others, forming friendships, and acquiring social play behaviors. Social relationships change as a person ages.

Social referencing     Act of looking to others for clues about how to behave in a novel situation.

Social routine     Repeated, predictable interaction between individuals that provides consistency for communicative exchange.

Social skill     Behavior that allows young children to interact and communicate successfully with others. Social skills can be considered components of nonlinguistic and linguistic communicative attempts and can be expressive or receptive.

Social smile     Pleased facial expression in response to an interaction.

Sociocultural context     Situations and environments that convey societal and cultural values, expectations, and beliefs and that provide resources and opportunities that facilitate and promote communication and literacy development. See Communicative context, Situational context.

Specific nominal     Noun that refers to one object.

Speech-language pathologist (SLP)      Professional trained and licensed to facilitate children’s communication in the context of social interactions with peers and family members in homes, schools, and communities.

Speech-language pathology     Study of communication problems in infants, toddlers, children, and adults. Speech-language pathology may include identification of children with communicative or oropharyngeal dis­orders and delays in development of communication skills, including the diagnosis and appraisal of specific disorders and delays in those skills; referral for medical or other professional services necessary for the habilitation or rehabilitation of children with communicative or oro­pharyngeal disorders and delays in development of communication skills; provision of services for the habilitation or rehabilitation; and preven­tion of communicative or oropharyngeal disorders and delays in development of communication skills.

Static balance     Ability to maintain a desired body posture.

Storybook preview      Shared exploration of the content of a book without consideration of the storyline.

Storytelling     Act of reciting tales or relaying anecdotes. 

Supine     On one’s back; face up. See Prone.

Support     Act of providing for or maintaining necessities for daily life. For families of children with disabilities, support can be provided by informal resources such as neigh­bors or grandparents or by formal resources such as early intervention. Early interventionists provide three types of support—emotional, material, and informational.

Symbolic communication     Use of arbitrary but agreed-upon sounds or signs for the exchange of ideas, thoughts, wants, or desires. See Abstract symbolic communication, Concrete symbolic communication, Formal symbolic communication.

Symmetrical     Having equal size, shape, alignment.

Syntactic awareness     Knowledge of the rules that govern how words are arranged to make meaningful sentences.

Syntax     System of rules that govern, for a given language, how words are arranged to make meaningful sentences.

Tactile cue     Touch stimulus that provides access to information about the environment.

Tactile illustration     Raised-line picture designed to be perceived through the sense of touch.

Tactile selectivity     Aversion or sensitivity to information acquired through the sense of touch.

Tactile sensitivity     See Tactile selectivity.

Tactile signing     Communication method based on a standard manual sign system in which the receiver’s hand is placed lightly upon the hand of the signer to perceive the signs. Useful especially for children who are deaf and who have insufficient vision to access signs visually.

Tactile symbol     Object with distinctive qualities that can be perceived through the sense of touch and that represents an idea, place, event, location, or person. For example, a cloth duck attached to the cover of a book about ducks may serve as a tactile symbol to identify the book.

Tactile system     Sense organs comprised of receptors in the skin and the central nervous system. Receptors transmit information about light touch, pressure touch, heat, cold, and pain to the central nervous system. The tactile system provides information for both protection and discrimination.

Tactile-kinesthetic mode     Use of nonlinguistic touch and movement to send a message.

Tangible communication system     Procedure that uses object cues for expressive and receptive communication.

Teacher of children with visual impairments (TVI)     Individual who has received training in the education of children and young adults with visual impairments.  

Touch cue     Act of communicating a message through direct contact with an individual’s body.

Trunk     Main section of the body containing vital organs.

Vestibular system     Sensory organs, comprised of structures of the inner ear, one of the cranial nerves, and those parts of the brain that interpret and respond to information derived from these structures, that contribute to balance, posture, oculomotor control, and motor coordination.

Vision     Ability to perceive and discriminate among objects by means of sight. Vision involves fixation and eye motility, accommodation, convergence, visual perception, and visual-motor integration.

Visual acuity      Ability to identify and resolve fine details.

