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Brandon PLVF and Adaptations transcript

The Ratings in the CVI Range have uses that may be important to teachers of the visually impaired or others who are considering CVI assessment results and how they affect educational programming. Rating I can be used to determine present levels of visual functioning and Rating II can be used to determine modifications or adaptations for the Individual Education Plan. These two sets of information are important when writing a functional vision evaluation and learning media assessment, and can make up the bulk of the CVI narrative, if done separately.

The plus statements in Rating I of the CVI Range can be used to determine present levels of visual functioning. For Brandon, the plus statements are the following:

Prolonged periods of latency in visual tasks: demonstrates a delay in directing vision to a target every time or nearly every time a new object is presented or a new activity begins.

No regard of the human face: no attention to human faces, may seem to "look through" people.

Visually fixates when environment is controlled: intermittent eye-to-object contact, but only when visual, auditory, and tactile distractors are reduced or eliminated. A small degree of additional sensory input may be tolerated while viewing.

Less attracted to lights; can be redirected: may stare at lights, but is able to shift attention from lights when appropriate visual targets are presented in controlled environments.

Has a "favorite" color: continues to most consistently glance toward or have eye-to-object contact with targets made of a single, preferred color (red, sometimes blue) over objects of all other colors.

May notice moving objects at 2 to 3 feet: glances toward or has eye-to object contact with objects that move in space or are made of shiny or reflective materials and are at distances up to 3 feet.

Selection of toys or objects is less restricted: requires one to two sessions of "warm up:" looks at new objects that have attributes of familiar objects. Recognizes new objects immediately after one to two presentations.

The numbers on Rating II, or the highlighted areas of the CVI Resolution Chart, can be used as a helpful guide for describing appropriate modifications for your student.

Here are some accommodations that can be included in the IEP:

Number one: Brandon is more drawn to red objects. Also blue and green objects to a lesser degree. Use these colors as a visual anchor. Items that are one single color will draw his visual attention the best at this point. Colors that did not seem to draw visual attention included yellow. Yellow is typically used with students with CVI, but would not be indicated for Brandon.

Number two: Use reflective/shiny materials to draw Brandon's visual attention. Movement draws his visual attention but may not sustain it, so once he has begun looking, stop moving the object. Learning environments in which Brandon can easily move items himself may help him to understand movement and what his brain is perceiving through his eyes along with other sensory characteristics of an object.

Number three: Use objects consistently within routines that are a single, favored color, especially red, or use objects with reflective properties. Give Brandon extended time to "see" objects that are novel or multi-colored, or are non-favored colors.

Number four: Present instructional items in Brandon's central left field. Items that have reflective, movement, or light qualities can also be presented in his peripheral fields, as long as it can be detected by Brandon with his left eye.


Number five: When expecting Brandon to use his vision, keep environmental sounds and tactile input to a minimum. Use objects that are a single color unless they are backlit. Instructional materials should be three dimensional, in that a picture of a plate Brandon uses at lunch would not be recognizable as a lunch symbol, but the actual plate he uses would be appropriate. Also, use hand-under-hand as opposed to hand-over hand when showing or guiding Brandon. This allows him to regulate the amount of tactile input he is receiving.

Number six addresses Brandon's response to Light: Moderate levels of light can be used to attract Brandon's visual attention to functional objects.


Number seven addresses distance and has many implications. Brandon can detect moving items that are slightly beyond his near space, and this may be used for travel, for example, a shiny, reflective landmark may be used to denote a frequented location. Instructional materials should be within arms reach, especially if they are not moving. Allow Brandon to lean in close to view items of interest. Encourage Brandon to look while traveling by providing opportunities to access a non-complex sensory environment during these times, for example, travel the hallways right before or right after a passing period, instead of during.

Number eight: When presenting novel objects, consider using ones that have characteristics such as movement/reflective qualities and preferred color. Build items Brandon can recognize immediately by using consistent materials in multiple routines.


Brandon's ability to look and touch simultaneously is still developing. Brandon should have plenty of opportunities to act on the objects in his environment that he can best see, using the above accommodations. Functional routines that encourage Brandon to interact with his hands and his eyes at the same time, such as eating, hygiene, etc, can give him frequent practice at integrating sensory information.