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For the direct assessment, we took Cassie out of her busy classroom to a quiet, visually non-complex room and presented her with many novel items to look at. We also brought her favorite toy, an accordion, along for comparison. Cassie was able to look at new items and play with us for a while, but the session definitely seemed to tire her out toward the end. We were able to get a lot of information from our interview and observations as well, so we only ended up asking her to participate in one direct assessment session.

In clip 1, we see Cassie reaching for a pan, an item her teacher told us Cassie likes to play with in the classroom. In a complex array, Cassie located the general area of the item visually and aurally, then searched tactually to pick it up. It may have been that she was actually reaching for the accordion.

[video clip 1]

>>Teacher 1: Doo-doo-doo-doo-doo. Bang bang bang. Bang bang bang.

>>Teacher 2: Underreached, totally. Or overreached.

We marked that on the sheet called "Direct Assessment Information" in "Complexity" and "Visually Guided Reach."

Clip 2 shows Cassie looking up toward the overhead light, taking a break from looking.

[video clip 2]

>>Cassie: Ah! Ahhh!

>>Teacher 1: Ahhh!

[Cassie clapping]

>>Teacher 2: Yay! Where's the bang bang? Where'd it go?

[Teacher 1 banging on pan, then Cassie laughing.]

We marked that in "Light."

Clip 3 is a long one and contains a lot of information. We see Cassie interacting with a number of items in a complex array. It seemed like she needed to clear the area before she could find her favorite item, the accordion. Often she uses a combination of vision, to detect that something is there, and then searches tactually to find the exact location, particularly with multi-colored items. She is able to reach correctly toward a blue item that has movement qualities and toward a white and black item on a black background. She briefly examines a black and white item up close. All this time we are providing a cheering section, also known as teacher noise! This was fun, but may have interfered with Cassie's ability to look. Many things to watch here in clip 3.

[video clip 3]

>>Teacher 1: Bang bang.

>>Cassie: Bang bang bang.

>>Teacher 2: Oh, the ball. Ooh!

>>Cassie: Yay!

>>Teacher 1 and 2: Yay!

>>Teacher 1: You got it.

>>Teacher 2: [laughing] Yay! Oooh...

>>Teacher 1: Ookie.

>>Teacher 2: Plop.

>>Teacher 1: Oop! Oh. Up! Ohhhh!

>>Cassie: Ooohhhh!

>>Teacher 1: Ooohhh!

>>Cassie: Cassie's?

>>Teacher 1: That's Cassie's!

We recorded this information in the rows for "Color," because Cassie examined the black cow with white spots. She did not look at other novel multi-colored items except the blue koosh ball, which was moving. We recorded that in "Need for Movement," because the moving koosh definitely drew visual attention. We also marked "Complexity," because she did not seem to be able to locate her favored item until clearing the table. She seemed to visually know items were there but then had to tactually locate them, which could have been due to the complexity of the array. We also marked this information in "Visual Novelty" because she was able to briefly look at some of the testing items, which were unfamiliar, and was able to visually detect that other novel items were on the table, even if unable to determine the exact location, and in "Visually Guided Reach," because Cassie reached directly for a novel moving item and for her favorite, familiar accordion without looking away. She was able to visually locate other items but then could not reach directly for them, except one, which was a slightly shiny white item on the black background. That clip sure did give us a lot of information, Lynne!

In clip 4, I present a shiny reflective mylar thing in Cassie's left, right, and upper peripheral fields. Cassie seems to detect the item in the periphery and then turns her head to view it in her best field. Sometimes the item is up to 2 to 3 feet away. Cassie detects it every time.

[video clip 4]

>>Cassie: Turn off? On. Hi. Bye.

>>Teacher: Bye.

>>Cassie: Off? Are off?

>>Teacher: They're off.

We marked this in "Need for Movement," and in "Field Preferences," since she was able to detect the highly see-able item when it wasn't in the best field. We also marked this in "distance viewing."

In clip 5, from about four feet away, Cassie locates and reaches directly for her favored item on an extremely visually cluttered background with low environmental complexity. It is not apparent whether she is keeping her eyes open while reaching and finding the accordian.

[video clip 5]

>>Cassie: Hi.

>>Teacher: Ha ha ha. I see.

We marked this in "Complexity" and in "Distance viewing."

