Texas School for the Blind and Visually ImpairedTexas School for the Blind and Visually Impairedhttps://www.tsbvi.edu/component/tags/tag/605-math2020-03-28T16:53:46-05:00Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impairedwebmaster EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT eduJoomla! - Open Source Content Management“A Few of My Favorite Things” for Teaching Mathematics from a Tactual and Auditory Perspective2010-04-06T19:19:27-05:002010-04-06T19:19:27-05:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/tools-items/2551-a-few-of-my-favorite-things-for-teaching-mathematics-from-a-tactual-and-auditory-perspectiveWebmaster<p style="text-align: center;">MATVI Annual Meeting<br /> Michigan Association of Transcribers<br /> for the Visually Impaired</p>
<p style="text-align: center;">ST. JOHN, MICHIGAN<br /> November 5, 2004</p>
<p><strong>Presented by<br /> Susan A. Osterhaus</strong></p>
<p style="text-align: center;">Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired<br /> 1100 West 45th Street<br /> Austin, TX 78756<br /> (512) 206-9305<br /> susanosterhaus EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu<br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/technology-math/1195-susans-math-technology-corner">Susan's Math Corner</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/mi-2004.ppt">Download Powerpoint version (3.5 mb) </a></p>
<h2><strong>Suggested Adaptive Tools and Materials</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Math Materials</li>
<li>Basic Tools and Technology</li>
<li>Calculators</li>
<li>Drawing/Construction Tools</li>
<li>Measuring Tools</li>
<li>Student-Generated Graphics</li>
<li>Graphics Made by Others</li>
<li>Strategies and Resources</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Math Materials </strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>High Quality Braille Textbook
<ul>
<li>Nemeth Code</li>
<li>Tactile Graphics</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Teacher-Made Materials
<ul>
<li>Worksheets</li>
<li>Quizzes</li>
<li>Tests</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/nemeth-trans.htm">Nemeth Translation Packages</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.duxburysystems.com">Duxbury: DBT WIN 10.3 or MegaMath</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.mackichan.com">MacKichan: Scientific Notebook</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Basic Math Tools</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Braillewriter</li>
<li>Braille Paper</li>
<li>Braille Eraser</li>
<li>Abacus</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Basic Math Technology</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Refreshable Braille
<ul>
<li>Braille Notetaker</li>
<li>PC with Refreshable</li>
<li>Braille Keyboard</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Laptop</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>APH Tools to Help Increase Basic Math Skills</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Math Drill Cards</li>
<li>Quick Pick: Math</li>
<li>Multiplicationand Division Table</li>
<li>Math Flash
<ul>
<li> Fun self-voicedsoftware program</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Talking Tools to Help Increase Basic Math Skills</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.leapfrog.com">Twist & Shout Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, & Division</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.parentbanc.com">Coin Abacus</a></li>
</ul>
<strong>Head-Start Hands-On Tools</strong>
<ul>
<li>APH Tactile Demonstration
<ul>
<li>Thermometer</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.borenson.com">HANDS-ON EQUATIONS</a>
<ul>
<li>Learning Systems </li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.hentermath.com">Accessible Math Technology for Basic and Higher Level Skills</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>addition</li>
<li>subtraction</li>
<li>multiplication</li>
<li>division</li>
<li>Virtual Pencil (VPAlgebra now in beta version!)</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.metroplexvoice.com/">Voice Recognition Software</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>MathPad<sup>TM</sup>By Voice<sup>TM</sup></li>
<li>MathTalk<sup>TM</sup>/Scientific Notebook<sup>TM</sup></li>
<li>MathTalk<sup>TM</sup>/Scientific WorkPlace<sup>TM</sup></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://prime.jsc.nasa.gov/demo/IAL/index.html">NASAs Online Math Description Engine (MDE)</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Graphing Calculator</li>
<li>Math Trax</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.dessci.com">Math Players Math-to-Speech Technology</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Design Science</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Accessible Scientific/Graphing Calculators</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Talking Scientific Calculator
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.orbitresearch.com">ORION TI-34 </a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.viewplus.com/">Talking Graphing Calculators</a>
<ul>
<li>Accessible Graphing Calculator (AGC)</li>
<li>Large Display, Self-Voiced, Print and</li>
<li>Tactile Graphics, AudioWave</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.horizonsoftware.com.au">GTCalc</a>
<ul>
<li>Large Display, Self-Voiced, Print</li>
<li>Graphics, Audiowave</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Braille Scientific Calculators</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.freedomscientific.com/">Braille Lite</a>
<ul>
<li>Talking Scientific Calculator with refreshable braille</li>
<li>Graph-It (tactile graphics andaudiowave) <a href="http://www.freedomscientific.com/"></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.humanware.com/">BrailleNote (BT or QT)</a>
<ul>
<li>Talking Scientific Calculator with refreshable braille</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.sensorytools.com">Leo Braille DisplayScientific Calculator</a>(presently out of stock)</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/mathtools.htm">Drawing/Construction Tools</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Drawing Board</li>
<li>Compass</li>
<li>Straightedge</li>
<li>Tracing Wheel</li>
<li>Braille/Print Protractor</li>
<li>Stylus and/or Pen</li>
<li><a href="http://www.aph.org/">http://www.APH.org/</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.fiskars.com/">http://www.fiskars.com/</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.perkins.org/">http://www.perkins.org/</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/mathtools.htm">Measuring Tools</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Ruler</li>
<li>Yardstick and Meter Stick</li>
<li>Braille/Print Protractor</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Student-Generated Quick/Instant Tactile Graphics</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>APH Quick-Draw Paper</li>
<li>APH Picture Maker:Wheatly Tactile Diagramming Kit</li>
<li><a href="http://www.repro-tronics.com">Thermo Pen I & II</a></li>
<li> <a href="http://www.wikkistix.com">WikkiStix</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Student-Generated Graphics on a Number Line</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>APH Number Line Device</li>
<li>Student-Made Number Lines</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Student-Generated Graphics on a Coordinate Plane</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Graph Paper</li>
<li>Graphic Aid for Mathematics</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Geometric Manipulatives</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>2-D Manipulatives</li>
<li>Paper Folding</li>
<li>3-D Manipulatives</li>
<li>Nets</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Thoughts on Visual vs Tactual Perception</strong></h2>
<ol>
<li>Visual impairment is not an isolated condition; it affects the whole process of information-gathering.</li>
<li>Vision enables a person to simultaneously perceive all parts of an object in its totality and in its relationship to other objects.</li>
<li>The visually impaired learner has to rely on sequential observations (only part of an object can be seen or felt at a time) and the entire image has to be "built-up" out of the components. Relationships with other objects can be lost entirely.</li>
<li>The level of cognition needed for integration of sequential information is higher than that needed for concept formation through immediate visual perception.</li>
<li>If you have vision, you can experience this way of processing information by looking at a drawing through a very small hole in a piece of card held over the drawing; I think that you will find that it's hard for you to "get the picture.</li>
</ol>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/tactile.htm">Preparing Tactile Math Graphics</a></strong><strong></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Checklist To Determine If a Graphic Should Be Brailled</li>
<li>Checklist For Making Decisions About A Tactile Graphic</li>
<li>Basic Principles For Preparing Tactile Graphics</li>
<li>Explanation-Demonstration of How Foil Graphics are Prepared</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Math Graphics Made by Others</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>APH Tactile Graphics Kit</li>
<li>Collage</li>
<li>APH Geometry Tactile Graphics Kit</li>
<li>Tactile Imaging Machine and Capsule Paper
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.repro-tronics.com">Tactile Image Enhancer</a> </li>
<li><a href="http://www.atcbrleqp.com">Swell-Form Graphics Machine</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.humanware.com">Pictures in a Flash (PIAF)</a> </li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.touchgraphics.com">TTT: Talking Tactile Tablet</a></strong></h2>
<h2><strong>Math GraphicsMade to Order by Others</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.ghbraille.com/">ghBraille</a>
<ul>
<li>LaserLine" Graphics</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.tactilevisioninc.com/">Tactile Vision, Inc. </a> </li>
<li><a href="http://www.viewplus.com/">Tiger Embossers</a>
<ul>
<li>Tiger Pro, Tiger Max, Tiger Cub, or Tiger Cub Jr<strong><em>NOW 3-D</em></strong></li>
<li>high resolution (20 dots per inch) windows printer driver</li>
<li>create and emboss through MS Office, graphics programs, AGC, mimio, Duxbury, MegaMath, and more</li>
<li>faster, quieter, easier than before</li>
<li>interpoint and intergraphix</li>
<li>stack paper or tractor media, or both</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Quick Print Graphics to Tactile Graphics via the Tiger</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.mimio.com">Virtual Ink Corporation</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Teaching Students How to Read Tactile Math Graphs</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Begin at an early age</li>
<li>Start with real objects</li>
<li>Move to 3-D models</li>
<li>Then to 2-D manipulatives</li>
<li>Finally try tactile graphics on various surfaces
<ul>
<li>Hard plastic</li>
<li>Thermoformed Brailon of foil or collage</li>
<li>Quick Draw or Capsule/Swell/Flexi-Paper</li>
<li>Braille Paper</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Use APH Tangible Graphs to evaluate and/or re-teach if necessary</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/teaching.htm">Selected Teaching Strategies</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Collaborative/Inclusive Strategies</li>
<li>Arithmetic Calculation Using the Braillewriter</li>
<li>Linear Measure, Perimeter, and Area</li>
<li>Prime Factorization on the Abacus</li>
<li>Standardized Braille Number Lines</li>
<li>Graphing on a Coordinate Plane</li>
<li>Geometric Constructions</li>
<li>Transformations, Line Symmetry, and Tesselations</li>
<li>Solving Quadratic Equations</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Other Math Resources</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.delta-education.com">Delta</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.didaxinc.com">Didax</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.rit.edu/%7Eeasi">EASI Equal Access to Software and Information for Persons with Disabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.enc.org">Eisenhower National Clearinghouse</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.etacuisenaire.com">ETA/Cuisenaire</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.mathforum.org">Math Forum</a></li>