Visual field     Extent of area seen by the eye as it fixates straight ahead; measured in degrees away from fixation.

Visual field loss     Inability to see part of an area of view when looking straight ahead.

Visual impairment     Abnormality of the visual system that affects daily living activities. Typically, eligibility for services is based on visual acuity of 20/70 or worse in the better eye with correction or visual field loss of 80% or more.

Visual system     Sensory organs responsible for sight, consisting of the eye, retina, optic nerve, optic chiasm, and areas in the brain that interpret visual images.

Vocal mode     Use of nonlinguistic vocalizations to send a message.

Vocalization     Production and utterance of vocal sounds.

Writing     Act of imprinting symbols on a surface to represent the sounds or words of a language. Writing involves, but does not consist entirely of, translating phonemes (units of sound) into graphemes (units of print). See Emergent writing.

XY tray     Light-absorbing platform on which a document or book is placed for viewing by closed-circuit television.

Session 5: Study Questions and Answers for Recommended Reading J:  Rosenkoetter & Barton

Rosenkoetter, S., & Barton, L.R. (2002). Bridges to literacy: Early routines that promote later school success. Zero to Three, 22(4), 33-38.

1. Identify the benefits of young children having positive relationships with print.

  • builds positive associations and happy memories of reading
  • helps children explore new ideas and concepts, laugh with people from other generations, and learn about basic and unusual concepts
  • provides security
  • calms restlessness

2. In reference to responsiveness for young children, what is meant by the phrase “play ping pong, not darts”?

Participants’ responses will vary but should include key elements listed below:

In responding to infants’ and toddlers’ attempts at communication, caregivers should be attentive and consistent, and should expand and affirm children’s
communicative attempts. Also, caregivers should follow the children’s lead.

Using these strategies provides the opportunity for communication to be a give-and-take situation much like ping-pong, rather than giving constant direct
instruction, which is more like a game of darts.

3. Identify the benefits of repetition in young children’s literacy routines.

  • provides stability in scheduling
  • emphasizes family values
  • helps young children form and maintain neuronal connections in the nervous system
  • strengthens cognitive skills, a key foundation for later literacy

4. Why are routines important for modeling and motivation?

Family routines around literacy show that reading and writing are normal, important activities and demonstrate the value of literacy in everyday life.


5. List key methods of modeling and motivating young children for literacy success.

  • Include an abundance of print in the environment in one or more languages at children’s eye level.
  • Add children’s verbal comments to their drawings.
  • Read and write in the presence of young children and draw attention to what they are doing.
  • Read aloud to children daily.
  • Act out stories.
  • Create original stories.
  • Role-play with reference to story characters during everyday routines.

6. Describe the correlation between oral language and emergent literacy.

Oral language helps young children build associations with actions and objects. Children who are not exposed to increased quantities of words as infants or toddlers will have limited vocabularies, restricted use of grammar, and decreased output into the middle school years. Additionally, their overall school performance, including reading, will be at a lower level than that of children who live in environments with high quantities of oral language.

7. What are the benefits of exposing young children to multiple experiences in their communities?

  • Varied personal experiences assist beginning readers with decoding skills.
  • Experiences build concepts, making it easier for older children to complete word identification tasks.
  • Personal experiences help children to find meaning in words.
  • Experiences promote general school readiness.
  • Experiences introduce young children to people, objects, and actions that they will later encounter in print.
  • Developmentally appropriate television programs can assist in building knowledge about the world.
  • Cooperative play experiences create foundations for meaning and sequencing in later stages of literacy.

8. What are young children’s tools of literacy? List five examples.

Children’s tools are those available in their everyday lives. Print materials include items such as billboards, picture books, magnetic letters, writing utensils, newspapers, and computers.

9. What is the early interventionist’s role in providing experiences with these tools?

  • Ensure that young children and their families are surrounded by tools of literacy.
  • Encourage exposure to the tools.
  • Gather and distribute resources for obtaining the tools.
  • Ensure that books are developmentally appropriate.
  • Encourage families to visit their public library and attend community storytimes.
  • Encourage caregivers at childcare centers to read aloud to babies and children.

