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A Publication about Visual Impairments and Deafblindness for Families and Professionals

By: Chrissy Cowan, Mentor Coordinator, TSBVI Outreach Program
Scott Baltisberger, Education Consultant, TSBVI Outreach Program

Abstract: The authors stress the importance of observing students in their natural environments for the purpose of planning intervention and specialized instruction. Steps for the observation process are provided along with a rationale for each step

Keywords: observation, observing students with visual impairments, skill transference, observation for planning instruction

As a TVI who changed campuses, I rarely ate lunch in the elementary school cafeterias, unless it was “enchilada day”. On one of these days I happened to spot my 3rd grade blind student with her peers enjoying this delicious lunch, except she was eating it with her hands. Picture that—enchiladas, beans, rice—she was a mess! Another time, stepping into the science classroom of a 6th grade student with low vision to deliver a message, I saw that the class was working with scatter plots. My student and her teacher were struggling with this visually complex task, and fortunately I could give them some tips. I frankly had no idea what 6th graders did in science! What bothered me about both of these situations is that they were happenstance. I realized that I periodically needed to see my students functioning in their natural environments so that I could work on the skills required to help them integrate academically and socially in my 1:1 instructional sessions. Once I worked on individual skills, I also needed to do spot checks to see if these skills were indeed transferring to these environments. What follows are guidelines for observing both in classroom settings, as well as areas outside the classroom.  


Observing in Classrooms

  • Observations of students in general education settings should occur in an ongoing and consistent manner. These observations not only allow you to identify challenges as they arise but also foster and maintain your relationships with the teachers of those classes.
  • Be sure that the general education teacher understands that your observations are geared toward improving the skills and access of the VI student; that your role is not to critique his or her skill or presentation.
  • An observation does not need to encompass the entire class period. Quite frequently, a good feeling for how things are going can be acquired within the first 15-20 minutes. Rather than evaluating the effectiveness of your observation by the length of your time in the room, conclude the visit once you feel what you have observed is a good representation of a typical class.
  • Try to schedule your time so that you have at least a few moments to touch base with the teacher. This allows them to verbalize any difficulties or triumphs that have occurred. However, remember that they are on a tight schedule and may not have a lot of time to engage in lengthy problem-solving discussions. If the teacher doesn’t have time, follow up with an email that asks for time to meet.
  • A good deal of your VI instruction should be driven by what you observe in the general education classes. The vast majority of learning by the VI student will occur in the general education setting. The task of the TVI is to ensure that the student has full access to these learning situations. Observations will guide you as to what skills are needed to facilitate this access.
  • It may be most beneficial to provide some instruction in the general education class (push in) to ensure that skills taught in pullout situations are generalized. The general education environment is very different from the pullout environment and the student may have difficulty recognizing how to apply newly learned skills.

Observing in Areas Outside of Classrooms

  • Observations of students in areas outside of classrooms should occur regularly in order to determine challenges the student encounters, transference of VI-related skills taught, and need for new skill instruction.
  • If this observation occurs in a class such as art, music, or P.E., try to schedule your time so that you have at least a few moments to touch base with the teacher. This allows them to verbalize any difficulties or triumphs that have occurred. However, remember that they are on a tight schedule and may not have a lot of time to talk. If the teacher doesn’t have time, follow up with an email that asks for time to meet.
  • A good deal of your VI skill instruction should be driven by what you observe. The task of the TVI and COMS is to ensure that the student has full access to these learning situations. Observations will guide you as to what skills are needed to facilitate this access.
  • When you are observing a lesson led by another professional, avoid interacting with the student unless the situation is potentially dangerous or harmful.

Either meet with the teacher after the lesson, if convenient, or leave a note/send an email requesting a time to meet—then meet up.This enables you to share your observations and to collaborate on student needs regarding the environment, learning materials, or student skills you can work on and she can reinforce in the classroom

Observation Process
Let teacher know in advance why you need to observe your student periodically So she understands that you are there to (a) collaborate on adaptations for vision, (b) see if your student is transferring skills you are working on, and (c) determine further skills you need to address with the student
Email the teacher in advance to suggest a time frame for your observation Avoid surprises!
Avoid interacting with or sitting near your student while observing You want to see how he manages on his own. This is not a “lesson” opportunity, but rather provides information for future intervention
Avoid interrupting the teacher This would interrupt the flow of the lesson
Write down your observation notes So that you can apply this information to recommend intervention regardin access to materials, student skills you can work on, and adaptations to the physical environment
Avoid comments or judgments that look like you are critiquing the way the teacher teaches or the way the lesson is taught This tends to put people on their guard, and may hinder future observations
Construct your observation around: The physical environment The learning materials being used

The student’s performance skills

This provides you with a clear focus

Share information from your observation with parents and other staff as appropriate. Others might be able to reinforce your goals for the student, as well as provide more opportunities for practicing a targeted skill.