<li><a href="http://dots.physics.orst.edu">Science Access Project at Oregon State University</a></li>
</ul><p style="text-align: center;">MATVI Annual Meeting<br /> Michigan Association of Transcribers<br /> for the Visually Impaired</p>
<p style="text-align: center;">ST. JOHN, MICHIGAN<br /> November 5, 2004</p>
<p><strong>Presented by<br /> Susan A. Osterhaus</strong></p>
<p style="text-align: center;">Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired<br /> 1100 West 45th Street<br /> Austin, TX 78756<br /> (512) 206-9305<br /> susanosterhaus EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu<br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/technology-math/1195-susans-math-technology-corner">Susan's Math Corner</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/mi-2004.ppt">Download Powerpoint version (3.5 mb) </a></p>
<h2><strong>Suggested Adaptive Tools and Materials</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Math Materials</li>
<li>Basic Tools and Technology</li>
<li>Calculators</li>
<li>Drawing/Construction Tools</li>
<li>Measuring Tools</li>
<li>Student-Generated Graphics</li>
<li>Graphics Made by Others</li>
<li>Strategies and Resources</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Math Materials </strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>High Quality Braille Textbook
<ul>
<li>Nemeth Code</li>
<li>Tactile Graphics</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Teacher-Made Materials
<ul>
<li>Worksheets</li>
<li>Quizzes</li>
<li>Tests</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/nemeth-trans.htm">Nemeth Translation Packages</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.duxburysystems.com">Duxbury: DBT WIN 10.3 or MegaMath</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.mackichan.com">MacKichan: Scientific Notebook</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Basic Math Tools</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Braillewriter</li>
<li>Braille Paper</li>
<li>Braille Eraser</li>
<li>Abacus</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Basic Math Technology</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Refreshable Braille
<ul>
<li>Braille Notetaker</li>
<li>PC with Refreshable</li>
<li>Braille Keyboard</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Laptop</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>APH Tools to Help Increase Basic Math Skills</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Math Drill Cards</li>
<li>Quick Pick: Math</li>
<li>Multiplicationand Division Table</li>
<li>Math Flash
<ul>
<li> Fun self-voicedsoftware program</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Talking Tools to Help Increase Basic Math Skills</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.leapfrog.com">Twist & Shout Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, & Division</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.parentbanc.com">Coin Abacus</a></li>
</ul>
<strong>Head-Start Hands-On Tools</strong>
<ul>
<li>APH Tactile Demonstration
<ul>
<li>Thermometer</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.borenson.com">HANDS-ON EQUATIONS</a>
<ul>
<li>Learning Systems </li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.hentermath.com">Accessible Math Technology for Basic and Higher Level Skills</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>addition</li>
<li>subtraction</li>
<li>multiplication</li>
<li>division</li>
<li>Virtual Pencil (VPAlgebra now in beta version!)</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.metroplexvoice.com/">Voice Recognition Software</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>MathPad<sup>TM</sup>By Voice<sup>TM</sup></li>
<li>MathTalk<sup>TM</sup>/Scientific Notebook<sup>TM</sup></li>
<li>MathTalk<sup>TM</sup>/Scientific WorkPlace<sup>TM</sup></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://prime.jsc.nasa.gov/demo/IAL/index.html">NASAs Online Math Description Engine (MDE)</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Graphing Calculator</li>
<li>Math Trax</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.dessci.com">Math Players Math-to-Speech Technology</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Design Science</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Accessible Scientific/Graphing Calculators</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Talking Scientific Calculator
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.orbitresearch.com">ORION TI-34 </a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.viewplus.com/">Talking Graphing Calculators</a>
<ul>
<li>Accessible Graphing Calculator (AGC)</li>
<li>Large Display, Self-Voiced, Print and</li>
<li>Tactile Graphics, AudioWave</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.horizonsoftware.com.au">GTCalc</a>
<ul>
<li>Large Display, Self-Voiced, Print</li>
<li>Graphics, Audiowave</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Braille Scientific Calculators</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.freedomscientific.com/">Braille Lite</a>
<ul>
<li>Talking Scientific Calculator with refreshable braille</li>
<li>Graph-It (tactile graphics andaudiowave) <a href="http://www.freedomscientific.com/"></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.humanware.com/">BrailleNote (BT or QT)</a>
<ul>
<li>Talking Scientific Calculator with refreshable braille</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.sensorytools.com">Leo Braille DisplayScientific Calculator</a>(presently out of stock)</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/mathtools.htm">Drawing/Construction Tools</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Drawing Board</li>
<li>Compass</li>
<li>Straightedge</li>
<li>Tracing Wheel</li>
<li>Braille/Print Protractor</li>
<li>Stylus and/or Pen</li>
<li><a href="http://www.aph.org/">http://www.APH.org/</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.fiskars.com/">http://www.fiskars.com/</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.perkins.org/">http://www.perkins.org/</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/mathtools.htm">Measuring Tools</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Ruler</li>
<li>Yardstick and Meter Stick</li>
<li>Braille/Print Protractor</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Student-Generated Quick/Instant Tactile Graphics</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>APH Quick-Draw Paper</li>
<li>APH Picture Maker:Wheatly Tactile Diagramming Kit</li>
<li><a href="http://www.repro-tronics.com">Thermo Pen I & II</a></li>
<li> <a href="http://www.wikkistix.com">WikkiStix</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Student-Generated Graphics on a Number Line</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>APH Number Line Device</li>
<li>Student-Made Number Lines</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Student-Generated Graphics on a Coordinate Plane</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Graph Paper</li>
<li>Graphic Aid for Mathematics</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Geometric Manipulatives</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>2-D Manipulatives</li>
<li>Paper Folding</li>
<li>3-D Manipulatives</li>
<li>Nets</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Thoughts on Visual vs Tactual Perception</strong></h2>
<ol>
<li>Visual impairment is not an isolated condition; it affects the whole process of information-gathering.</li>
<li>Vision enables a person to simultaneously perceive all parts of an object in its totality and in its relationship to other objects.</li>
<li>The visually impaired learner has to rely on sequential observations (only part of an object can be seen or felt at a time) and the entire image has to be "built-up" out of the components. Relationships with other objects can be lost entirely.</li>
<li>The level of cognition needed for integration of sequential information is higher than that needed for concept formation through immediate visual perception.</li>
<li>If you have vision, you can experience this way of processing information by looking at a drawing through a very small hole in a piece of card held over the drawing; I think that you will find that it's hard for you to "get the picture.</li>
</ol>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/tactile.htm">Preparing Tactile Math Graphics</a></strong><strong></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Checklist To Determine If a Graphic Should Be Brailled</li>
<li>Checklist For Making Decisions About A Tactile Graphic</li>
<li>Basic Principles For Preparing Tactile Graphics</li>
<li>Explanation-Demonstration of How Foil Graphics are Prepared</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Math Graphics Made by Others</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>APH Tactile Graphics Kit</li>
<li>Collage</li>
<li>APH Geometry Tactile Graphics Kit</li>
<li>Tactile Imaging Machine and Capsule Paper
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.repro-tronics.com">Tactile Image Enhancer</a> </li>
<li><a href="http://www.atcbrleqp.com">Swell-Form Graphics Machine</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.humanware.com">Pictures in a Flash (PIAF)</a> </li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.touchgraphics.com">TTT: Talking Tactile Tablet</a></strong></h2>
<h2><strong>Math GraphicsMade to Order by Others</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.ghbraille.com/">ghBraille</a>
<ul>
<li>LaserLine" Graphics</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="http://www.tactilevisioninc.com/">Tactile Vision, Inc. </a> </li>
<li><a href="http://www.viewplus.com/">Tiger Embossers</a>
<ul>
<li>Tiger Pro, Tiger Max, Tiger Cub, or Tiger Cub Jr<strong><em>NOW 3-D</em></strong></li>
<li>high resolution (20 dots per inch) windows printer driver</li>
<li>create and emboss through MS Office, graphics programs, AGC, mimio, Duxbury, MegaMath, and more</li>
<li>faster, quieter, easier than before</li>
<li>interpoint and intergraphix</li>
<li>stack paper or tractor media, or both</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Quick Print Graphics to Tactile Graphics via the Tiger</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.mimio.com">Virtual Ink Corporation</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Teaching Students How to Read Tactile Math Graphs</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Begin at an early age</li>
<li>Start with real objects</li>
<li>Move to 3-D models</li>
<li>Then to 2-D manipulatives</li>
<li>Finally try tactile graphics on various surfaces
<ul>
<li>Hard plastic</li>
<li>Thermoformed Brailon of foil or collage</li>
<li>Quick Draw or Capsule/Swell/Flexi-Paper</li>
<li>Braille Paper</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Use APH Tangible Graphs to evaluate and/or re-teach if necessary</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong><a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/math/teaching.htm">Selected Teaching Strategies</a></strong></h2>
<ul>
<li>Collaborative/Inclusive Strategies</li>
<li>Arithmetic Calculation Using the Braillewriter</li>
<li>Linear Measure, Perimeter, and Area</li>
<li>Prime Factorization on the Abacus</li>
<li>Standardized Braille Number Lines</li>
<li>Graphing on a Coordinate Plane</li>
<li>Geometric Constructions</li>
<li>Transformations, Line Symmetry, and Tesselations</li>
<li>Solving Quadratic Equations</li>
</ul>
<h2><strong>Other Math Resources</strong></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.delta-education.com">Delta</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.didaxinc.com">Didax</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.rit.edu/%7Eeasi">EASI Equal Access to Software and Information for Persons with Disabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.enc.org">Eisenhower National Clearinghouse</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.etacuisenaire.com">ETA/Cuisenaire</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.mathforum.org">Math Forum</a></li>
<li><a href="http://dots.physics.orst.edu">Science Access Project at Oregon State University</a></li>
