Main content

Alert message

Cassie PLVF and Adaptations Transcript

 

Sara:
The Ratings in the CVI Range have uses that may be important to teachers of visually impaired students or others who are considering CVI assessment results and how they affect educational programming. Rating I can be used to determine present levels of visual functioning and Rating II can be used to determine modifications or adaptations for the Individual Education Plan. These two sets of information are important when writing a functional vision evaluation and learning media assessment, and can make up the bulk of the CVI narrative, if done separately.

Lynne:
The plus statements in Rating I of the CVI Range can be used to determine present levels of visual functioning: we also used the more specific description provided in the CVI Range Scoring Guide under the plus column. For Cassie, these are the plus statements:

"Less attracted to lights: can be redirected." Cassie "may stare at lights, but is able to shift attention from lights when appropriate visual targets are presented in controlled environments."

"Blinks in response to touch and/or visual threat, but the responses may be latent and/or inconsistent." Cassie "blinks to touch at (the) bridge of the nose and..to the quick movement of a target toward the face, but the responses may be delayed..."

Sara:
"Shows strong visual field preferences." Cassie "glances toward or has eye to object contact with targets when presented in specific positions of [her]...central viewing fields."

She "may notice moving objects at 2 to 3 feet." Cassie "glances toward or has eye-to-object contact with objects that move in space or are made of shiny or reflective materials and are at distances up to three feet."

"Visual attention now extends beyond near space, up to 4 to 6 feet." Cassie can "visually locate or fixate on certain objects" (that have movement qualities) "at distances as far as 6 feet away." And Cassie's "ability to detect objects or movement at 4 to 6 feet may depend on the degree of environmental complexity."

Lynne:
"May regard familiar faces when voice does not compete." Cassie definitely "glances at or looks directly into faces of familiar people, but only when the familiar person is not speaking."

"Selection of toys or objects is less restricted; requires one to two sessions of "warm up"

The numbers on Rating II, or the highlighted areas of the CVI Resolution Chart, can be used as a helpful guide for describing appropriate modifications for your student.

Number one. Cassie did not have a color preference, but did seem drawn to stripes. Items that are striped may draw her visual interest, and stripes should be considered when choosing toys or objects for Cassie. Multicolored stripes may be a little complex for Cassie. Stick to two to three colors maximum for now.

Sara:
Number two. Move an item or move something near an item to activate Cassie's visual attention, particularly against complex backgrounds. When giving Cassie an object prompt within routines, tap or wiggle the item if she does not initially respond. This can be useful within 2-3 feet, which is the usual working distance in interactive routines, and may also be helpful in situations where she is up to or slightly beyond 10 feet away, such as while traveling indoors.

Number three. Provide frequent breaks when asking Cassie to engage in a lot of visual behavior. Cassie's visual behaviors decrease after about ten to fifteen minutes in non-complex environments after she is asked to do visual tasks continuously. Cassie may not be able to use her vision yet in unfamiliar, environmentally complex situations or when she is upset or feeling poorly. Whenever Cassie's nystagmus is engaged, this will also increase potential for visual fatigue.

Lynne:
Number four. Continue to present objects within Cassie's best visual field, which is her lower central field. Items that she may encounter in her peripheral fields, such as landmarks for frequented locations, can be highlighted with material that is reflective or shiny to best be seen. Even though Cassie's best visual field is her lower central field, she tends to walk with her head up and back. It may be helpful to add shiny or reflective materials to items that are close to or on the ground if she seems to trip over them frequently. Cassie should be encouraged to use a cane and/or a human guide when traveling outdoors.

Sara:
Number five. Cassie is able to use her vision in familiar environments, such as the cafeteria, with quite a lot of noise. New environments with a lot of competing information like noise, lots of stuff to look at, or with tactile input, may make looking difficult. When visiting new places, consider how to decrease some of the complexity to encourage more looking, such as going to the location when it is less busy and noisy. When Cassie is looking into a person's face, that person should resist the urge to begin talking to her to try to increase the amount of time she is able to look at faces. Cassie may not yet be able to see pictures, but she did show some interest in them. If staff were to pair simple, high contrast, pictures of single colored objects that currently represent activities, she may begin to look at them. The shiny qualities of laminated pictures may detract from the content of the picture. It would not be advisable for Cassie to depend on pictures for communication at this point.

Lynne:
Number six. Light does not seem to distract Cassie from tasks at hand. It may be used, however, to draw visual attention, such as using a window as a location landmark or lighting up an area in the classroom or at home to help Cassie find it. It also may help to shine a light on an object to help bring Cassie's visual attention to it. Cassie has some sensitivity to light, so bright lights should be avoided. Wearing a sun visor or sunglasses should be encouraged when traveling outdoors.

Sara:
Number seven. Cassie is able to see objects that have movement properties beyond 10 feet. This is another good reason to accommodate visual landmarks by affixing materials to them that have reflective properties. When directing Cassie to something that is far away or a person who is beyond 10 feet, that person may move his or herself or an object to help Cassie visually locate the target.

Number eight. Cassie was able to detect all novel items, but did not examine them. Familiar items within routines that have appropriate color and complexity requirements should continue to be used: this will encourage sustained visual attention. On occasion, a new item can be added to a routine or an old item can be replaced with something that looks different but serves the same function.

Lynne:
Number nine. Continue to encourage Cassie to interact with her environment using functional routines. Cassie may need space between objects, such as when making a choice, in order to find the item and correctly communicate what she wants. Items should be arranged horizontally, since Cassie seemed to occasionally overreach or underreach, and they should be presented within her best field. It may be that only two to three items will fit if there is space between them. Presenting choices on a plain background that contrasts well with the choice symbols may also assist in her ability to correctly reach toward the item she wants. These considerations should also be applied to functional routines in which Cassie is acting upon objects. If there are many items in a functional routine, items should be well spaced and it may help to highlight objects that are more toward the edges of Cassie's best visual field with shiny or reflective material.