By: Heather Withrow, Family Leader, Austin

Abstract: A Texas family leader shares her experience at the 2016 National Family Association for Deaf-Blind Symposium, which was held in Austin, TX

Keywords: family wisdom, family leadership, National Family Association for Deaf-Blind, conference, Cogswell-Macy Act

The 2016 NFADB symposium, “Mobilizing a National Family Leadership Network”, took place on the beautiful campus of St. Edward’s University, in Austin, Texas from July 16-18. There were presentations, parent panels and group break-out sessions, buffets, cash bar, dinner out of a food truck, live music, ice cream, awards and recognitions, booths and handmade products for sale throughout the weekend. The sign language interpreter and SSP coordination was excellent, many thanks to Susanne Morgan Morrow and Kathleen Peters for taking care of this for me and my fellow Deaf and DeafBlind attendees.

picture of a lady signing
Photo of a sign language interpreter


The Saturday highlights were keynote presentations by Eduardo Madera and George Stern, both from DeafBlind Citizens in Action. We were also entertained and inspired by Austin area DeafBlind and Synthfreq sisters Crystal and Danielle Morales’ music video, “Exploring My World”, and their behind the scenes talk. (Editor’s Note: you can experience the song for yourself at and There were facilitated topical tables where participants could participate in two opportunities to focus on issues that are important to them. There were 10 topics in all, including siblings, IEPs, jobs and transition.

The evening’s Mary O’Donnell Social was held in the simply elegant Maloney Room upstairs in the Main Building, from where we had a gorgeous view already being on the top floor of a building on top of a hill. We looked out over the trees, homes and small buildings with downtown Austin’s buildings reaching toward the sky in the distance.

picture of the view
Photo of the skyline of Austin seen from St. Edward’s University


On Sunday, there were great back-to- back presentations by Mark Richert on the sorely needed Cogswell-Macy Act and Robbie Blaha on qualified personnel in education. There were two separate panels on the topics of how qualified personnel made a difference in their or their kids’ lives and the second panel was of parents discussing their child’s DeafBlind adult life, realizing their dreams.

picture of the speaker at a podium
Photo of Robbie Blaha speaking to NFADB with Mark Richert looking on


We enjoyed deliciously sweet and savory crepe dinners served out of Crepe Crazy’s food truck. Crepe Crazy is local deaf-owned and operated food business in Austin. They have two brick-and-mortar restaurants in the area. I made sure I was among the first few in line! The very last session on Monday, July 18th had attendees gather together by states and discuss ideas and actually create an action plan for following through on them. I am pleased to report that my group, Texas, targeted July 28th as our Cogswell-Macy Act Texas Call-In Day. Many of us reported calling in and e-mailing our legislators’ offices. As we all know, we still have work to do as we still do not have a republican Senator sponsoring our bill. My favorite part of all of this, intertwined in everything, was meeting, reuniting and talking with individuals with their own streaks of paint in this canvas of deafblindness. I got to spend quality time with baby Clarisa, who is the only other person in this world like my son Orion, and her family who came to town from Wisconsin for the symposium. I finally met in person another inspiring mother I “met” through a Yahoo email listserv when Orion was a baby. People connected, planned, interacted, laughed, listened and made even more memories from our time together on the Hilltop of St. Edwards University. It was a successful symposium and I look forward to the next one!

picture of a couple at dinner
Photo of the author Heather Withrow and another attendee at the NFADB Symposium

By: Andrew Cohen, DeafBlind Camp of Texas President

Abstract: Read about an exciting camping experience for adults with deafblindness

Keywords: Family Wisdom, DeafBlind camp, recreation, community, adults, Service Support


A Note about the use of the term DeafBlind: On April 6, 2016, the American Association of the Deaf-Blind (AADB) released a statement to the community that announced they are changing the spelling of the organization to American Association of the DeafBlind, thereby eliminating the hyphen, because there “ the need to shift from a medical view of being a DeafBlind person to a cultural one. We now view our community as a cultural community.” This name change was “overwhelmingly passed by the active members with approximately 90%” voting in favor of the name change. Culture and Language instills a sense of pride, belonging, and community.