</ul>Abacus Information2010-09-21T22:17:15-05:002010-09-21T22:17:15-05:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/abacusMeghan Currey<ul>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3282:abacus-vs-talking-calculator&catid=74:abacus&Itemid=1026">Abacus vs Calculators</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3286:prime-factorization-on-the-abacus&catid=74:abacus&Itemid=1026">Prime Factorization on the Abacus</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3284:using-an-abacus-and-the-counting-method-&catid=74:abacus&Itemid=1026">Using an Abacus and the Counting Method</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#courses">Courses Available to Learn Abacus</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59:abacus-internet-site-packet-information-for-visually-impaired-students&catid=74&Itemid=1026">Abacus Internet Site Packet</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.iowa-braille.k12.ia.us/vnews/display.v/ART/55d61df71b7a4">Iowa Braille School Online Abacus Videos!!</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><a href="http://uabacus.arizona.edu/">UAbacus</a></h2>
<p>This web site provides information on how to use a Cranmer abacus for computation. The abacus is available from the <a href="http://www.aph.org">American Printing House for the Blind.</a> The UAbacus app was developed by<a href="https://www.coe.arizona.edu/content/rosenblum-l-penny"> Dr. L. Penny Rosenblum</a> and the staff at the<a href="http://oia.arizona.edu/"> Office of Instruction and Assessment </a>at The University of Arizona. The UAbacus app is now available for <a href="https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/uabacus/id688547692" target="_blank">free download</a> from the iTunes App Store. <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/outreach/UAbacusApp.pdf">Download the UAbacus Flyer (PDF 357k).</a></p>
<h2><a id="courses"></a>Courses Available to Learn Abacus</h2>
<p>The<a href="http://www.hadley.edu" target="_blank"> Hadley School for the Blind</a> offers distance education courses to legally blind persons, their family members, and blindness professionals or paraprofessionals who can read and understand courses written at the high school level. "<a href="http://www.hadley.edu/ShowCourseDetail.asp?courseid=ABA-121" target="_blank">Abacus I</a>" is one of those courses. "<a href="http://www.hadley.edu/ShowCourseDetail.asp?courseid=ABA-201" target="_blank">Abacus II</a>" is also available. Using the abacus a person can add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers and decimals.</p>
<p>An "Abacus II" course is available to learn to compute fractions, percents, quantities, square roots, and negative numbers.</p>
<p>High School math (with High School credit) courses for blind students are also available in the following areas: "Essentials of Mathematics I," "Essentials of Mathematics II," "Mathematics I - General," "Mathematics II - Pre-Algebra," "Applied Mathematics," "Algebra," "Geometry," and "Doing It the Metric Way."</p><ul>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3282:abacus-vs-talking-calculator&catid=74:abacus&Itemid=1026">Abacus vs Calculators</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3286:prime-factorization-on-the-abacus&catid=74:abacus&Itemid=1026">Prime Factorization on the Abacus</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3284:using-an-abacus-and-the-counting-method-&catid=74:abacus&Itemid=1026">Using an Abacus and the Counting Method</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#courses">Courses Available to Learn Abacus</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59:abacus-internet-site-packet-information-for-visually-impaired-students&catid=74&Itemid=1026">Abacus Internet Site Packet</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.iowa-braille.k12.ia.us/vnews/display.v/ART/55d61df71b7a4">Iowa Braille School Online Abacus Videos!!</a></li>
</ul>
<h2><a href="http://uabacus.arizona.edu/">UAbacus</a></h2>
<p>This web site provides information on how to use a Cranmer abacus for computation. The abacus is available from the <a href="http://www.aph.org">American Printing House for the Blind.</a> The UAbacus app was developed by<a href="https://www.coe.arizona.edu/content/rosenblum-l-penny"> Dr. L. Penny Rosenblum</a> and the staff at the<a href="http://oia.arizona.edu/"> Office of Instruction and Assessment </a>at The University of Arizona. The UAbacus app is now available for <a href="https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/uabacus/id688547692" target="_blank">free download</a> from the iTunes App Store. <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/outreach/UAbacusApp.pdf">Download the UAbacus Flyer (PDF 357k).</a></p>
<h2><a id="courses"></a>Courses Available to Learn Abacus</h2>
<p>The<a href="http://www.hadley.edu" target="_blank"> Hadley School for the Blind</a> offers distance education courses to legally blind persons, their family members, and blindness professionals or paraprofessionals who can read and understand courses written at the high school level. "<a href="http://www.hadley.edu/ShowCourseDetail.asp?courseid=ABA-121" target="_blank">Abacus I</a>" is one of those courses. "<a href="http://www.hadley.edu/ShowCourseDetail.asp?courseid=ABA-201" target="_blank">Abacus II</a>" is also available. Using the abacus a person can add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers and decimals.</p>
<p>An "Abacus II" course is available to learn to compute fractions, percents, quantities, square roots, and negative numbers.</p>
<p>High School math (with High School credit) courses for blind students are also available in the following areas: "Essentials of Mathematics I," "Essentials of Mathematics II," "Mathematics I - General," "Mathematics II - Pre-Algebra," "Applied Mathematics," "Algebra," "Geometry," and "Doing It the Metric Way."</p>Abacus vs Talking Calculator2010-09-21T21:55:06-05:002010-09-21T21:55:06-05:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/abacus-items/3282-abacus-vs-talking-calculatorMeghan Currey<ul>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Posing">Posing the Question</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Susan">Susan Replies</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Debra">Debra Sewell Replies</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Blind">Blind Abacus User's Thoughts</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#VI">VI Teacher's Thoughts</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Fun">Fun Way to Use the Abacus</a></li>
</ul>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Posing" name="Posing"></a>Posing the Question</h2>
<h3>Three VI teachers write:</h3>
<p>#1. I am a teacher who wonders whether it is important or appropriate to teach abacus to my blind students. It is my contention that while the abacus can be a useful teaching tool, it is not a necessary one and teaching algorithms as they are taught in the classrooms in which the children are learning (with sighted peers) is more beneficial to them than teaching a different tool - i.e. the abacus. The calculator seems inexpensive enough to be a viable, appropriate and useful alternative to the abacus with its limited capabilities. Am I wrong? I would appreciate your input as well as an indication of which of the two (calculator or abacus) is more useful to those of you who are blind or severely visually impaired.</p>
<p>#2. At our school, we are investigating the use of an abacus as a tool for a blind student. There are philosophical differences in the use of this item. Could you offer any insights into pros and cons of its use? Also, could you direct us to information regarding this discussion? Any assistance you might offer will be extremely helpful.</p>
<p>#3. I have had a request from another TVI who would like opinions regarding ABACUS? She has a fourth grade braille student who is very intelligent, and is just getting into double and triple digit multiplication and long division. She is working on her Nemeth code skills as well. What are your opinions about using abacus as a learning tool? Are there very many of you teaching Abacus, and if so what age did you start teaching it? I know it all depends on the child and their skills, but any information, comments or positive examples, negative concerns, we would like your great input. The parents really believe that the abacus is ARCHAIC, and obsolete, and feel it is a waste of time for their child to learn abacus? Any comments and opinions, and input would be greatly appreciated. Thank you very much for all your help.</p>
<h2><a id="Susan" name="Susan"></a>Susan replies:</h2>
<p>I really don't like to think of this as Abacus versus Calculator. I like having all the tools I can get.</p>
<p>Previously, calculators were not allowed on standardized mathematics examinations even for blind students - including the TAAS (required for high school graduation here in Texas), SAT, and ACT. (The TASP still does not allow calculators, and many blind students will need to master this test before being allowed to complete their college requirements.) Calculators were also not allowed on most classroom examinations as well. Therefore, blind students were at a distinct disadvantage if they did not have an equivalent to the sighted student's pencil and paper. In my opinion, using the braillewriter to compute long computational problems is way too time intensive for the high school or college student. (I am not talking about an elementary student just learning how to perform the basic operations.) I had a student in a Pre-Algebra class many years ago when I (like the rest of the world) did not allow calculators so that they would be prepared and able to pass the standardized tests that did not allow calculator use. This student did all of her problems on the braillewriter and was staying up until 2 AM doing my homework and needing to come after school to finish tests, whereas everyone else was easily finished in a reasonable amount of time. We both decided that she needed to learn the abacus and quickly! She was extremely motivated and learned in a matter of a couple of weeks. She was then the first student to finish her homework and tests; her self-esteem increased; and math became fun. The other students wanted to know what miracle I had performed.</p>
<p>Now, it is recommended to use calculators in all the math classes and on most of the standardized tests. In fact, some tests "require" a scientific/graphing calculator. My students all use calculators, and I am even collaborating on finding the best way to use scientific/graphing calculators. However, I still have a definite abacus "attachment." Although everyone is using calculators, the sighted students can still use paper and pencil, if they choose or need to, when electronic power fails (be it electricity, batteries, etc.). I believe the blind student should have a fast, efficient, small, portable, non-electronic way to do a quick computation as well, if they so choose or the TASP demands it. Some of my students are surprised when even I pick up an abacus to perform a computation instead of paper and pencil. It's also non-consumable. Furthermore, I like working fractions and doing prime factorization on an abacus - not so easy on a calculator.</p>
<p>In secondary, students needing to learn abacus are quite often also in need of learning Nemeth Code. Ideally, they could take an abacus class during summer school and learn their basic Nemeth Code symbols while reading and answering the abacus problems. The talking calculator might be used to "check" the answers. I use the TSBVI method found in the book: Rita Livingston, <strong><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/curriculum-a-publications/3/1027-use-of-the-cranmer-abacus-2nd-edition">Use of the Cranmer Abacus (2nd Ed.)</a></strong>, Texas School for the Blind, Austin, Texas, 1997. See http://10.65.20.48/curriculum-a-publications/. Rita’s book also contains the Counting Method (<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/abacus/3284-using-an-abacus-and-the-counting-method-">See Using an Abacus and the Counting Method</a>).</p>
<p>The abacus can be too difficult for some students however, so the individual student needs and abilities must always be your primary consideration. However, before giving up, check to see if there is a better method of calculating on the abacus than the one you are presently using. Please read <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Debra">Debra Sewell's comments below</a> to see the abacus from a former elementary teacher’s viewpoint.</p>