10. How do experiences with sounds benefit young children?

  • Children who are more competent in manipulating the sounds and rhythms found in language become better and more fluent readers.
  • Playing with rhythms and rhymes will build auditory competencies for literacy.
  • Word play helps children attend to linguistic sounds or phonemes.
  • Playing with sounds helps children develop phonological awareness in a natural way without using direct instruction drills or practices.
  • Playing with sounds helps young children develop phonemic awareness, which is important for later literacy learning.

11. Why is decontextualized language important for literacy success?

In order to become readers, young children need to begin to imagine times and places that are not in the physical present. In order to become writers, children need to learn to take the perspective of someone or something other than themselves and to provide details that bring the reader to the situations being described.

12. What role does development in the first 2 years of life play in learning to write?

In the first two years of life, children develop the trunk and limb control, postural stability, and fine motor skills that facilitate later writing skills.

13. What role does culture play in emergent literacy for young children?

Cultural backgrounds and family values influence:

  • the amount and quality of adult-child interactions;
  • the way that information is passed from generation to generation;
  • the nature of the vocabulary used in the home;
  • the use of print materials in the children’s environment;
  • the quantity and quality of literacy materials, activities, and models; and
  • the amount of time spent on literacy activities.

Session 1:  Overview of Communication and Literacy Recommended Readings

  1.     Bus, A.G., Belsky, J., van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Crnic, K. (1997). Attachment and bookreading patterns: A study of mothers, fathers, and their toddlers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(1), 81-98. 
  2.     Koppenhaver, D.A., Coleman, P.P., Kalman, S.L., & Yoder, D.E. (1991). The implications of emergent literacy research for children with developmental disabilities. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 1, 329-335.
  3.     Rosenkoetter, S.E., & Knapp-Philo, J. (2004). Learning to read the world: Literacy in the first 3 years. Zero to Three, 25(1), 4-9.
  4.     Warren, D., & Hatton, D. (2003). Cognitive development of children with visual impairments. In I. Rapin & S. Segalowitz (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 7, Part II. Child neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 439-458). New York: Elsevier.
  5.     Whitehurst, G.J., & Lonigan, C.J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69(3), 848–872.

Session 5:  Study Questions and Answers for Recommended Reading I:  Parlakian

Parlakian, R. (2004). Early literacy and very young children. Zero to Three, 25(1), 37-44.

1. Describe four commonly observed early literacy behaviors in infants and toddlers that caregivers may use to recognize the emergence and progression of very young children’s early literacy skill development.

  • Handling books—physically manipulating them.
  • Looking at and recognizing pictures in books.
  • Comprehending pictures and stories—as evidenced, for instance, by imitating or talking about the events in stories.
  • Reading stories—showing increased understanding of print, for instance by babbling in imitation of reading or by running a finger along printed words.

2. How is oral language facilitated?

Oral language is facilitated through

  • multiple opportunities to use language in interactions with adults and
  • listening and responding to stories.

3. What is phonemic awareness?

Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize the sounds within words.

4. What is alphabetic knowledge?

Alphabetic knowledge is an understanding of the names and shapes of the letters.

5. What is print knowledge?

Print knowledge is an understanding of the ways in which print is used and of how print works.

6. What are two sources of print knowledge in young children?

  • Literary props, such as menus, newspapers, and writing utensils, that can be incorporated into play.
  • Environmental print, such as signs and labels.

7. Describe the relationship between social-emotional development and academic achievement.
Social-emotional development and academic achievement are “united priorities,” meaning they are interrelated and interdependent; they are “two sides of the same coin.”

8. What part, according to the authors, should organized instruction, rote learning, flash cards, drill, and practice play in the cognitive development of infants and toddlers?

All of these approaches are developmentally inappropriate and may inhibit infants’ and toddlers’ innate curiosity and enthusiasm.

9. What is intentionality? Provide an original example of intentionality.

  • Intentionality is the thoughtful provision to children of the support and experiences they need to achieve developmentally appropriate skills.
  • Examples will vary but should be developmentally appropriate.