Individuals 18 years old and above and with varying degrees of hearing and vision loss known as DeafBlind have always dreamt of a safe, fun, barrier-free place where they could learn from each other and gain rich experiences. It is no longer a dream! Jacqueline Izaguirre, Kim Huston, Todd Huston, Kelly Brittingham, and Andrew Cohen met in early March 2016. Since then, the DeafBlind Camp of Texas organization has received nonprofit status. The organization’s goal is to bring every DeafBlind individual to a safe and barrier-free place for empowerment training.

The very first and hopefully annual DeafBlind Camp of Texas (DBCTX) was held at Variety's Peaceable Kingdom September 2nd to September 5th. Nearly 40 people including 10 DeafBlind individuals and 25 Support Service Providers participated in this magical journey!

Many recreational activities were offered at the camp such as climbing wall, zip line, high swing, archery, art and crafts, dancing, camp fire with s’mores, support groups, swimming, putt putt golf, slip and slide, and many more. All activities were completely accessible. Braille schedules, menus, and tactile maps were provided to braille readers. Wheelchair users were accommodated. Hayley Broadway and Kris Lund, Support Service Provider (SSP) Coordinators, assigned at least two Support Service Providers (SSPs) to each camper to provide visual information, human guide, and communication. Communication was provided in whatever mode met the needs of the camper: American Sign Language including tactile, spoken English, amplified sound, or written media.

What are Support Service Providers (SSP's)? Unlike interveners who help DeafBlind individuals make decisions, SSP's provide support that enhances independence (for example: facilitating environmental communication, providing sighted guidance). SSP's are not personal attendants nor interpreters. DeafBlind individuals are empowered to make autonomous decisions through their SSP.

Everyone including the volunteers kept asking for more! One camper was, in fact, grouchy on the last day because she did not want the camp to end! Another camper said "The interaction between hearing impaired and totally DeafBlind was amazing!” Students from Lamar University and Austin Community College informed us they are coming back and they will bring more volunteers!

It has been inspiring and a sheer joy to witness the dream becoming a reality. We at DeafBlind Camp of Texas hope to grow the camp on an annual basis, but we cannot do it without your help. The camp runs on purely donations. Everyone involved in the camp is a volunteer including the planning committee, the coordinators, and the SSPs. For more information, please go to and check out our social media (Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) for awesome pictures and videos!


picture of female on waterslide
Photo of Natalie, a DeafBlind adult, in a blue bath suit experiencing the rush of cool water against her face while sliding across the water slide!


image of students helping each other
Photo of Amanda, a DeafBlind young lady, having a blast with another DeafBlind friend, Patsy, at the putt putt course with Samantha, a SSP, standing behind them
image of a man climbing a rock wall
Photo of Gene, an individual with deafblindness, courageously climbing the rock wall alone!

By: Andrea Wade, Parent

Abstract: Learn about this family’s attendance at the recent conference of the National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation, as well as what they learned about albinism and life in general.

Key Words: Albinism, conference, friend

My name is Andrea Wade. My husband, Sean, and I have a 7-year-old daughter, Elizabeth, who has albinism. Albinism is an inherited condition in which people have little or no pigment in their skin, hair and/or eyes. They have inherited genes that do not make the usual amount of a pigment called melanin. About one in 17,000 people in the U.S. have some type of albinism. Although Elizabeth was born with a head full of white hair, we didn’t learn that she had albinism until she was about six weeks old. We understood that we needed to take necessary precautions to protect her while she was out in the sun by wearing sunscreen, sunglasses and protective clothing. One issue that we were completely unaware of is that people with albinism always have a visual impairment and it is not something that is correctable with glasses or surgery. The degree of visual impairment varies, but many people with albinism are considered legally blind. At our most recent visit to the eye doctor, Elizabeth’s corrected vision was 20/200.

Since learning that Elizabeth has albinism, we became members of a wonderful organization called NOAH (National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation). NOAH hosts a national conference every other summer and this past July was our third time attending the conference. The conference this year was in Pittsburgh and our whole family attended. In addition to Elizabeth, we have a 5-year-old son, Joseph, who does not have albinism.