<p>Following her comments, please read replies from blind users of the abacus and other vi teachers to catch their perspective as well.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Debra" name="Debra"></a>Debra Sewell, TSBVI, VH Outreach replies:</h2>
<h3>Using an Abacus and the Counting Method</h3>
<p>Parents of many children with visual impairments are familiar with "talking calculators" and understand how their child can use this adaptive device to aid him/her in doing math problems. However, there is an ancient device they may not be aware of that is very important for their child to be able to use. This device is an abacus and is an adaptation of the Japanese abacus. Most of you have seen an abacus somewhere in your life, but you may never have used one. For the child with a visual impairment the abacus is comparable to the sighted child's pencil and paper, and should be considered a fundamental component of his math instruction. Just like his sighted peers, the VI student should also learn to use a calculator. Total reliance on the calculator should be avoided, however, because 1) the calculator does not allow a child to learn problem-solving skills, 2) the VI child will not have a "backup" plan when the battery goes dead. Additionally, children who are deafblind and who may not be able to hear the voice of a talking calculator, may also benefit from using an abacus.</p>
<p>Tactual learners may find it easier to use a device like an abacus. Some VI teachers do not teach abacus until students know their number facts to ten. In fact, the abacus can be used without knowing number facts to ten when the counting method is used.</p>
<h3>How to Use the Counting Method</h3>
<p>Similar to Chisenbop (a system of using fingers for calculating), the counting method uses rote counting as beads are moved toward or away from the horizontal counting bar of an abacus.</p>
<p>As compared to other methods of calculating on the abacus (synthesis, direct/indirect, secrets, number partners), the counting method involves only four processes. Consequently, this method is best for students with visual and multiple impairments who would benefit from using an abacus. These students will probably learn the four processes more easily than the many steps needed to complete calculations with other methods. To be successful using the counting method, students should be capable of rote counting and have the knowledge of the concepts "one more than" and "one less than."</p>
<p>If you would like to know more about using an abacus, please contact Debra Sewell at (512) 206-9301 or <a href="mailto:SewellD EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu">DebraSewell EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu</a>. She has additional information on how to teach using the Counting Method and additional practice problems. You may also wish to check out the <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/component/content/article/1020-assessment-kit">Assessment Kit</a> she has compiled which includes an informal checklist for abacus skills.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Blind" name="Blind"></a>Blind Abacus Users Thoughts</h2>
<h3>A blind abacus user replies:</h3>
<p>The use of both is equally important. Abacus serves as a good place holder. It can be used for fractions whereas the calculator cannot. With the abacus, the students have a better understanding of adding and subtracting where with a calculator it is just typing buttons. They don't have to do anything- they don't have to even know the steps. They have an idea of what's going on paper. The calculator can be used on tests but calculators are sometimes bigger and dependent on an external power source.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another blind abacus user replies:</h3>
<p>I respond to this post from the viewpoint of a person who is 46 years old and who has always been blind. I first learned to use the Taylor Slate and type in the fourth grade and thought the abacus was a wonderful improvement for doing arithmetic. We began to learn the Cranmer Abacus in the seventh grade and I remember the feeling of fascination that it was possible to solve an arithmetic problem from left to right on the abacus just as well as it can be solved from right to left as it is on paper or via Taylor Slate. The abacus also teaches scalars in that the top beads stand for units of 5.</p>
<p>I have used talking calculators, computers, and the abacus and I still keep a Cranmer Abacus in my desk because it is handy for quick arithmetic or for temporarily storing telephone numbers. I would go so far as to say that the abacus is something that probably should be taught to all children because it involves several mathematical concepts and it makes doing mental arithmetic easier.</p>
<p>"Newsweek" magazine recently had a letter from a math teacher who was critical of the use of calculators in schools because the children grew up with no concept of numbers and how they really work. I heartily second that idea. Calculators are not bad, but students should first learn what is really happening so that they will know when to trust those electronic answers.</p>
<p>I would say to definitely teach the abacus and use the electronic calculators after the students have a feel for arithmetic.</p>
<p>For those who may not be familiar with the Taylor Slate, it was a system that made it possible for blind students to work arithmetic problems and represent the numbers with pieces of movable type on a special board that held the type in 8-sided holes which existed in rows on the slate. The advantage was that one could work problems all day and not use up any consumable materials such as paper. The pieces of type, however, frequently got spilled and higher math operations were problematic.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="VI" name="VI"></a>VI Teachers Thoughts</h2>
<h3>A former VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>When I was a VI teacher I taught abacus. I know it is being taught in our residential school now. I do not think it is archaic, I think it is a very tangible way to keep track of the various steps in more complicated math problems. A person using an abacus properly is doing more thinking than those only using a calculator, in my opinion.</p>
<p>It's also a quick way of recording a phone number when paper and braille writing tools, or pens are not handy, and for keeping track of purchases while shopping in the grocery store</p>
<hr />
<h3>A new VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>I have limited experience with VI kids---just two years now. But, I have several other sp ed endorsements and have taught k-12 kids with many learning problems. It seems to me that the abacus is an excellent tool for developing the concepts of place value, base ten stuff, and many numerical relationships. The NFB has a good chapter in their book for vision teachers. I haven't read it yet, but understand the "paper compatible abacus" section is great. I believe the process is to use the abacus and then write the answer on the brailler.</p>
<p>From my own experience, it has been helpful with a first grader that is still needing manipulatives. But, the Mathline products have been more helpful when the problems would involve using the "secrets" of the abacus to find answers to easy problems that first and second graders do. After all, we don't have the luxury of tailoring all the math problems to the ones that are the easiest on the abacus. The abacus has also been great to "back up" a teenager when she has had great difficulty with concepts that were taught in grade school-----but perhaps she missed or passed over at the time. For a teen, the abacus is really just a huge pile of manipulatives that they can carry in their pocket and not be a dork! In fact, the teachers at the high School are pretty fascinated with it.</p>
<hr />
<h3>A friend of a blind user replies:</h3>
<p>A friend of mine (when I taught at a school for the blind a 1000 years ago) learned abacus as a child. As an adult, she chose to use it over her calculator because she could do it faster (she had residual vision such that she could operate a calculator visually).</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>I have a 9th grade extremely low vision student who has always been very good at math (has a Type n' Speak on which he could do calculations,) but really has enjoyed learning to use the abacus. It is his favorite activity out of the many we do (he is also learning braille) I agree with other respondents - it teaches a lot of basic math concepts, place value, etc. Also, I have heard it is a good way to quickly jot down phone numbers, etc. It is just another "tool" for the tool bag, so why not have it?</p>
<hr />
<h3>A former VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>Although it has been many years since I taught the abacus, I had to enter the arena. My favorite way was the old Chisombop method. I got ahold of some of the work books for pre-abacus activities.</p>
<p>If you are not familiar with the Chisombop method, it was a method of finger counting where the thumb equaled '5' and the digits were (well) digits. To indicate a number a child would 'press' his/her fingers and thumbs to the table or 'lift' them to void the number. My experience was that when children had a good concept of numbers and using their fingers and thumbs for math problems they could move to the abacus easier.</p>
<p>I also used the finger method when introducing/reinforcing new math procedures (like division, multiplication, etc.). The students (I worked with) seemed to be able to keep track of the new math concepts easier. (Probably, due to the multi-sensory learning experience, but it was long ago, and I wasn't so sophisticated that I could label it.)</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI Teacher replies:</h3>
<p>Tell those parents to think in their own terms. Just as the pen hasn't been made obsolete for sighted folks, the pencil and eraser hasn't been replaced by the calculator. The abacus isn't hard to learn, is extremely low maintenance, and reinforces mathematical concepts in young children. Would those parents want a sighted child of theirs learning operations on a calculator only? Besides, it's a great draw for the other kids in the class, especially when they get to the sections in the math course we use (in about Gr.4) when they have historical and cross-cultural units. My kids always get to demonstrate.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI teachers replies:</h3>
<p>I am another big fan of the abacus. I have several students who were not taught the abacus in elementary school but learned only how to do math on the Perkins. These students are severely delayed in their math skills and their math concepts because they have so much difficulty just doing the basic computation lining the numbers.</p>
<p>I start teaching the abacus in Kindergarten or first grade whenever the other students begin writing numbers and learning number concepts. They start right off with writing numbers on the braillewriter and the abacus.</p>
<p>I don't understand how anyone can NOT want to teach the abacus. It is so much more efficient and practical. The abacus can go with a student anywhere, unlike a Perkins. I use to work with elementary age students as a mobility instructor and I took the abacus and we worked on math at the store with the abacus.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI teacher responds:</h3>
<p>I have my students use abacus from 4th grade through 6th grade and then as needed from then on. If they don't get good enough at it to use it extensively in 5th and 6th grade then it is a lost cause because the sighted kids start being allowed to use calculators beginning in 7th and therefore the blind kids do as well. If they've gotten good at abacus and used it a lot prior to that then most have enough sense to realize there are times when it is just as useful and at times more useful than the calculator.</p>
<p>I was taught to teach abacus using secrets but found students didn't ever really learn the logic of what they were doing that way. So I teach them by using the logic. "You want to add 7 but you can't add 7 so you add 10. You only wanted to add seven but you had to add 10 so that is 3 too many. Take 3 away." etc. Once that logic, and similar for subtraction, gets ingrained then they can figure out any problem. If you want to add 7 and can't add 10 then add 100. You only wanted to add seven but had to add 100 so that is 93 too many. Take away 93. The only helps I give the kids that I haven't seen recommended everywhere are a rubber band and an extra abacus. I give them a rubber band to use around the abacus as a decimal point. Also give them an extra abacus to use as scratch paper when they are doing long division.</p>