In clip 6, Lynne is holding Cassie's accordion just to the left of Cassie's best visual field. Cassie does not seem to know it is there at all until she turns her head. You can see her hands expressing delight the moment she sees it.

[video clip 6]

>>Teacher: Ready? Set!

>>Cassie: Sit down?

>>Teacher: Sit down? [Cassie laughs.] Then it just appeared over there all of a sudden. Ready? Set!

>>Cassie: Go!

>>Teacher: Go!

We marked this in "Field Preferences."

In clip 7, Cassie is enjoying one of her favored interactions with an adult, which is to have someone play the accordion while she watches their arm. We throw a kink into it by putting multi-colored stripes on the arm in the form of a long glove, to see if that will make Cassie want to look more or less. We see a mix of behaviors. It seems like Cassie tries to look at the striped arm for about 10 seconds (she stops when she hears a funny sound), then later she tries blocking out the novel striped arm, or at least part of it, by putting her hands over it.

[video clip 7]

>>Teacher 1: Ready? Set! Go!

[Teacher 2 sneezed. Cassie laughs.]

>>Cassie: Hands up. Hands up.

>>Teacher 1: Sara's turn. Is she looking at it?

>>Teacher 2: Kind of blocking it with her hands.

We marked that one in "Color," since she sort of looks, in "Need for Movement" because the movement seems to draw her visual attention, in "Complexity" because she is able to look while the accordion is playing when the target is complex, but then has enough, and tries to block out some of the colors. And we marked "Novelty" because she does seem to look at the new item, even if indirectly.

Clip 8 is interesting: Sara presents Cassie with a mirror to look at. Cassie seems to try to look at it but it's hard for her. It may be the reflective quality or the movement inside the mirror that she is drawn to, but she squints and looks away. She asks for the lights to be turned off, and after the lights are off, she looks at the mirror much in the same way she looked at other 2-dimensional items, except her face is right against it. She only looks for a little bit. She seems to know the social script of how we interact with mirrors, in that she labels herself in it. It is hard to tell if she can actually identify that it is her own face in the mirror or if she is even looking at her face at all.

[video clip 8]

>>Teacher 1: What's that?

>>Cassie: Off?

>>Teacher 1: Who is that?

>>Cassie: Turn it off?

>>Teacher 1: Cassie! Who's that?

>>Cassie: Turn off!

>>Teacher 1: Lights off?

>>Teacher 2: It's hard for her to see. She looks at it and she's immediately squinting.

>>Teacher 1: Ok. Off.

>>Teacher 2: No, I mean that mirror.

>>Teacher 1: Oh, the mirror's too bright?

>>Teacher 2: I don't think it's too bright. I think it's hard for her to look at. Can you angle it so it's reflecting her movement so she can see it? That might attract her attention.

>>Cassie: Cassie!

>>Teacher 1: There's Cassie! Hi! There you are. Hi!

We marked our observations in "Need for movement," since the reflective mirror does draw visual attention; in "Complexity," because she needed to reduce complexity by dimming the lights before she could identify and participate in the mirror social script, and because of how close she got to the mirror- perhaps to block out some of the complex background. We also marked this one in "Light," because the mirror acted as a light source at times and drew her visual attention and caused her to squint.

Cassie is getting pretty tired of our shenanigans by the time we're to clip 9. But she's a good sport. I present her with a black fan and she glances toward it briefly and then actually seems to look for a little longer after about 10 seconds. Then after another similar time period she takes it and looks closer. Even though it's a single-colored item with movement properties, Cassie still has a hard time looking after all the work she's been doing. Let's watch.

[video clip 9]

>>Teacher 1: Are you over it? What about this?

>>Cassie: One.

>>Teacher 2: Oh, she thinks your arm is moving it.

>>Cassie: Two. Off.

>>Teacher 1: Off? On.

>>Cassie: Cassie! Off, off, on?

>>Teacher 1: The lights off? You do it? Can you reach 'em? I'll show you.

We marked that one in the row for "Visual Latency" because of the amount of time it took her to look at the fan and because of the fact that she's definitely showing signs that she is tired.

Lynne The last clip, clip 10, involves Sara rapidly bringing her open hand toward Cassie's face to test her blink to threat reflex. Cassie blinks the first 2 times and her response is a tiny bit slow.

[video clip 10]

>>Teacher: Looks pretty good. It's a little slow, but pretty good.

We marked this data in "Atypical Visual Reflexes"