The NOAH conference consists of various workshops for parents of children with albinism and adults with albinism, as well as a number of planned social activities. One of the social activities we signed up for was spending the evening at the Carnegie Science Sportsworks Center. NOAH had reserved the 12,000 square foot building for the evening and attendees could clock how fast they can run the 10 yard dash or throw a fast ball, try a rock climbing wall, see how high they can jump, and become a human yo-yo just to name a few! The kids and adults had a blast trying out all of these fun activities. Now, I have to admit, I had one of those parent fail moments to my visually impaired child. Elizabeth was standing in line for her second chance at becoming the human yo-yo and Joseph was tugging on my pant leg begging me to race him in the 10 yard dash. I agreed to race him and without even thinking, walked to the small track area (about 50 feet away). You know where this is going. Elizabeth finished yo-yo-ing herself and then couldn’t find me in the place where I had been, and I obviously forgot to tell her where I was headed. We eventually reconnected, but she was in tears because she couldn’t find me and I was angry with myself for being so absent minded. Lesson learned. It reminded me how much we take our vision for granted, as well as the importance of essential communication with our kiddos.

picture of a boy and girl in sunglasses
Photo of Elizabeth and Joseph outdoors wearing sunglasses


Although this was our third conference, I still find myself wanting to attend multiple sessions that are being presented at the same time! I was drawn to the scientific topics this year. There was information on the latest research in albinism. There are actually seven different types of albinism and one research question asked, “Is visual acuity different in different types of albinism?” The information presented found that yes, it is different (in the 15 and older age group) when different types of albinism are compared. Also, since melanin is needed for development of the very back part of the eye (the fovea), could improving melanin synthesis during the time of eye development also then improve vision? Now, the pilot study involves five adults and the goal is to increase melanin production. But ultimately, the scientists are hoping to find a treatment that could be given to children during foveal development that could improve their vision. Another session I really enjoyed was “iPad Apps for Education.” Clearly, we live in a technological world and although some are resistant to how things are changing, technology advances are so useful to those with visual impairments. The presenter talked about “Genius Scan” which allows you to scan a worksheet on your iPad, open it in “Goodreader” or “Notability,” complete the assignment (without having to strain to see that tiny print!) and then print it out or email it back to the teacher. “Notability” also allows a student to organize their work in folders which seems like a rather important task to master as our kids get older. I left this session feeling amazed at what people come up with and comforted knowing Elizabeth will have a varied group of “tools” to help her navigate school and work.

picture of three girls hugging
Photo of Elizabeth and two other little girls with albinism


Often times, what kids are learning is more important than what the adults are finding out about in their sessions. I love asking kids about their experiences to find out what impressed them most. I thought I would include some Q&A from Elizabeth and Joseph and get their insights into our trip!

  • Q: What was your favorite part of the NOAH conference?
  • Elizabeth: "Getting to see Sadie, my friend with albinism. She is from Canada."
  • Joseph: "I got to see new people."
  • Q: What’s one thing you learned at the NOAH conference?
  • Elizabeth: "That some people are there because they know people that have albinism. Not everyone at the conference had albinism."
  • Joseph: "You should treat others the way you want to be treated."
  • Q: What was your favorite part about the trip?
  • Elizabeth: "There was a ballroom in the hotel and we got to have a dance there Saturday night."
  • Joseph: "We brought snacks on the airplane."

This NOAH conference was the biggest yet with over 1000 people in attendance. Each conference gives us new insights and valuable information. In addition to the sessions, some of the best parts of attending are the casual conversations while at breakfast or lunch, as well as the party on Saturday evening. It is so much fun to watch the kids dance and enjoy themselves. Sometimes, I think, wow, if we didn’t have Elizabeth, we wouldn’t have met all of these great people, or had any of these experiences. Honestly, I knew nothing about albinism before Elizabeth was born. I didn’t even know the word “albinism.” Knowledge gives us a new perspective. It helps us grow in ways we didn’t know we could grow! One of the facilitators of the mother’s workshop I attended talked about how she tried to make everything with her kids an “adventure”! Even the most mundane and what might be difficult activities (like sometimes having to eat lunch by yourself in the cafeteria) became adventures. That really struck a chord with me. Our goal is to look at those daily routines that can be a struggle and turn them into something fun, to put a different spin on it. I hope you can take a step back, see all that is good and enjoy your adventure too!

picture of children in front of a skyline
Photo of Elizabeth and Joseph in front of the skyline of Pittsburgh

By: Ann Foxworth, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired Alumnus

Abstract: Enjoy reading about this blind adult’s journey through life and how her family supported her to become independent and have a full and fulfilling life.

Keywords: blind, school, employment

Floyd and Mary McMullen rejoiced as they welcomed their third daughter into the world. But, after four months, they sat in the pediatrician’s office and were filled with fear and dismay as they listened to the doctor telling them their new baby daughter, Ann, was blind, and there was no procedure to restore her sight. Their hearts were heavy as they grieved for the loss of a normal life for their youngest child.