<hr />
<h3>A VI Teacher with a Fourth Grade Student replies:</h3>
<p>I also have a very bright fourth grade student who is learning the same things. The student has always dreaded math and the parents put much pressure on her to excel. With the frustration of the time it takes to do the work on the braille writer, I decided to try the abacus. She learned it very quickly and just loves math now! She feels very successful without having to worry about the lining up of numbers and always gets every problem correct. The parents did feel that by using the abacus she was getting the easy way out and that she needed to learn math the "normal way" as well. I did a lesson with just the parents on the abacus to really show them how it works and to emphasize that the student was not "taking the easy way out", and was actually doing all the same work just writing it down in a different way. This really helped them to understand it more and they are accepting of it now. I think it's a great tool and definitely worth teaching to both student and parents.</p>
<hr />
<h3>A teacher replies:</h3>
<p>I believe children should have the abacus introduced (a) as soon as their sighted peers begin doing pencil and paper math, and (b) as soon as they understand basic number facts. That is, it does not make sense to introduce abacus multiplication until (or in conjunction with) introducing the concept of it being a form of multiple adding. So a student would use it to add 6 plus 6 plus 6 to verify that three times six is eighteen and work on the times tables that way.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another teacher responds:</h3>
<p>In regards to using the abacus with children before the 3rd grade, it has been my experience that students need to have some concepts firmly in place BEFORE I introduce the abacus. They need to have a clear understanding of 1:1 correspondence, the difference between ones, tens, and hundreds, and it helps if they have firmly grasped addition and subtractions facts. These concepts are more easily and thoroughly taught using manipulatives, such as Unifix cubes, before even introducing the abacus. Some children master all of these quickly, often in the first grade; some before, and most by the end of second grade. If a third grader still doesn't have these concepts, the abacus will be tough. When I start the abacus with a young child, I begin with simple counting up to 100. Of all the abacus curricula I have tried, I have found the "counting on" method developed by one of Rita Livingston's college students to be the most concrete.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Fun" name="Fun"></a>Fun Way to Use the Abacus</h2>
<h3>A Teacher writes:</h3>
<p>I am a Braille/mobility teacher in an elementary school. Since the beginning of this year, I have begun working with the abacus with two of my students who are in the fourth grade. They have become very proficient with addition, subtraction and multiplication using their abacus and really enjoy doing math more than when they used to compute using their Perkins Brailler. With the abacus, they compute problems faster and have an easier time erasing and starting over, if they make a mistake. I believe that using an abacus has helped them to better understand the concepts of place value and decimals.</p>
<p>One day a week, we have designated for playing games such as abacus Jeopardy, hangman, or Snake, all teacher made or modified games. We've even taken to playing a human race on a hopscotch mat. The two student's start off on the same square and get to move ahead if they solve the problem they draw correctly. The object of the game is to get to the last square first. Whatever the game, math and the abacus can be fun and extremely useful to blind students.</p><ul>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Posing">Posing the Question</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Susan">Susan Replies</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Debra">Debra Sewell Replies</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Blind">Blind Abacus User's Thoughts</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#VI">VI Teacher's Thoughts</a></li>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Fun">Fun Way to Use the Abacus</a></li>
</ul>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Posing" name="Posing"></a>Posing the Question</h2>
<h3>Three VI teachers write:</h3>
<p>#1. I am a teacher who wonders whether it is important or appropriate to teach abacus to my blind students. It is my contention that while the abacus can be a useful teaching tool, it is not a necessary one and teaching algorithms as they are taught in the classrooms in which the children are learning (with sighted peers) is more beneficial to them than teaching a different tool - i.e. the abacus. The calculator seems inexpensive enough to be a viable, appropriate and useful alternative to the abacus with its limited capabilities. Am I wrong? I would appreciate your input as well as an indication of which of the two (calculator or abacus) is more useful to those of you who are blind or severely visually impaired.</p>
<p>#2. At our school, we are investigating the use of an abacus as a tool for a blind student. There are philosophical differences in the use of this item. Could you offer any insights into pros and cons of its use? Also, could you direct us to information regarding this discussion? Any assistance you might offer will be extremely helpful.</p>
<p>#3. I have had a request from another TVI who would like opinions regarding ABACUS? She has a fourth grade braille student who is very intelligent, and is just getting into double and triple digit multiplication and long division. She is working on her Nemeth code skills as well. What are your opinions about using abacus as a learning tool? Are there very many of you teaching Abacus, and if so what age did you start teaching it? I know it all depends on the child and their skills, but any information, comments or positive examples, negative concerns, we would like your great input. The parents really believe that the abacus is ARCHAIC, and obsolete, and feel it is a waste of time for their child to learn abacus? Any comments and opinions, and input would be greatly appreciated. Thank you very much for all your help.</p>
<h2><a id="Susan" name="Susan"></a>Susan replies:</h2>
<p>I really don't like to think of this as Abacus versus Calculator. I like having all the tools I can get.</p>
<p>Previously, calculators were not allowed on standardized mathematics examinations even for blind students - including the TAAS (required for high school graduation here in Texas), SAT, and ACT. (The TASP still does not allow calculators, and many blind students will need to master this test before being allowed to complete their college requirements.) Calculators were also not allowed on most classroom examinations as well. Therefore, blind students were at a distinct disadvantage if they did not have an equivalent to the sighted student's pencil and paper. In my opinion, using the braillewriter to compute long computational problems is way too time intensive for the high school or college student. (I am not talking about an elementary student just learning how to perform the basic operations.) I had a student in a Pre-Algebra class many years ago when I (like the rest of the world) did not allow calculators so that they would be prepared and able to pass the standardized tests that did not allow calculator use. This student did all of her problems on the braillewriter and was staying up until 2 AM doing my homework and needing to come after school to finish tests, whereas everyone else was easily finished in a reasonable amount of time. We both decided that she needed to learn the abacus and quickly! She was extremely motivated and learned in a matter of a couple of weeks. She was then the first student to finish her homework and tests; her self-esteem increased; and math became fun. The other students wanted to know what miracle I had performed.</p>
<p>Now, it is recommended to use calculators in all the math classes and on most of the standardized tests. In fact, some tests "require" a scientific/graphing calculator. My students all use calculators, and I am even collaborating on finding the best way to use scientific/graphing calculators. However, I still have a definite abacus "attachment." Although everyone is using calculators, the sighted students can still use paper and pencil, if they choose or need to, when electronic power fails (be it electricity, batteries, etc.). I believe the blind student should have a fast, efficient, small, portable, non-electronic way to do a quick computation as well, if they so choose or the TASP demands it. Some of my students are surprised when even I pick up an abacus to perform a computation instead of paper and pencil. It's also non-consumable. Furthermore, I like working fractions and doing prime factorization on an abacus - not so easy on a calculator.</p>
<p>In secondary, students needing to learn abacus are quite often also in need of learning Nemeth Code. Ideally, they could take an abacus class during summer school and learn their basic Nemeth Code symbols while reading and answering the abacus problems. The talking calculator might be used to "check" the answers. I use the TSBVI method found in the book: Rita Livingston, <strong><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/curriculum-a-publications/3/1027-use-of-the-cranmer-abacus-2nd-edition">Use of the Cranmer Abacus (2nd Ed.)</a></strong>, Texas School for the Blind, Austin, Texas, 1997. See http://10.65.20.48/curriculum-a-publications/. Rita’s book also contains the Counting Method (<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/abacus/3284-using-an-abacus-and-the-counting-method-">See Using an Abacus and the Counting Method</a>).</p>
<p>The abacus can be too difficult for some students however, so the individual student needs and abilities must always be your primary consideration. However, before giving up, check to see if there is a better method of calculating on the abacus than the one you are presently using. Please read <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#Debra">Debra Sewell's comments below</a> to see the abacus from a former elementary teacher’s viewpoint.</p>
<p>Following her comments, please read replies from blind users of the abacus and other vi teachers to catch their perspective as well.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Debra" name="Debra"></a>Debra Sewell, TSBVI, VH Outreach replies:</h2>
<h3>Using an Abacus and the Counting Method</h3>
<p>Parents of many children with visual impairments are familiar with "talking calculators" and understand how their child can use this adaptive device to aid him/her in doing math problems. However, there is an ancient device they may not be aware of that is very important for their child to be able to use. This device is an abacus and is an adaptation of the Japanese abacus. Most of you have seen an abacus somewhere in your life, but you may never have used one. For the child with a visual impairment the abacus is comparable to the sighted child's pencil and paper, and should be considered a fundamental component of his math instruction. Just like his sighted peers, the VI student should also learn to use a calculator. Total reliance on the calculator should be avoided, however, because 1) the calculator does not allow a child to learn problem-solving skills, 2) the VI child will not have a "backup" plan when the battery goes dead. Additionally, children who are deafblind and who may not be able to hear the voice of a talking calculator, may also benefit from using an abacus.</p>
<p>Tactual learners may find it easier to use a device like an abacus. Some VI teachers do not teach abacus until students know their number facts to ten. In fact, the abacus can be used without knowing number facts to ten when the counting method is used.</p>
<h3>How to Use the Counting Method</h3>