10. What is scaffolding? Provide an original example of scaffolding.

  • Scaffolding refers to the information or assistance that more competent others provide to children as they are learning to master a new skill.
  • Examples will vary but should be developmentally appropriate.

11. What is the zone of proximal development?

The zone of proximal development is that period during which a child is challenged while learning a new skill.

12. What are five ways in which infant-family professionals can support the development of very young children’s school readiness skills?

Participants’ responses will vary but should include five of the following:

  • Respond to children’s individual needs and temperaments.
  • Encourage children’s curiosity and exploration.
  • Introduce developmentally appropriate literacy and numeracy concepts.
  • Appreciate the magic of everyday moments.
  • Establish strong working relationships with families.
  • Recognize and respect family cultures.
  • Reduce parents’ anxiety about school success.
  • Provide anticipatory guidance.
  • Support inclusive environments.

Session 5:  Study Questions and Answers for Recommended Reading H: Miller

Miller, D.D. (1985). Reading comes naturally: A mother and her blind child’s experiences. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 79(1), 1-4.

1. Choose your favorite children’s storybook and describe what a “book bag” for it would contain.

Participants’ responses will vary.

2. What types of materials, besides sandpaper, might be tactually unpleasant for children with visual impairments? What materials might be tactually appealing and good additions to a homemade tactual book?

Participants’ responses will vary.

3. What are the potential challenges for caregivers using print-braille books with their young children?

  • Caregivers may be unsure of where to direct a young child’s hand for “reading along.”
  • It may take too much time for caregivers to find particular letters in braille, causing the child to lose attention.
  • Caregivers may be unsure of their ability to accurately and efficiently identify braille letters found in the text.
  • If caregivers do not know contracted braille, they may be unable to read or identify braille letters or words in the text.
  • Braille embossed over clear overlays is difficult to read by sight.

4. Explain Goodman’s (1976) theory of how children learn to read. What are the implications of this theory for infants and toddlers with visual impairments?

  • Children learn to read at young ages by being exposed to “literate environments,” that contain several forms of print and have access to information regarding their uses and meanings. Additionally, children first learn about books and their relationship to language as a whole. The individual pieces and structure are then learned and decoded. Learning to read, according to Goodman, is a whole-to-parts process.
  • For children with visual impairments, it may be difficult to create a “literate environment.” Materials in braille are sometimes difficult to find and can be expensive for families. Additionally, for children with visual impairments, it may take large amounts of time and money to appropriately adapt materials in their environment for children to have access to the same amounts and forms of print that sighted children have.

Emergent literacy is a developmental process that begins at birth whereby children acquire the skills and knowledge that are the foundation for later reading and writing. For infants and toddlers, thought and language develop concurrently. Communication and language provide the foundation for literacy--the ability to read, write, and otherwise communicate with, or comprehend, written language. Literacy develops from children's oral language and their early attempts at reading (usually based on pictures) and writing (at first, scribbling).

Although most definitions of emergent literacy acknowledge that it begins very early in life, little is known about the development of emergent literacy in infants and toddlers, with or without disabilities. We do know, however, that preschool and school-aged children with disabilities often experience fewer literacy opportunities. We also know that families play a primary role in providing emergent literacy opportunities.

Because there is minimal literature or knowledge to guide emergent literacy recommendations for infants and toddlers with disabilities, we have reviewed the literature that is available for preschool-aged children and children with disabilities. We have used that information, along with recommended, developmentally appropriate, and evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities as the basis for this module. In addition, family-centered practices are an integral feature of this module, because family involvement is the key to effective early intervention. The content of this module has been peer reviewed by university faculty and practitioners throughout the United States and field tested at three universities.

The module begins with an overview of communication, language, and literacy and the potential impact of visual impairments on their development. Two sessions are devoted to describing early communication and language development, facilitating development in this domain, and providing suggestions and strategies for interventions to address the unique needs of children with visual impairments. The fourth session describes emergent literacy and the potential impact of visual impairments on emergent literacy, while the fifth session provides suggestions and strategies for facilitating emergent literacy.