Floyd and Mary came from hard working families and they had excellent problem-solving skills. They made a decision to raise Ann using the same techniques they were using with their older daughters.

And so, Ann began her “normal” life, that her parents loved her enough to give her. They allowed Ann to find her own way through exploring her surroundings, always watchful, but never, ever hovering. She learned to roller skate, ride a bike and swim. Ann was enrolled in kindergarten at age five, and successfully and happily completed the program. At age six, Ann was placed into a contained classroom for blind children, in a public school, where she completed first through fifth grades.

The family was forced by changing circumstances, to move out of Fort Worth and the decision was made for Ann to complete her education at the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI), in Austin. Floyd and Mary’s hearts once again breaking, on Ann’s behalf, made the 200-mile journey to Austin and settled Ann into her new life as a student. As they returned home to face the imminent death of Floyd, due to a lung disease, they grieved for their little girl, just eleven years old, 200 miles away from them. But they kept that hope for a “normal” life for Ann at the front of their minds and worked through their grief.

Ann was happily settling into her new school; making friends and learning how to live in a community of peers. She received the news of her father’s death just three months after leaving home. Ann learned, many years later, just how desperately her father had longed to go to Austin and bring her home again, and how he had quelled that longing by reminding himself that Ann was learning to be independent and adjusting to life as a blind person.

Ann enjoyed seven happy years at TSBVI, where she studied hard, grew into a young adult, and found dreams of her own. Ann graduated with honors and set out, with a positive outlook, into the world. She entered the Business Enterprises of Texas program, where she managed cafeterias for over seven years. She married and welcomed her son, and seven years later, a daughter. Her life was full, and that “normal” life her parents hoped for was a reality. Her days were filled with raising her children, and all the challenges and rewards found in parenthood.

When her children were independent adults with their own lives, Ann, at age 43 decided to start a new career. She became the first blind person to hold a position as Rehabilitation Assistant at Division for Blind Services (DBS). She worked in this position at Criss Cole Rehabilitation Center for five years. During that time, Ann was often requested for substitute teaching needs across several departments at the Center. After five years, Ann was offered a position as a Rehabilitation Teacher, where she developed and administered a program for skills integration for students about to graduate from the Center’s programs.

Ann found another opportunity with Division for Blind Services as a braille transcriber. Her love for teaching and producing braille made this work a perfect fit for her. After two years in the Braille Unit, Ann was presented with yet another opportunity to live her passion to promote braille as literacy for all people who are blind, in a position as Statewide Braille Consultant. She developed and administered a program for providing DBS Field and Center Rehabilitation Teachers the skills to teach braille. She wrote several manuals for use by teachers of braille, which proved invaluable to the agency’s seventy Rehabilitation Teachers across the state.

Ann is an active member of the American Council of the Blind, an organization that promotes independence and self advocacy for all blind Americans. She is active in her church, serving on boards, committees, and community outreach programs. Floyd and Mary’s dream for their youngest daughter to have a full, productive and “normal” life, has been realized. They gave the greatest gift they could; the gift of loving support, and letting go.

By: Heather Withrow, DBMAT Board Member & Blogger, Austin

Abstract: The author shares how she partnered with a cake artist to make her son’s birthday cake a meaningful and accessible experience.

Keywords: family wisdom, DeafBlind, birthday celebration, full accessibility, tactile

Editor’s Note: We are thankful that Heather has given us permission to share another of her blog postings where she shares her insights and DeafBlind geekiness. If you haven’t had the pleasure of reading Heather’s blog, we invite you to visit her at

Photo of a boy eating pieces cake components
Photo of Orion enjoying a chocolate ball from his name


Orion had one of the most unique and DeafBlind-intriguing birthday cakes ever to celebrate his 6th birthday! This special cake was created by Tina and Amy with "that. specialty cake company," located in Austin, Texas. It had beautiful marbleized blue and purple fondant, Orion’s name was spelled in braille with white chocolate balls, and you can see and feel a few candied constellations along the cake’s side. Inside was the chocolatiest triple chocolate I’ve ever tasted, so yummy that there were none left over after the party.

picture of a birthday cake
Photo of a flat, round blue marbleized fondant covered cake has "o r i o n" spelled in braille chocolate balls on top. Constellations are visible on the sides- Orion and the Big Dipper. Yellow balls are strung around the entire bottom circumference of the cake


Amy and I talked about doing a special tactile and interactive cake for Orion’s 6th birthday, a great idea right from the start! I’ve always included candles for his birthday even though it was so awkward, perhaps a tactile oxymoron, that I wanted him to touch but then didn’t want him touch when they were lit. The chocolate balls were on top of toothpicks that were inserted on top of the cake for Orion himself to remove and enjoy thoroughly on his terms, instead of candles.

photo of people signing happy birthday
Photo description: Happy Birthday To You! (Everyone's finger pointing "You" at Orion while Dad signs "Birthday" on Orion.