<p>Similar to Chisenbop (a system of using fingers for calculating), the counting method uses rote counting as beads are moved toward or away from the horizontal counting bar of an abacus.</p>
<p>As compared to other methods of calculating on the abacus (synthesis, direct/indirect, secrets, number partners), the counting method involves only four processes. Consequently, this method is best for students with visual and multiple impairments who would benefit from using an abacus. These students will probably learn the four processes more easily than the many steps needed to complete calculations with other methods. To be successful using the counting method, students should be capable of rote counting and have the knowledge of the concepts "one more than" and "one less than."</p>
<p>If you would like to know more about using an abacus, please contact Debra Sewell at (512) 206-9301 or <a href="mailto:SewellD EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu">DebraSewell EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu</a>. She has additional information on how to teach using the Counting Method and additional practice problems. You may also wish to check out the <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/component/content/article/1020-assessment-kit">Assessment Kit</a> she has compiled which includes an informal checklist for abacus skills.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Blind" name="Blind"></a>Blind Abacus Users Thoughts</h2>
<h3>A blind abacus user replies:</h3>
<p>The use of both is equally important. Abacus serves as a good place holder. It can be used for fractions whereas the calculator cannot. With the abacus, the students have a better understanding of adding and subtracting where with a calculator it is just typing buttons. They don't have to do anything- they don't have to even know the steps. They have an idea of what's going on paper. The calculator can be used on tests but calculators are sometimes bigger and dependent on an external power source.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another blind abacus user replies:</h3>
<p>I respond to this post from the viewpoint of a person who is 46 years old and who has always been blind. I first learned to use the Taylor Slate and type in the fourth grade and thought the abacus was a wonderful improvement for doing arithmetic. We began to learn the Cranmer Abacus in the seventh grade and I remember the feeling of fascination that it was possible to solve an arithmetic problem from left to right on the abacus just as well as it can be solved from right to left as it is on paper or via Taylor Slate. The abacus also teaches scalars in that the top beads stand for units of 5.</p>
<p>I have used talking calculators, computers, and the abacus and I still keep a Cranmer Abacus in my desk because it is handy for quick arithmetic or for temporarily storing telephone numbers. I would go so far as to say that the abacus is something that probably should be taught to all children because it involves several mathematical concepts and it makes doing mental arithmetic easier.</p>
<p>"Newsweek" magazine recently had a letter from a math teacher who was critical of the use of calculators in schools because the children grew up with no concept of numbers and how they really work. I heartily second that idea. Calculators are not bad, but students should first learn what is really happening so that they will know when to trust those electronic answers.</p>
<p>I would say to definitely teach the abacus and use the electronic calculators after the students have a feel for arithmetic.</p>
<p>For those who may not be familiar with the Taylor Slate, it was a system that made it possible for blind students to work arithmetic problems and represent the numbers with pieces of movable type on a special board that held the type in 8-sided holes which existed in rows on the slate. The advantage was that one could work problems all day and not use up any consumable materials such as paper. The pieces of type, however, frequently got spilled and higher math operations were problematic.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="VI" name="VI"></a>VI Teachers Thoughts</h2>
<h3>A former VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>When I was a VI teacher I taught abacus. I know it is being taught in our residential school now. I do not think it is archaic, I think it is a very tangible way to keep track of the various steps in more complicated math problems. A person using an abacus properly is doing more thinking than those only using a calculator, in my opinion.</p>
<p>It's also a quick way of recording a phone number when paper and braille writing tools, or pens are not handy, and for keeping track of purchases while shopping in the grocery store</p>
<hr />
<h3>A new VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>I have limited experience with VI kids---just two years now. But, I have several other sp ed endorsements and have taught k-12 kids with many learning problems. It seems to me that the abacus is an excellent tool for developing the concepts of place value, base ten stuff, and many numerical relationships. The NFB has a good chapter in their book for vision teachers. I haven't read it yet, but understand the "paper compatible abacus" section is great. I believe the process is to use the abacus and then write the answer on the brailler.</p>
<p>From my own experience, it has been helpful with a first grader that is still needing manipulatives. But, the Mathline products have been more helpful when the problems would involve using the "secrets" of the abacus to find answers to easy problems that first and second graders do. After all, we don't have the luxury of tailoring all the math problems to the ones that are the easiest on the abacus. The abacus has also been great to "back up" a teenager when she has had great difficulty with concepts that were taught in grade school-----but perhaps she missed or passed over at the time. For a teen, the abacus is really just a huge pile of manipulatives that they can carry in their pocket and not be a dork! In fact, the teachers at the high School are pretty fascinated with it.</p>
<hr />
<h3>A friend of a blind user replies:</h3>
<p>A friend of mine (when I taught at a school for the blind a 1000 years ago) learned abacus as a child. As an adult, she chose to use it over her calculator because she could do it faster (she had residual vision such that she could operate a calculator visually).</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>I have a 9th grade extremely low vision student who has always been very good at math (has a Type n' Speak on which he could do calculations,) but really has enjoyed learning to use the abacus. It is his favorite activity out of the many we do (he is also learning braille) I agree with other respondents - it teaches a lot of basic math concepts, place value, etc. Also, I have heard it is a good way to quickly jot down phone numbers, etc. It is just another "tool" for the tool bag, so why not have it?</p>
<hr />
<h3>A former VI teacher replies:</h3>
<p>Although it has been many years since I taught the abacus, I had to enter the arena. My favorite way was the old Chisombop method. I got ahold of some of the work books for pre-abacus activities.</p>
<p>If you are not familiar with the Chisombop method, it was a method of finger counting where the thumb equaled '5' and the digits were (well) digits. To indicate a number a child would 'press' his/her fingers and thumbs to the table or 'lift' them to void the number. My experience was that when children had a good concept of numbers and using their fingers and thumbs for math problems they could move to the abacus easier.</p>
<p>I also used the finger method when introducing/reinforcing new math procedures (like division, multiplication, etc.). The students (I worked with) seemed to be able to keep track of the new math concepts easier. (Probably, due to the multi-sensory learning experience, but it was long ago, and I wasn't so sophisticated that I could label it.)</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI Teacher replies:</h3>
<p>Tell those parents to think in their own terms. Just as the pen hasn't been made obsolete for sighted folks, the pencil and eraser hasn't been replaced by the calculator. The abacus isn't hard to learn, is extremely low maintenance, and reinforces mathematical concepts in young children. Would those parents want a sighted child of theirs learning operations on a calculator only? Besides, it's a great draw for the other kids in the class, especially when they get to the sections in the math course we use (in about Gr.4) when they have historical and cross-cultural units. My kids always get to demonstrate.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI teachers replies:</h3>
<p>I am another big fan of the abacus. I have several students who were not taught the abacus in elementary school but learned only how to do math on the Perkins. These students are severely delayed in their math skills and their math concepts because they have so much difficulty just doing the basic computation lining the numbers.</p>
<p>I start teaching the abacus in Kindergarten or first grade whenever the other students begin writing numbers and learning number concepts. They start right off with writing numbers on the braillewriter and the abacus.</p>
<p>I don't understand how anyone can NOT want to teach the abacus. It is so much more efficient and practical. The abacus can go with a student anywhere, unlike a Perkins. I use to work with elementary age students as a mobility instructor and I took the abacus and we worked on math at the store with the abacus.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another VI teacher responds:</h3>
<p>I have my students use abacus from 4th grade through 6th grade and then as needed from then on. If they don't get good enough at it to use it extensively in 5th and 6th grade then it is a lost cause because the sighted kids start being allowed to use calculators beginning in 7th and therefore the blind kids do as well. If they've gotten good at abacus and used it a lot prior to that then most have enough sense to realize there are times when it is just as useful and at times more useful than the calculator.</p>
<p>I was taught to teach abacus using secrets but found students didn't ever really learn the logic of what they were doing that way. So I teach them by using the logic. "You want to add 7 but you can't add 7 so you add 10. You only wanted to add seven but you had to add 10 so that is 3 too many. Take 3 away." etc. Once that logic, and similar for subtraction, gets ingrained then they can figure out any problem. If you want to add 7 and can't add 10 then add 100. You only wanted to add seven but had to add 100 so that is 93 too many. Take away 93. The only helps I give the kids that I haven't seen recommended everywhere are a rubber band and an extra abacus. I give them a rubber band to use around the abacus as a decimal point. Also give them an extra abacus to use as scratch paper when they are doing long division.</p>
<hr />
<h3>A VI Teacher with a Fourth Grade Student replies:</h3>
<p>I also have a very bright fourth grade student who is learning the same things. The student has always dreaded math and the parents put much pressure on her to excel. With the frustration of the time it takes to do the work on the braille writer, I decided to try the abacus. She learned it very quickly and just loves math now! She feels very successful without having to worry about the lining up of numbers and always gets every problem correct. The parents did feel that by using the abacus she was getting the easy way out and that she needed to learn math the "normal way" as well. I did a lesson with just the parents on the abacus to really show them how it works and to emphasize that the student was not "taking the easy way out", and was actually doing all the same work just writing it down in a different way. This really helped them to understand it more and they are accepting of it now. I think it's a great tool and definitely worth teaching to both student and parents.</p>
<hr />
<h3>A teacher replies:</h3>
<p>I believe children should have the abacus introduced (a) as soon as their sighted peers begin doing pencil and paper math, and (b) as soon as they understand basic number facts. That is, it does not make sense to introduce abacus multiplication until (or in conjunction with) introducing the concept of it being a form of multiple adding. So a student would use it to add 6 plus 6 plus 6 to verify that three times six is eighteen and work on the times tables that way.</p>
