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Lynne:
Now we'll look at the forms in the back of Christine Roman's book, 2 pages after 185, called "Essential Forms." The part we'll fill out first is called "The CVI Range: The Across-CVI Characteristics Assessment Method", or "Rating I". We'll compare the notes we have taken from all of our information sources including the interview, the observation, and the direct assessment, to the "CVI Range Scoring Guide" which is in the book on page 97, or appendix 5.A.

Sara:
We found all of the characteristics in CVI Range 1 to 2, Student functions with minimal visual response and Range 3 to 4, Student functions with more consistent visual response, to be resolved, or marked in the "R" column, from notes on all three of our data sheets. In CVI Range 5 to 6, Student uses vision for functional tasks, we found all to be in the "R" column except two items. For the third statement in that section, "Latency present only when the student is tired, stressed, or overstimulated," we found the plus statement on the CVI Range Scoring Guide to be the most true for Ian, "Delay in directing visual attention toward a target only when experiencing fatigue or inappropriate levels of multisensory input." For the ninth statement, "May regard familiar faces when voice does not compete," we found the plus statement, "Glances at or looks directly into faces of familiar people, but only when the familiar person is not speaking," to be the most true for Ian.

Lynne:
In CVI Range 7 to 8, Student demonstrates visual curiosity, we found all statements to be resolved again except two. For the fourth statement, "Latency rarely present," we found the plus-minus statement to be the best description of Ian's visual behaviors, "Novel objects, complex environments, or fatigue may increase degree of delayed response," and so we marked that one on the assessment form. For the tenth statement, "Simple books, picture cards, or symbols regarded," we found more support for the plus statement in our data, "Visually attends to two-dimensional materials that have little complexity and that include one- to two-color images."

We marked the eighth statement as resolved, but you may not find this information in our data sheet: we realized this and went back and asked people who know Ian well about more specific behavior around mirrors. They remarked that Ian wasn't all that into looking at himself in the mirror, but would show interest in looking at himself when he was dressed up strangely, like for Halloween. So he doesn't get points for vanity, but we still believe this particular statement to be resolved, given his ability to look at other people's faces in fairly complex environments.

Sara:
In CVI Range 9 to10, Student spontaneously uses vision for most functional activities, we found a sharp shift to plusses, plus/minus, and even one minus, and none that were resolved. The first item, "Selection of toys or objects not restricted," we found the permutation under the plus column best described Ian, "Is able to visually examine and/or interact with objects of any color and of any surface pattern, even if they are novel." The second item, "Only the most complex environments affect visual response," we found to be most correct in the version described by the plus/minus statement, "Demonstrates visual curiosity in familiar environments that have low degrees of sensory complexity." The third item, "Latency resolved," we found to be a minus for Ian, "Demonstrates a delayed visual response to targets when tired or overstimulated."

Lynne:
The fourth item in this section, "No color or pattern preferences," we found to be the best fit for Ian in the plus column, "Color highlighting or pattern adjustment or highlight is not required for visual attention." It's not required, but it does make things easier. The fifth item, "Visual attention extends beyond 20 feet," we found the best fit for Ian in the plus statement as well, "Is able to visually locate and/or fixate on certain targets at distances up to and possibly beyond 20 feet away."

For the sixth item, "Views books or other two-dimensional materials, simple images," we found the plus/minus statement to best align with the data we gathered from Ian's visual behaviors, "Detects or identifies familiar elements in familiar two-dimensional, simple materials."

Sara:
For the seventh item, "Uses vision to imitate actions," we found the plus statement to be the most accurate for Ian, "Repeats actions in response to a direct model." We did not have this information on our data sheets but rather gathered it from a more general knowledge of Ian's social behaviors. We found this same knowledge also applied when examining the seventh statement, "Demonstrates memory of visual events," and decided that the plus statement was also appropriate here, "Demonstrates recognition of a person, place, or event that has occurred in the past."

