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Sara: Ian was assessed in several different environments over the course of two testing sessions. The first and last are familiar classroom environments, the middle is the cafeteria. Due to his visual fatigue, Ian could not be assessed for longer periods. We made our notes on the data sheet called "Direct Assessment Information."

In the first clip, skittles are laid out on the table for Ian to find (and eat). He is able to find all the skittles in his lower field. Let's watch clip 1.

[video clip 1]

>>Teacher: They're skittles, you can eat 'em. You can eat 'em. They're for you for helping me with my homework. Ok. [Background voices] Awesome.

Sara: The very beginning of the clip got cut off, but the first skittle that Ian reached for was the red one. The second one was the yellow one. Those colors still seemed to draw his attention first, so we marked that information in "Color." Also, since Ian was able to find all items in his lower visual field, we marked that in "Field Preferences."

In the second clip, I bring an item into Ian's peripheral fields, first just holding it fairly still and then wiggling it.

[video clip 2]

>>Teacher: Now I'm going to be putting some stuff around you, but can you stare straight at Linda and just tell me when you can see what I have in my hand.

>>Ian: Alright.

>>Teacher: Try not to turn your head.

>>Ian: Yep.

>>Teacher: You can see it now? Ok. Can you look at Miss Linda again?

>>Ian: Yep.

>>Teacher: Ok, Ok, look at Miss Linda.

>>Ian: Yep.

>>Teacher: OK.

>>Ian: Yep. Yep.

>>Teacher: Alright! [Bell rings.]

>>Ian: Yep.

>>Teacher: Cool. And you'll see it coming around. Oh, what is that? I have no idea! It's a decoration.

>>Ian: It's a, it's a, yeah.

>>Teacher: Ok, thank you.

Ian responded to the item in his peripheral fields. He might have responded a little more quickly when the item was wiggled, but it's hard to tell. We wrote a note about that in the row called "Field Preferences."

In the third clip, I present Ian with a variety of pictures and invite him to say what he thinks they are. I begin with photos and end with some boardmaker line drawings. This is a long clip with a lot of information for our assessment data sheet. Let's watch.

[video clip 3]

>>Teacher: Can you tell me what that is?

>>Ian: Um-hum.

>>Teacher: You can pick it up if you want.

>>Ian: Ok. A picture.

>>Teacher: A picture? Can you tell what it is?

>>Ian: Um-hum. A car.

>>Teacher: A car.

>>Ian: Um-hum. It's a guy.

>>Teacher: Can you tell who that is? No? Ok. But it's a person?

>>Ian: Um-hum.

>>Teacher: Ok. Thank you. How about this?

>>Ian: There's people.

>>Teacher: There's a lot of people, yeah. They're in a place on campus. Can you, do you know, can you tell where they are?

>>Ian: What's it Cafeteria?

>>Teacher: Cafeteria! You got it. What about this place?

>>Ian: Um. Music room?

>>Teacher: Music room?

>>Ian: Or the auditorium.

>>Teacher: Or the auditorium, yeah, it's a big room, isn't it. How about this picture?

>>Ian: A girl, a lady.

>>Teacher: It's a girl.

>>Ian: Um-hum.

>>Teacher: You know who she is?

>>Ian: Uh-uh.

>>Teacher: No? Ok.

>>Ian: Building?

>>Teacher: It's a building. Can you tell where it is? It's a building on campus.

>>Ian: I have two things I think it is.

>>Teacher: Ok.

>>Ian: Is it um, the rec center?

>>Teacher: No, but that's a good guess though.

>>Ian: Health center?

>>Teacher: Nope, but that's a good guess too!

>>Ian: The gym?

>>Teacher: Ha ha ha, look let me show you this one. Does that help you figure out where it is?

>>Ian: Pool?

>>Teacher: It's the pool! When you look at a picture, Ian, does it make it easier for you to see it if it has this yellow around it?

>>Ian: See, this is kinda harder, can't see it. This one is easier to see coz of the blue.

>>Teacher: Because of the blue color?

>>Ian: Of the water.

>>Teacher: So you could tell easier from this picture?

>>Ian: Yeah.

>>Teacher: Ok. Thank you. Look at this picture.

>>Ian: It's outside?

>>Teacher: It is outside.

>>Ian: Um...

>>Teacher: You're not sure? It's ok. I'm just trying to figure out if we have pictures for you to put on your calendar, what they should look like. So I know you like colors in your pictures. Is this picture too black and white with a lot of shadows?

>>Ian: Yeah.

>>Teacher: So you can't really figure out where it is? It's the pavilion.