<hr />
<h3>Another teacher responds:</h3>
<p>In regards to using the abacus with children before the 3rd grade, it has been my experience that students need to have some concepts firmly in place BEFORE I introduce the abacus. They need to have a clear understanding of 1:1 correspondence, the difference between ones, tens, and hundreds, and it helps if they have firmly grasped addition and subtractions facts. These concepts are more easily and thoroughly taught using manipulatives, such as Unifix cubes, before even introducing the abacus. Some children master all of these quickly, often in the first grade; some before, and most by the end of second grade. If a third grader still doesn't have these concepts, the abacus will be tough. When I start the abacus with a young child, I begin with simple counting up to 100. Of all the abacus curricula I have tried, I have found the "counting on" method developed by one of Rita Livingston's college students to be the most concrete.</p>
<hr />
<h2><a id="Fun" name="Fun"></a>Fun Way to Use the Abacus</h2>
<h3>A Teacher writes:</h3>
<p>I am a Braille/mobility teacher in an elementary school. Since the beginning of this year, I have begun working with the abacus with two of my students who are in the fourth grade. They have become very proficient with addition, subtraction and multiplication using their abacus and really enjoy doing math more than when they used to compute using their Perkins Brailler. With the abacus, they compute problems faster and have an easier time erasing and starting over, if they make a mistake. I believe that using an abacus has helped them to better understand the concepts of place value and decimals.</p>
<p>One day a week, we have designated for playing games such as abacus Jeopardy, hangman, or Snake, all teacher made or modified games. We've even taken to playing a human race on a hopscotch mat. The two student's start off on the same square and get to move ahead if they solve the problem they draw correctly. The object of the game is to get to the last square first. Whatever the game, math and the abacus can be fun and extremely useful to blind students.</p>Accessible Math Tools: Algebra, Geometry, and Beyond2010-02-18T20:36:23-06:002010-02-18T20:36:23-06:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/tools-items/2181-math-toolsWebmaster<p>
This math class is designed for secondary students who will be enrolled for credit in Algebra I or a more advanced SBOE mathematics course during the school year. Students will learn to use a variety of tools in the following areas:</p>
<ul>
<li>
Improve skills in using linear measuring devices</li>
<li>
Improve skills in graphing on a number line and coordinate plane</li>
<li>
Improve skills in interpreting and constructing tactile graphics</li>
<li>
Improve skills in interpreting and constructing geometric figures</li>
<li>
Improve skills in using graphing and non-graphing scientific calculators</li>
<li>
Improve skills in using a talking scientific calculator</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
The goal of this program is to provide students with the tools and techniques needed by a visually impaired learner to be successful in a regular math course. Unique adaptations will be provided for the blind and for the low vision learner, including exposure to adaptive graphing calculator solutions. Students will leave the program with new adaptive skills and with knowledge about resources available to assist them in future learning.</p>
<p>
For specific adaptive tools and technology see:</p>
<ul>
<li>
<a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=3607:math-tools-lv&amp;catid=55&amp;Itemid=106">Suggested Adaptive Tools and Materials for Low Vision Students In Advanced Mathematics</a></li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=3608:math-tools-blind&amp;catid=55&amp;Itemid=106">Suggested Adaptive Tools and Materials for Blind Students In Advanced Mathematics</a></li>
<li>
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#equipment">Adaptive Tools and Technology for Accessible Mathematics - Equipment</a></li>
<li>
Summer 2000</li>
<li>
April 2001</li>
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Summer 2001</li>
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November 2001</li>
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Summer 2002</li>
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December 2002</li>
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Summer 2003</li>
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December 2003</li>
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Summer 2004</li>
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December 2004</li>
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November 2005</li>
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Summer 2006</li>
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November 2006</li>
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Summer 2007</li>
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November 2008</li>
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Summer 2009</li>
<li>
November 2009</li>
<li>
Summer 2010</li>
<li>
November 2010</li>
<li>
November 2011</li>
</ul>
<h2>
<a id="equipment" name="equipment"></a>Equipment</h2>
<table border="1" cellpadding="8" cellspacing="1" style="width: 100%;" summary="table for layout only, photos with captions, follow links to see enlarged image">
<caption>
Click on a photo to enlarge it. Use the back arrow to return to the full page.</caption>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/numlineruller.jpg"><img alt="APH rulers, Howe Press yardstick, APH meter stick, APH number line device." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/numlineruller_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
APH rulers, Howe Press yardstick, APH meter stick, APH number line device.</p>
</td>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/protractor.jpg"><img alt="Howe Press protractor on drawing board, print protractor on paper worksheet, APH braille/print protractor and tracing wheel shown on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board, and protractor and pen on rubber pad." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/protractor_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
Howe Press protractor on drawing board, print protractor on paper worksheet, APH braille/print protractor and tracing wheel shown on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board, and protractor and pen on rubber pad.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/orion.jpg"><img alt="ORION TI-34 talking scientific calculator with earphone, battery charger, coverlid, and manual on disk, cassette and in print." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/orion_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
ORION TI-34 talking scientific calculator with earphone, battery charger, coverlid, and manual on disk, cassette and in print.</p>
</td>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/compasses.jpg"><img alt="Print compass shown with Venn diagram, Howe Press compass shown on Howe Press drawing board and on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board." border="2" height="85" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/compasses_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
Print compass shown with Venn diagram, Howe Press compass shown on Howe Press drawing board and on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82graph.jpg"><img alt="Parabola and straight line graphed on APH Graphic Aid for Mathematics and printed from Accessible Graphing Calculator software from ViewPlus Technologies and TI 82 ViewScreen calculator package." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82graph_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
Parabola and straight line graphed on APH Graphic Aid for Mathematics and printed from Accessible Graphing Calculator software from ViewPlus Technologies and TI 82 ViewScreen calculator package.</p>
</td>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82.jpg"><img alt="TI-82 ViewScreen scientific graphing calculator with ViewScreen on Logan light box (low vision solution)." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
TI-82 ViewScreen scientific graphing calculator with ViewScreen on Logan light box (low vision solution).</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>
</p><p>
This math class is designed for secondary students who will be enrolled for credit in Algebra I or a more advanced SBOE mathematics course during the school year. Students will learn to use a variety of tools in the following areas:</p>
<ul>
<li>
Improve skills in using linear measuring devices</li>
<li>
Improve skills in graphing on a number line and coordinate plane</li>
<li>
Improve skills in interpreting and constructing tactile graphics</li>
<li>
Improve skills in interpreting and constructing geometric figures</li>
<li>
Improve skills in using graphing and non-graphing scientific calculators</li>
<li>
Improve skills in using a talking scientific calculator</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
The goal of this program is to provide students with the tools and techniques needed by a visually impaired learner to be successful in a regular math course. Unique adaptations will be provided for the blind and for the low vision learner, including exposure to adaptive graphing calculator solutions. Students will leave the program with new adaptive skills and with knowledge about resources available to assist them in future learning.</p>
<p>
For specific adaptive tools and technology see:</p>
<ul>
<li>
<a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=3607:math-tools-lv&amp;catid=55&amp;Itemid=106">Suggested Adaptive Tools and Materials for Low Vision Students In Advanced Mathematics</a></li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.tsbvi.edu/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=3608:math-tools-blind&amp;catid=55&amp;Itemid=106">Suggested Adaptive Tools and Materials for Blind Students In Advanced Mathematics</a></li>
<li>
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#equipment">Adaptive Tools and Technology for Accessible Mathematics - Equipment</a></li>
<li>
Summer 2000</li>
<li>
April 2001</li>
<li>
Summer 2001</li>
<li>
November 2001</li>
<li>
Summer 2002</li>
<li>
December 2002</li>
<li>
Summer 2003</li>
<li>
December 2003</li>
<li>
Summer 2004</li>
<li>
December 2004</li>
<li>
November 2005</li>
<li>
Summer 2006</li>
<li>
November 2006</li>
<li>
Summer 2007</li>
<li>
November 2008</li>
<li>
Summer 2009</li>
<li>
November 2009</li>
<li>
Summer 2010</li>
<li>
November 2010</li>
<li>
November 2011</li>
</ul>
<h2>
<a id="equipment" name="equipment"></a>Equipment</h2>
<table border="1" cellpadding="8" cellspacing="1" style="width: 100%;" summary="table for layout only, photos with captions, follow links to see enlarged image">
<caption>
Click on a photo to enlarge it. Use the back arrow to return to the full page.</caption>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/numlineruller.jpg"><img alt="APH rulers, Howe Press yardstick, APH meter stick, APH number line device." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/numlineruller_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
APH rulers, Howe Press yardstick, APH meter stick, APH number line device.</p>
</td>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/protractor.jpg"><img alt="Howe Press protractor on drawing board, print protractor on paper worksheet, APH braille/print protractor and tracing wheel shown on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board, and protractor and pen on rubber pad." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/protractor_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
Howe Press protractor on drawing board, print protractor on paper worksheet, APH braille/print protractor and tracing wheel shown on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board, and protractor and pen on rubber pad.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/orion.jpg"><img alt="ORION TI-34 talking scientific calculator with earphone, battery charger, coverlid, and manual on disk, cassette and in print." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/orion_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
