Main content

Alert message


Employees of the School shall comply with the provisions of the United States Copyright Law. Subject to certain specific exceptions, as stated below, the owner of a copyright has the exclusive rights to reproduce, distribute, perform, or display the copyrighted work, or to authorize such reproduction, distribution, performance, or display by others.

17 U.S.C. 106


An exception to the exclusive rights enjoyed by copyright owners is the doctrine of fair use. The fair use of a copyrighted work is not an infringement of copyright. The following factors shall be considered in determining fair use:

  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether the use is of a commercial nature, or for nonprofit educational purposes.
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work.
  3. The amount and importance of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

17 U.S.C. 107


A further exception shall be performance or display of a work by instructors or students, in the course of face-to-face teaching activities in a classroom or other similar place devoted to instruction.

17 U.S.C. 110


Employees who wish to use a copyrighted print material and sheet music shall follow the guidelines set forth in the "Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-for-Profit Educational Institutions" and "Guidelines for Educational Uses of Music". These guidelines establish a minimum guaranteed fair use, not a maximum. Any use which falls within these guidelines is a fair use; any use which exceeds these guidelines shall be judged by the four factors stated above and may be subject to challenge. Any determination regarding whether a use which exceeds the guidelines is a fair use shall rest with an appropriate court of law.


Notwithstanding the fair use guidelines, the following shall be prohibited:

  1. Copying of print materials and sheet music to create or replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations, or collective works. This prohibition against replacement or substitution applies whether copies of various works or excerpts are accumulated, or reproduced and used separately.
  2. Copying of or from works intended to be "consumable" in the course of study or teaching. These works include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests, test booklets, answer sheets, and like consumable material.

Copying shall not substitute for the purchase of books, publishers' reprints, or periodicals; be directed by higher authority; or be repeated with respect to the same item by the same teacher from term-to-term.

No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual cost of the photocopying.

Additional prohibitions regarding the use of music are:

  1. Copying for the purpose of performance, except as permitted under the "Guidelines for Educational Use of Music."
  2. Copying for the purpose of substituting for the purchase of music, except as permitted under the "Guidelines for Educational Use of Music."
  3. Copying without inclusion of the copyright notice that appears on the printed copy.


Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-for-Profit Educational Institutions" and "Guidelines for Educational Use of Music" contained in the historical note following 17 U.S.C. 107


Broadcast programs, including commercial and public television and radio, shall not be videotaped, or tape recorded, for reuse without permission, except within the following guidelines:

  1. A broadcast program may be recorded off-air simultaneously with broadcast transmission (including simultaneous cable retransmission) and retained by the School for a period not to exceed the first 45 consecutive calendar days after date of recording. At the end of that retention period, off-air recordings shall be erased, or destroyed.
  2. Off-air recordings may be used once by individual teachers in the course of relevant teaching activities and repeated once only when instructional reinforcement is necessary during the first ten consecutive school days within the 45-calendar-day retention period. "School days" are actual days of instruction, excluding examination periods.
  3. Off-air recordings shall be made at the request of and used by individual teachers and shall not be regularly recorded in anticipation of requests. No broadcast program shall be recorded off-air more than once at the request of the same teacher, regardless of the number of times the program is broadcast.
  4. A limited number of copies may be reproduced from each off-air recording to meet the legitimate needs of teachers under these guidelines. Each such additional copy shall be subject to all provisions governing the original recording. All copies of off-air recordings shall include the copyright notice of the broadcast program as recorded.
  5. After the first ten consecutive school days, off-air recordings may be used up to the end of the 45-calendar-day retention period only to determine whether or not to include the broadcast program in the teaching curriculum and shall not be used in the School for student exhibition, or any other nonevaluative purpose without authorization.
  6. Off-air recordings need not be used in their entirety, but the recorded programs shall not be altered from their original content. Off-air recordings shall not be physically, or electronically, combined, or merged, to constitute teaching anthologies, or compilations.

17 U.S.C. 107 historical note

Adopted: 11/7/80
Amended: 9/22/89, 1/26/96, 11/22/02