Session Titles and Authors

Session 1:  Overview of Communication and Literacy

Deborah D. Hatton, Ph.D. and Wendy K. Sapp, Ph.D.

Session 2:  Communication Development and the Impact of Visual Impairments

Wendy K. Sapp, Ph.D., and Deborah D. Hatton, Ph.D.

Session 3:  Communication and Language Interventions

Wendy K. Sapp, Ph.D., Jeanne L. Murphy, M.A., and Deborah D. Hatton, Ph.D.

Session 4:  What Is Emergent Literacy?

Deborah D. Hatton, Ph.D. and Wendy K. Sapp, Ph.D.

Session 5:  Interventions to Facilitate Emergent Literacy

Deborah D. Hatton, Ph.D. and Wendy K. Sapp, Ph.D.

Session Objectives

Session 1: Overview of Communication and Literacy

Communication is an important developmental milestone for infants and young children and is integrally related to literacy development. Literacy includes reading and writing; and without communication and literacy, children are severely limited in their ability to interact meaningfully with other people. In some children, visual impairments present unique and significant challenges to the development of communication and literacy. The purpose of this session is to define communication, literacy, and other basic terms, and to discuss the potential impact of visual impairments on communication and literacy development.

After completing this session, participants will

  1.      define receptive and expressive communication, nonlinguistic and prelinguistic communication, and emergent literacy.
  2.      describe the relationship of nonlinguistic/prelinguistic communication to social development and language development.
  3.      describe the concepts of literacy and emergent literacy.
  4.      discuss the concurrent and interrelated development of communication and literacy.
  5.      describe the three contexts—communicative, situational, and sociocultural—in which communication and literacy develop.
  6.      describe how early attachment between children with visual impairments and their caregivers might impact social-emotional and communication development.
  7.      describe why children must develop concepts about the world in order to  develop communication and literacy skills, and why children with visual impairments are often delayed in their development of concepts.
  8.      recognize that children with visual impairments may not have incidental exposure to literacy events such as opportunities to observe use of print or braille in daily activities, and that they may not have access to appropriate and accessible literacy resources such as braille books and braille writers.
  9.      describe the potential impact of multiple disabilities on communication and emergent literacy development.
  10. describe the role of teachers of children with visual impairments in planning and implementing family-centered, collaborative interventions that promote communication development and emergent literacy in infants and toddlers with visual impairments.  

Session 2: Communication Development and the Impact of Visual Impairments

Communication skills are essential for children to be able to interact with other people. Visual impairments may directly affect communication by altering the ways in which children communicate, and indirectly through possible delays in other areas of development that are important for communication. The purpose of this session is to provide basic knowledge and skills about typical communication development and the impact of visual impairments on communication development.

After completing this session, participants will

  1.      describe seven levels of communicative competence.
  2.      describe the development of communication and language in typically developing children from birth through 36 months.
  3.      define language and describe five elements of language.
  4.      explain the importance of caregiver responsiveness in caregiver-child attachment and communication. 
  5.      describe the importance of concept development for communication and why children with visual impairments may develop concepts differently.
  6.      describe six modes of nonlinguistic/prelinguistic communication, and explain how visual impairments may prevent children from engaging in typical nonlinguistic/prelinguistic communicative behaviors.
  7.      describe the potential impact of visual impairments on nonlinguistic/prelinguistic communication, including the development of idiosyncratic communicative behaviors of children with visual impairments and additional disabilities.
  8.      describe the potential impact of visual impairments, with and without additional disabilities, on language development.

Session 3: Communication and Language Interventions

Communication and language are the foundation for emergent literacy. Because visual impairments may impact communication and language development, early interventionists and teachers of children with visual impairments (TVIs) must work collaboratively with families and other team members to facilitate communication and language in infants and toddlers with visual impairments.