He was already fussing when we were about to present the cake to him. To let him know that we were going to have cake, I gave him a cupcake wrapper to help clue him in on what’s going to happen. He’s always had cupcakes for his birthday so this one was going to be a surprise in two ways, it’s not cupcakes and it’s awesome! The wrapper calmed him down as he crunched it in his hands. We set the cake down in front of him sitting in his red wagon, he touched the cake, picked and pulled at the fondant and once he discovered the Orion braille in chocolate balls, he committed to eating them. He totally touched that cake! Each slice a guest had was blessed by Orion’s fingerprints.

picture of boy eating cake
Photo Description: Orion works on the last braille dot and feels Mom cutting apart the last pieces of cake


picture of boy with cake and siblings
Photo Description: Orion and his siblings pose with the cake after Orion started picking off the chocolate balls


Amy has a special place in Orion and our family’s life. She was Orion’s first teacher, even though she trained as a teacher of the Deaf, when we moved to Austin just in time for the 2012-2013 school year. Amy dove in head first, learning how to work with our precious DeafBlind 2 year-old son. We immediately saw her on the floor with him, putting herself in his skin (I’d say “his shoes” but Orion doesn’t like wearing them) as well as going to workshops, taking intervener courses and geeking out on DeafBlind strategies. Orion was so very fortunate to have her on his team early on! Now the same Amy we know is in a different setting and is not a stranger to Orion. She’s in the kitchen now, creating eye-catching specialty cakes with her business partner, Tina. She still does intervener work with Orion.

boy being held in a womans arms
Photo Description: Amy holds chocolate-mouthed Orion


Little did I know, she and my husband, Thomas, schemed up yet another awesome surprise cake to celebrate my 40th birthday. "that. specialty cake company" also made my birthday cake!

picture of multi layer cake with edible art
Photo Description: Two tiers of cake and edible art!


  • Touch That Cake!

    • Abstract: The author shares how she partnered with a cake artist to make her son’s birthday cake a meaningful and accessible experience.
    • Audio: Touch that Cake!
  • The Greatest Love

    • Abstract: Enjoy reading about this blind adult’s journey through life and how her family supported her to become independent and have a full and fulfilling life.
    • Audio: The Greatest Love
  • Travels to Pittsburgh

    • Abstract: Learn about this family’s attendance at the recent conference of the National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation, as well as what they learned about albinism and life in general.
    • Audio: Travels to Pittsburgh
  • DeafBlind CAN at DeafBlind Camp of Texas

    • Abstract: Read about an exciting camping experience for adults with deafblindness.
    • Audio: DeafBlind CAN at DeafBlind Camp of Texas
  • Mobilizing a National Family Leadership Network:
    Highlights from the 2016 NFADB Symposium

    • Abstract: A Texas family leader shares her experience at the 2016 National Family Association for Deaf-Blind Symposium, which was held in Austin, TX.
    • Audio: NFADB Symposium


  • The Art of Student Observation

    • Abstract: The authors stress the importance of observing students in their natural environments for the purpose of planning intervention and specialized instruction. Steps for the observation process are provided along with a rationale for each step.
    • Audio: The Art of Student Observation
  • The Development of Tactile Skills

    • Abstract: This article provides information on the development of tactile skills in students with visual impairments, including those with low vision. It explains the importance of the Hierarchy of Tactile Skills and includes suggestions for activities and resources.
    • Audio: Development of Tactile Skills
  • Tactile Books for Very Young Children

    • Abstract: Media and methods for adapting mass market books to tactile and braille books, and experience books which include real objects.
    • Audio: Tactile Books for Very Young Children
  • Gifts to Get Kids who are Blind,
    Visually Impaired or Have Additional Disabilities

    • Abstract: A discussion of toys appropriate for children who are in the early childhood years and have visual impairment, deafblindness, and/or additional disabilities.
    • Audio: Gifts to Get Kids who are Blind, Visually Impaired or Have Additional Disabilities