>>Ian: Yeah. I know that place.

>>Teacher: You knew that was your next guess? Ha ha ha. Ok, can you tell me what that is?

>>Ian: Red thing? I know what it is. It's a stop sign.

>>Teacher: It's a stop sign. It's a red thing. Ok. Awesome. Ok. Now these aren't photographs, but they're pictures. Can you tell me what that's a picture of?

>>Ian: Is it at the high school?

>>Teacher: No, it's nothing at school. Can you tell what it is? Somebody drew it to mean something. Can you tell what it means? Or not. It's ok if you can't.

>>Ian: Does it tell time?

>>Teacher: Does it tell time? No, that's a good guess, though, because it's kind of round isn't it, like a clock. It's supposed to be a picture of a smiley face. And this word is "happy." It's a picture that means somebody's happy. Ok, how about this?

>>Ian: Um, yellow sign.

>>Teacher: A yellow sign?

>>Ian: Um-hum.

>>Teacher: It is yellow.

>>Ian: Uh-huh.

>>Teacher: Uh-huh, thank you!

>>Ian: Outside, black flower.

>>Teacher: A black flower? It's supposed to be a black spider. A big spider. Ah!

We marked information from that clip in "Color" and noted that the yellow outline of the picture didn't help, but the salient features that were accented with color helped him identify what the picture was, like in the case of the blue water for the pool photograph. In the boardmaker pictures, he noticed the red in the stop sign, and yellow on the line drawing of the bus, which he identified as a yellow sign. We wrote notes in "Need for Movement" because he moved one picture that he was having difficulty seeing.

We put a great deal of information from that clip in the fifth row, "Complexity." He identified correctly the non-complex photo of a white van (as a car), the complex photo of the cafeteria, and the gender of people in photographs. He couldn't tell who any of the people were, though they were people he recognized in person. Photos with bad lighting or low contrast were difficult for him to even guess at. He could pick out some salient features in the boardmaker symbols though he couldn't correctly identify any of them. This would be a complexity issue in designing a calendar system that is the easiest to see: he seems to respond best to photographs.

We marked this one in "Distance Viewing" as well, because Ian moved closer to view these two-dimensional items, though it may really have been that he was trying to reduce complexity.

In clip 4, I take the pictures that Ian correctly identified when presented by themselves and place them on a cluttered background; a piece of cloth with a busy design. I ask him to find the pool, which was the one that he seemed to be able to most easily see presented singly.

[video clip 4]

>>Teacher: One more thing. I'm going to spread this out. And then I'm going to put these pictures on it that you recognized before. Can you show me the picture of the pool?

>>Ian: It's hard.

>>Teacher: It's hard on that background isn't it. Alright. Thank you!

>>Teacher: One more thing. I'm going to spread this out. And then I'm going to put these pictures on it that you recognized before. Can you show me the picture of the pool?

>>Ian: It's hard.

>>Teacher: It's hard on that background isn't it. Alright. Thank you!

We put notes about "Movement" on our data collection sheet from this clip. Ian moved his head a great deal when trying to locate the picture. He may have been trying to activate his visual system, which could be a strategy that helped in the past with objects or with less complex pictures. He also moved closer, and we made a note of this in the "Distance" row, though this may have also been a complexity reduction strategy.

In the fifth row, we also recorded information about this clip: Ian was able to find the white van on the crazy background, which may have been the only picture that presented a large enough single color spot to see amidst all the clutter. The yellow outlined picture did not help him see it.

One interesting thing that happened was that on that crazy cluttered background, Ian looked at and reached for the picture he had picked. He did not look away. We marked that in the row for "Visually Guided Reach."

Clip 5 involves Lynne laying out a bunch of colored chips in a row and asking Ian to tell her what colors they are. Let's watch clip five.

[video clip 5]

>>Teacher: Almost done, Ian. Are you getting tired? Getting tired of looking? Ready to go to math? Ha ha. Ok, can you name these for me one by one in any order you want?

>>Ian: Um-hum. Yellow.

>>Teacher: Yellow?

>>Ian: You want the shape?

>>Teacher: Just tell me the color.

>>Ian: Color, not shape?

>>Teacher: Not the shape.

>>Ian: Alright. Yellow. Green.

>>Teacher: Thank you.

>>Ian: Blue.

>>Teacher: Blue.

>>Ian: Red.

>>Teacher: Thank you.

>>Ian: Orange.

>>Teacher: Orange. Lovely. Alright. Thank you!