After completing this session, participants will

  1.     define communication form and function.
  2.      describe recommended practices for facilitating early communication and language development.
  3.      describe the relationship between secure attachment and early communication, and strategies for facilitating attachment and early communication—contingent responsivity, turn taking, providing choices, following the child’s lead.
  4.      discuss the importance of concept development for early communication of children with visual impairments and strategies for facilitating concept development in infants and toddlers with visual impairments. 
  5.      describe evidence-based strategies for communication and language intervention.
  6.      describe strategies for facilitating early communication and language development in infants and toddlers as they move through the seven levels of communicative competence and acquire symbolic communication.
  7.      explain why some children with visual impairments may develop atypical communication and describe strategies for facilitating communication and for addressing echolalia, pronoun confusion, overuse of questions, and perseveration.
  8.      define alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) and assistive technology and describe strategies to facilitate communication in individuals who may benefit from AAC.
  9.      describe the relationship of communication and language to emergent literacy and literacy—that reading, writing, speaking (augmented communication), and listening develop concurrently and interrelatedly.
  10. describe strategies and interventions that promote communication, language, emergent literacy (narrative knowledge, vocabulary, listening comprehension), and metalinguistic development (phonological awareness, syntactic awareness).

Session 4: What Is Emergent Literacy?

Emergent literacy is the developmental process that begins at birth whereby children acquire the foundation for reading and writing or literacy. Both emergent literacy and literacy evolve from complex interactions involving reading, writing, speaking, and listening and associated attitudes, expectations, and beliefs. The development of emergent literacy begins at birth as communication and language develop within social interactions and continues through every day exposure to literacy activities. Children with disabilities, and particularly children with severe visual impairments and/or multiple disabilities, often have fewer opportunities to acquire emergent literacy skills that are related to later success in reading and writing.

After completing this session, participants will

  1.    define emergent literacy as the developmental process that begins at birth whereby children acquire the foundation for reading and writing.
  2.    describe two important models of emergent literacy.
  3.    identify six key components of emergent literacy: oral language, phonological awareness, concept development, knowledge of the conventions of print/braille and of print/braille intentionality, alphabetic knowledge, and environmental factors.
  4.    define oral language, including listening comprehension, vocabulary, and narrative knowledge, and describe how it is related to emergent literacy and literacy.
  5.    define phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness, as a metalinguistic process that contributes to emergent literacy and literacy.
  6.    discuss concept development, including the formation of schemas, and how it relates to emergent literacy.
  7.    describe knowledge of the conventions of print/braille and print/braille intentionality and their relationship to literacy.
  8.    define alphabetic knowledge and describe its contribution to literacy.
  9.    describe the relationship between environmental factors, including the communicative, situational, and sociocultural contexts within which literacy develops, and literacy.
  10. describe effective early intervention practices for facilitating emergent literacy as collaborative and family-centered, developmentally appropriate, and based on   evidence-based and recommended practices to achieve functional outcomes within naturally occurring learning opportunities.
  11. describe strategies and interventions to facilitate emergent literacy—play, routines- based literacy, responsive literacy environments, shared storybook reading (especially dialogic reading, storybook preview, and storybook sounds), storytelling, and dialogue and how they facilitate the development of six key components of emergent literacy.
  12. describe assessments that can be used to identify, plan, and implement emergent literacy interventions.
  13. discuss the potential impact of visual impairments on emergent literacy, the challenge of determining whether children will be print or braille readers, and considerations for providing appropriate adaptations that will facilitate emergent literacy in these children.

Session 5: Interventions to Facilitate Emergent Literacy

Because emergent literacy provides the foundation for literacy and because literacy is essential for independence and employment, it is an important functional goal for young children with disabilities. In addition, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA, 2004) requires preliteracy goals that are developmentally appropriate and evidence based. Families play a key role in providing emergent literacy experiences for their children within natural learning opportunities. Early interventionists can support families in providing emergent literacy experiences that meet the unique needs of children with disabilities.