The eighth statement, "Displays typical visual-social responses," we found to be best described for Ian in the plus-minus column, "Demonstrates appropriate affective social responses with familiar people."

Lynne:
The ninth statement, "Visual fields unrestricted," we found the plus/minus statement to be a great description, "Demonstrates greater reliance on peripheral fields; may continue to use near viewing for two-dimensional materials."

For the tenth item in this last section, "Look and reach completed as a single action," we found Ian was best described by the plus statement, "Uses visually guided reach, but may be affected by size of target or complexity of background." The last item, "Attends to two-dimensional images against complex backgrounds," was more challenging for Ian, and we found him to function more like the plus/minus definition, "Is able to identify salient features in adapted two-dimensional materials with backgrounds of low complexity."

Sara:
On page 61 of "Cortical Visual Impairment" Roman wrote, "The individual statements that describe visual behaviors are matched to the child's visual responses and scored until a 'ceiling effect' has been reached. A ceiling effect occurs when the pluses that indicate the student's current level of functioning end, and a cluster of minuses occur for four or more consecutive items. The minuses indicate that the student has not yet reached the level of functioning described in that range. The student's score of the assessment is determined by the number of the CVI Range in which the last plus item occurs prior to the shift to scores of plus-minus and minus. Since each group of statements is identified by a range of two scores, the lower number of the range is assigned if the plus statements end in the middle of the cluster, the higher number is used if the plus-scored statements are marked to the end of the cluster."

That would put Ian in the last section, CVI Range 9 to10, and since he has three plusses in the first half and three plusses in the second half, we would give him the higher of the two numbers. Rating I for Ian would be a 10.

Lynne:
The next section is called Rating II, the "Within-CVI Characteristics Method." The numbers stand for "not resolved" at 0, and in increments of .25, stand for various levels of resolution up to 1, which means "Resolved." These numbers correspond with numbers on the top row of the CVI Resolution Chart. The CVI Resolution Chart can be found at the end of the book within the forms in the same section as the CVI Range Ratings I and II. Rating II can be completed by matching the level of resolution described on the Resolution Chart of each characteristic that best depicts the child. Each characteristic is given a number, and after that, the numbers are added up to find a value for Rating II.

For number 1, color preference, we found that Ian was able to visually attend to many different colors and patterns, and though red and yellow seemed to draw his attention more, they were not necessary for him to look. We scored this characteristic as 1 (Range 9 to 10).

Sara:
For number 2, need for movement, we found Ian responded just a bit more quickly to movement, but that it seemed to be a fairly normal response. We also scored this characteristic as 1 (Range 9 to10).

For number 3, visual latency, we found that Ian consistently took longer to look when he was tired, so we scored that as .5 (Range 5 to 6).

For number 4, visual field preferences, we found Ian didn't have any field restrictions, and scored him in Range 9 to 10 with a 1.

Lynne:
Number 5, difficulties with visual complexity, seemed to be a specifically interfering characteristic for Ian, and we scored him in Range 5 to 6 with a .5, since he still had some trouble at this level with faces.

For number 6, light gazing and non-purposeful gaze, we found no difficulty or irregular behaviors in relation to light, so we scored that characteristic as resolved with a 1.

For number 7, difficulty with distance viewing, we found Ian to be in the 9 to10 range, in that his vision extends beyond 20 feet, especially with familiar items. We scored that as a 1.

Sara:
For number 8, atypical visual reflexes, we found this characteristic to be resolved for Ian, and scored this with a 1.

For number 9, difficulty with visual novelty, we found that the most resolved statement wasn't always true, and that selection of objects might not be completely unrestricted, so scored that characteristic at Range 7 to 8 instead, or .75.

Lynne:
The last characteristic, absence of visually guided reach, we found also to be resolved, so number 10 was marked as 1, (Range 9 to10).

So adding all ten numbers up, for Rating II we got a total of 8.75. So Ian's score for Rating II was recorded on the first page as an 8.75, making his CVI Range from 8.75 to 10, with a difference of 1.25.