We marked this one in the first row, "Color," because Ian again had a difficult time telling the red and the orange apart, especially when they were right next to each other. He moved them apart and then was able to tell which was which. He also tended to pick the color on the end. We marked those two things in "Complexity," because having space around them really seemed to help him identify them, especially those red/oranges. We noticed that he moved closer to these small items, which we marked in "Distance."

Clip 6 shows Ian briefly in the cafeteria. We play a game called, "Who is it?" Ian is asked to identify familiar people before they talk to him. Let's watch.

[video clip 6]

>>Teacher 1: Got it, alright! Ok, next contestant on who is it?

>>Ian: Tara!

>>Teacher 2: Hi Ian! [Laughter]

Ian is able to visually identify two people who go to the cafeteria with him regularly. We recorded that in the row, "Complexity."

In clip 7, Ian is back in a familiar classroom setting, the computer lab. A familiar person comes into the room and Ian has trouble identifying him, perhaps because he is out of context. Let's watch.

[video clip 7]

>>Teacher 1: Hey Ian, who is that next to you on the other side of you? Who is that?

>>Ian: Yep.

>>Teacher 1: You know?

>>Ian? Um-hum.

>>Teacher 1: You know? Ok.

>>Ian: I know.

>>Teacher 1: You know. Can you think of the name?

>>Ian: Um-hum. Um-hum.

>>Teacher 1: Can you tell me? Girl or boy?

>>Ian: Guy.

>>Teacher 1: Hmm?

>>Ian: A guy.

>>Teacher 1: A guy?

>>Ian: Um-hum.

>>Teacher 1: You need more clues?

>>Ian: I got it.

>>Teacher 2: What about the ID?

>>Ian: I know who it is!

>>Teacher 1: Do you know who it is?

>>Ian: Um-hum. I know.

>>Teacher 2: What's his name?

>>Ian: His first name starts with a J.

>>Teacher 1: Um-hum.

>>Ian: And then an O.

>>Teacher 1: Um-hum.

>>Ian: And then an L.

>>Teacher 1: Um-hum.

>>Ian: And it's Joel!

>>Teacher 2: No....

>>Ian: Not Joel? Then it's, then it's.

>>Teacher 2: [quietly] John.

>>Ian: John!

>>Teacher 1: John, Ok. Perfect.

We recorded this information in "Complexity," though we wondered if it might have been a language retrieval problem, like what Ian's mom talked about. He identified the gender of the person correctly but thought it was a different guy.

In clip 8, Ian is presented with novel items. Though he is able to detect all of these things, he sometimes has to use other senses to figure out just what they are.

[video clip 8]

>>Teacher: Try to see if you can tell what it is, ok, before you touch it.

>>Ian: Alright.

>>Teacher: Ok, thanks for being so patient.

>>Ian: A cup. A cup.

>>Teacher: Cool. Now tell me what you think this might be before you touch it. Ohhhhh...cheating, cheating!

Ian used auditory clues to support visual information about the cup: the cup made a noise when it was placed on the table. He labeled it from visual and auditory information alone. He also leaned in to try to identify the "book," and relied on his tactile sense to figure out what it was. We marked this in "Complexity," because Ian employed other senses when vision didn't do it, and in "Novelty," since he detected these new things right away, and in "Distance" since he moved so close to the one he had trouble with. We also recorded these two responses in "Visually Guided Reach," since he reached directly toward these novel items and did not look away.

In clip 9, Ian is presented with a visually complex item, which he detects and picks up immediately, but then looks away while he is picking it up.

[video clip 9]

>>Teacher: What else have we got here in this bag of goodies? Wah-ha-ha ha. What's that?

>>Ian: A ball.

This is late in the testing session and Ian may be tired. We really didn't see him examine this object visually, only tactually, which we recorded in "Complexity." We marked it in "Visually Guided Reach," since he looked away right before picking up the item.

We'll go ahead and look at clip 10, though it is really hard to see Ian's response because it is subtle. Sara brings her hand toward Ian's face to see if he blinks to threat, which he does, but it is barely perceptible from the video. Same thing for the blink to touch.

[video clip 10]

>>Teacher: I'm gonna do this. Whoops! Ready? Yeah. You blinked. Thank you.

We were there, so we know he exhibited a blink reflex, but if you were going from video alone, you might think he didn't. There are ups and downs to using video to assess CVI characteristics! We recorded that information in "Atypical Visual Reflexes."

A couple additional notes we made when looking at all these clips is that Ian detected all novel items and looked at most of them, though he couldn't always tell what they were. We also noticed that while Lynne was working with Ian, he looked at her, but looked away immediately nearly every time she began to talk. We made notes of these overall observations in the rows "Complexity" and "Novelty."