After completing this session, participants will

  1.       define emergent literacy and identify the components of emergent literacy: oral language, phonological awareness, concept development; knowledge of the conventions of print/braille and of print/braille intentionality, alphabetic knowledge, and environmental factors.
  2.     describe recommended early intervention practices for facilitating emergent literacy as collaborative and family centered, developmentally appropriate, and evidence based to achieve functional outcomes within naturally occurring learning opportunities.
  3.     describe the importance of families and caregiving environments in promoting emergent literacy.
  4.     discuss the potential impact of visual impairment on emergent literacy and  strategies for facilitating emergent literacy in children with visual impairments.
  5.     describe strategies for promoting emergent literacy in children with visual impairments and additional disabilities, including those who use alternative and augmentative communication systems.
  6.     discuss emergent literacy interventions including play; routines-based literacy; responsive literacy environments; shared storybook reading, especially dialogic reading, storybook preview, and storybook sounds; storytelling; and dialogue.

Session 5:  Handout N:  Phonological Awareness

Murphy, J.L. (2005). Phonological awareness. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

The ability to understand and respond to the sounds and rhythms of language is associated with reading fluency (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). The following developmentally appropriate activities are fun and help young children build sound awareness for literacy.

• Emphasize rhyme and alliteration (see definitions below) during shared storybook reading. Provide opportunities for toddlers to repeat rhyming words. Select books that involve rhyming patterns, such as
o Brown, M.W., & Hurd, C. (1947). Goodnight moon. New York: HarperCollins
o Degan, B. (1983). Jamberry. New York: HarperCollins
o Fleming, D. (1991). In the small, small pond. New York: Henry Holt
o Kirk, D. (1999). Little miss spider. New York: Scholastic
o Martin, B., & Radunsky, V. (1994). The maestro plays. New York: Henry Holt

• Engage in word play involving alliteration (e.g., “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers”) and rhyme (“The cat wore a hat as he sat on the mat with his friend the gnat”).

• Recite or sing Mother Goose rhymes, such as “Jack Sprat” and “This Little Piggy,” and other rhymes that have been passed down through generations. Rhymes that include movement and gestures, such as “Pat-a-Cake” and “The Wheels on the Bus,” are even more captivating to young children.

• Read poetry with vivid rhymes.

• Sing songs that play with language, such as “Old MacDonald Had a Farm” and “Bingo.” Some toddlers enjoy listening to Raffi’s song “Eat, Eat, Eat Apples and Bananas.” This song repeats the same four words over and over, but changes the vowel sounds (“It, it, it ipples and bininis”).
• Play with syllables of words by setting nursery rhymes to music, using different notes for each syllable. Caregivers can model breaking down words by singing the rhymes slowly, singing them fast, and clapping out the syllables. Tapping with percussion instruments, such as sand blocks, cymbals, and drums, while singing can also help young children become aware of syllables.

 

Definitions

Alliteration Repetition of the same letter or sound, especially consonants, in the stressed or initial syllables of two or more neighboring words (as with h in hat and hold)

Phonological awareness Ability to detect and manipulate the sound structures of oral language.

Rhyme Correspondence in sounds, especially ending sounds, of words or lines of verse (as with at in cat, flat, and hat).

 

References

Brown, M.W., & Hurd, C. (1947). Goodnight moon. New York: HarperCollins.

Degan, B. (1983). Jamberry. New York: HarperCollins.

Fleming, D. (1991). In the small, small pond. New York: Henry Holt.

Kirk, D. (1999). Little miss spider. New York: Scholastic.

Martin, B., & Radunsky, V. (1994). The maestro plays. New York: Henry Holt.

Pullen, P.C., & Justice, L. (2003). Enhancing phonological awareness, print awareness, and oral language skills in preschool children. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39 (2), 87-98.

Rosenkoetter, S., & Barton, L.R. (2002). Bridges to literacy: Early routines that promote later school success. Zero to Three, 22(4), 33-38.

Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Driffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Session 5:  Study Questions and Answers for Recommended Reading G:  McComiskey

McComiskey, A.V. (1996). The braille readiness skills grid: A guide to building a foundation for literacy. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 90(3), 190-193.

1. List four potential reasons why fun and enthusiasm are often removed from the literacy process for children with visual impairments, thereby decreasing their willingness to learn.

  • insufficient training of teachers in braille
  • negative attitude toward braille and braille readers
  • insufficient knowledge of the methodology of teaching braille
  • difficulty in finding enjoyable and motivating materials for young children
  • teachers’ insecurity regarding their knowledge of braille
  • general education teachers’ lack of understanding of braille readers in the classroom
  • parents’ insecurity about providing literacy experiences for their young children

2. What is the Braille Readiness Skills Grid and what is its purpose?

The Braille Readiness Skills Grid is a developmentally based, systematic approach to exposing young children to frequent experiences that will assist in building a foundation and enthusiasm for braille reading. The purposes of the grid are to increase the confidence of members of the early intervention team in choosing experiences that will facilitate emergent literacy in potential braille readers, to encourage parents and teachers to introduce infants and young children to early literacy experiences, and to develop confidence and enthusiasm for those teaching and using braille.

3. Identify one skill listed in each of the readiness domains (tactile, fine motor, listening and attention, concept, and book and story). For each skill, provide a brief description of how you could assist families in encouraging skill development through natural learning opportunities and daily routines for an infant, toddler, or
preschooler. Also, briefly state how the skill relates to later literacy success.

Participants’ responses will vary but should be developmentally appropriate, family-centered, and appropriate for facilitating emergent literacy.

Session 5:  Study Questions and Answers for Recommended Reading F:  Lewis & Tolla

Lewis, S., & Tolla, J. (2003). Creating and using tactile experience books for young children with visual impairments. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(3), 22-28.

1. How do the emergent literacy experiences of young children with visual impairments differ from those of their typically sighted peers?

Children with visual impairments do not have the same quality of information that typically sighted children have in the emergent literacy process. Because of learning differences, children with visual impairments may not understand what others read to them and what they are expected to read themselves. For example, children with visual impairments have limited understanding of literacy concepts because their perceptions are limited to what they have felt by hand or seen with a limited visual field. Children with visual impairments also have less experience with incidental learning, which decreases their opportunities for developing meaningful concepts through typical life experiences.

2. What purpose do illustrations serve in books for young children?

Illustrations can

  • introduce children to information that is unfamiliar.
  • facilitate understanding of the text.
  • enrich he story.
  • add humor or intrigue.
  • give context clues.
  • enable readers to reconstruct a story line.
  • provide a bridge between listening and early reading behaviors.

3. Why are raised line drawings inefficient means for providing illustrations for young children with visual impairments?

Interpreting raised-line drawings is difficult because they do not share the same relationship to three-dimensional objects that visual illustrations do.
Tactile forms do not provide the same identifiable details and constancy that visual illustrations provide.

4. What are the benefits of using tactile experience books?

Tactile experience books can

  • encourage association of words that are read with braille and the use of appropriate hand movements during story reading.
  • be used by children with visual impairments independently; they can turn pages, explore the artifacts attached, and pretend to read the story aloud.
  • provide children with a connection between words that describe activities and words that they read.
  • provide experiences with writing and symbols of written language.
  • provide social inclusion opportunities for young children with visual impairments.
  • provide children with meaningful stories to choose from during story times.
  • be shared by children with visual impairments, helping them learn to be competent readers and listeners.
  • reinforce spatial, temporal, and number concepts.
  • facilitate meaningful expansion of language, social skills, and tactile perception.
  • reinforce the pleasure of reading with adults and peers.
  • be easily memorized; children can memorize the content and pretend to read aloud to listening adults.

5. What are critical factors in selecting artifacts and topics for tactile experience books.

Tactile experience books should include artifacts and objects that are familiar to children. Ideally, children participate in collecting the items. Children must have had tactile contact with the items that are selected. Artifacts should never be objects that adults associate with the event but that are unfamiliar to children. Artifacts in tactile experience books should be real, and miniature
representations should be avoided.

6. What are the key guidelines for providing text to tactile experience books?

  • Text should always be in a predictable location on the page.
  • Braille text should be on heavy braille paper in a continuous line, not cut apart and placed as single-word units or phrases.
  • Braille text should be carefully adhered to the page; care should be taken to not reduce the sharpness of the braille dots.
  • A high-quality print version of the text should be included along with the braille on each page.