ORION TI-34 talking scientific calculator with earphone, battery charger, coverlid, and manual on disk, cassette and in print.</p>
</td>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/compasses.jpg"><img alt="Print compass shown with Venn diagram, Howe Press compass shown on Howe Press drawing board and on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board." border="2" height="85" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/compasses_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
Print compass shown with Venn diagram, Howe Press compass shown on Howe Press drawing board and on Sewell Raised Line Drawing Board.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82graph.jpg"><img alt="Parabola and straight line graphed on APH Graphic Aid for Mathematics and printed from Accessible Graphing Calculator software from ViewPlus Technologies and TI 82 ViewScreen calculator package." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82graph_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
Parabola and straight line graphed on APH Graphic Aid for Mathematics and printed from Accessible Graphing Calculator software from ViewPlus Technologies and TI 82 ViewScreen calculator package.</p>
</td>
<td align="center" valign="top" width="50%">
<a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82.jpg"><img alt="TI-82 ViewScreen scientific graphing calculator with ViewScreen on Logan light box (low vision solution)." border="2" height="75" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/math/ti82_small.jpg" width="100" /></a>
<p>
TI-82 ViewScreen scientific graphing calculator with ViewScreen on Logan light box (low vision solution).</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p>
</p>Assistive Tools & Technology for Access to Mathematics2013-11-01T20:03:43-05:002013-11-01T20:03:43-05:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/school-year-class-description-items/3838-accessible-math-tools-and-strategies-algebra-geometry-and-beyondWebmaster<h3><span style="color: #333399;"><strong>October 28 - November 2 (referrals due by September 28, 2018)</strong></span></h3>
<h3><span style="color: #333399;"><strong><img style="margin-bottom: 5px; margin-left: 10px; float: right;" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/education/special/Images/STP_Course_Descrip_images/Talking_Graphing_TI-84_Calcrel.jpg" alt="Talking Graphing TI 84 Calcrel" width="242" height="319" /></strong></span></h3>
<h4 style="font-weight: bold; color: #000000;">Grades 8 - 12</h4>
<p>This math class is designed for secondary students who will be enrolled for credit in Algebra I or a more advanced SBOE mathematics course during the school year.</p>
<p>The goal of this program is to introduce students to a wide variety of tools and techniques that help a visually impaired learner succeed in a regular math course. From low-tech tools to the latest in electronics, students will explore effective adaptations for blind and low vision learners. Examples include high- and low-tech graphing solutions, the brand-new tactile caliper, an Accessible Equation Editor just revealed at CSUN last year, and hopefully a field test electronic item never seen before!</p>
<p>Students will leave the class with new adaptive skills and with knowledge about resources available to assist them in future learning.</p>
<p><strong><span style="color: #000000;">Focus areas of the class include:</span></strong></p>
<ul>
<li>Using linear measuring devices</li>
<li>Graphing on a number line and a coordinate plane</li>
<li>Interpreting and constructing tactile graphics</li>
<li>Interpreting and constructing geometric figures</li>
<li>Using a talking scientific calculator</li>
<li>Using a talking graphing calculator</li>
</ul>
<p>This class is taught by <strong>Susan Osterhaus</strong>, Statewide Mathematics Consultant for Visually Impaired Students.</p>
<p>Students applying for this class should be capable of grade level performance in mathematics, after mastering the use of appropriate adaptive tools and strategies.</p>
<p>For additional information about the content of this section contact Nina Wibbenmeyer at <a href="mailto:wibbenmeyrn EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu">wibbenmeyern EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu</a> or 512-206-9361</p>
<p> </p>
<p><a href="https://shortterm.tsbvi.edu/StudentReferral/Create"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Make a Short-Term Programs Referral</span></a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/school/3365-calendar">Return to School Year course list</a></p>
<p> </p><h3><span style="color: #333399;"><strong>October 28 - November 2 (referrals due by September 28, 2018)</strong></span></h3>
<h3><span style="color: #333399;"><strong><img style="margin-bottom: 5px; margin-left: 10px; float: right;" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/education/special/Images/STP_Course_Descrip_images/Talking_Graphing_TI-84_Calcrel.jpg" alt="Talking Graphing TI 84 Calcrel" width="242" height="319" /></strong></span></h3>
<h4 style="font-weight: bold; color: #000000;">Grades 8 - 12</h4>
<p>This math class is designed for secondary students who will be enrolled for credit in Algebra I or a more advanced SBOE mathematics course during the school year.</p>
<p>The goal of this program is to introduce students to a wide variety of tools and techniques that help a visually impaired learner succeed in a regular math course. From low-tech tools to the latest in electronics, students will explore effective adaptations for blind and low vision learners. Examples include high- and low-tech graphing solutions, the brand-new tactile caliper, an Accessible Equation Editor just revealed at CSUN last year, and hopefully a field test electronic item never seen before!</p>
<p>Students will leave the class with new adaptive skills and with knowledge about resources available to assist them in future learning.</p>
<p><strong><span style="color: #000000;">Focus areas of the class include:</span></strong></p>
<ul>
<li>Using linear measuring devices</li>
<li>Graphing on a number line and a coordinate plane</li>
<li>Interpreting and constructing tactile graphics</li>
<li>Interpreting and constructing geometric figures</li>
<li>Using a talking scientific calculator</li>
<li>Using a talking graphing calculator</li>
</ul>
<p>This class is taught by <strong>Susan Osterhaus</strong>, Statewide Mathematics Consultant for Visually Impaired Students.</p>
<p>Students applying for this class should be capable of grade level performance in mathematics, after mastering the use of appropriate adaptive tools and strategies.</p>
<p>For additional information about the content of this section contact Nina Wibbenmeyer at <a href="mailto:wibbenmeyrn EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu">wibbenmeyern EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu</a> or 512-206-9361</p>
<p> </p>
<p><a href="https://shortterm.tsbvi.edu/StudentReferral/Create"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Make a Short-Term Programs Referral</span></a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/school/3365-calendar">Return to School Year course list</a></p>
<p> </p>Current Research in Math for VI Students2009-12-28T21:32:42-06:002009-12-28T21:32:42-06:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/resources-math-items/1553-current-research-in-math-for-vi-studentsWebmaster<p>Currently, research is in the works to make mathematics more accessible to the blind, and the following projects are just completed, undergoing beta testing, or still in the planning/prototype stage. For more information on their work in progress contact:</p>
<p><a href="http://www.dessci.com/">Design Science, Inc.</a><br /> 140 Pine Avenue, 4th Floor<br /> Long Beach, CA 90802<br /> Phone: 800-827-0685 (no technical support calls at this number)<br /> Main: 562-432-2920 <br /> Fax: 562-432-2857<br /> Contact: Neil Soiffer <br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:neils EP_AT dessci EP_DOT com">neils EP_AT dessci EP_DOT com</a><br /> Website: http://www.dessci.com</p>
<p><strong> MathPlayer's Math-to-Speech Technology. </strong> MathPlayer 2.0 makes math in web pages accessible to visually impaired readers.</p>
<p>Dr. Neil Soiffer, Senior Scientist at Design Science, will be presenting a session at CSUN 2005 entitled, "<a href="http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2005/proceedings/2407.htm">Advances In Accessible Web-Based Mathematics</a>." He'll discuss how the recent reauthorization of the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and ongoing standards and technology development will make mathematical expressions on web pages and other media accessible to everyone. He will also be demonstrating how math in web pages can be made accessible today. The talk takes place noon Wednesday, March 16th, in Marriott's Boston Room. A session abstract is available from CSUN:</p>
<p><a href="http://www.dessci.com/accessibility/">For more on math accessibility</a>(http://www.dessci.com/accessibility/)</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.dotlessbraille.org/"> Dotless Braille</a><br /> Contact: Susan Jolly<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:easjolly EP_AT ix EP_DOT netcom EP_DOT com">easjolly EP_AT ix EP_DOT netcom EP_DOT com</a><br /> http://www.dotlessbraille.org</p>
<p><strong>Nemeth Back Translator </strong></p>
<p>They are almost finished developing open source software, BackNem, to back-translate all linear (but not yet spatially-arranged) Nemeth braille expressions to MathML. BackNem is written in Java so it can be installed on any computer. The generated MathML can then be displayed as print math by using any number of freely available browsers. Examples include Microsoft Internet Explorer in conjunction with the MathPlayer (see Design Science above) plug-in as well as Netscape.</p>
<p>They plan to make a beta test version of BackNem available starting in September 2004. Please watch <a href="http://www.dotlessbraille.org/">Dotless Braille</a> for details. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. IIS-0312487.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.ghbraille.com/">gh, LLC</a><br /> 1305 Cumberland Avenue<br /> West Lafayette, IN 47906 <br /> Phone: (765) 775-3776 <br /> Toll Free: (866) MY-3-DOTS [693-3687 ] <br /> FAX: (765) 775-2501<br /> E-mail: gh<a href="mailto:info EP_AT ghbraille EP_DOT com"> info EP_AT ghbraille EP_DOT com</a> <br /> Website: http://www.ghbraille.com </p>
<p><a href="http://www.gh-mathspeak.com/index.php"> MathSpeak" Initiative</a><br /> http://www.gh-mathspeak.com/index.php</p>
<p>A grant from the <a href="http://www.21fund.org"> Indiana 21st Century Research and Technology Fund</a> was awarded to <a href="http://www.ghbraille.com"> gh, LLC</a> in the <a href="http://www.21fund.org/pdfs/Round_5_Summary.pdf"> Summer of 2004</a> to develop MathSpeak". gh was chosen by Indiana's Department of Commerce to research and develop a standard for the production of Digital Talking Book versions of Math and Science Books (using MathSpeak"), and a software player (the gh PLAYER") module that can properly render the math and science both aurally and visually. Specifically, several mathematics textbooks, one science textbook, and a standardized test involving math and science are being prepared in this format by gh and tested among print disabled students in a variety of settings.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.hentermath.com/">Henter Math, LLC</a><br /> Phone: 888-533-MATH (6284) or 727-347-1313 <br /> FAX: 727-302-9422<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:Support EP_AT hentermath EP_DOT com">Support EP_AT HenterMath EP_DOT com</a><br /> Website: http://www.hent ermath.com</p>
<p><strong>Virtual Pencil </strong></p>
<p>VPAlgebra is now available! Henter Math is pleased to announce the release of Virtual Pencil Algebra, computer software for interactive access to algebra for students who are blind or visually impaired. This standard Windows application presents the equations visually for the sighted teachers, and audibly for the blind students.</p>
<br /><hr />
<p><a href="http://www.livemath.com/">MathMonkeys, LLC</a><br /> 26 Church Street, Harvard Square<br /> Cambridge, MA 02138<br /> Phone: 617.497.2096<br /> FAX: 617.497.2116<a id="_Hlt78903802" name="_Hlt78903802"></a><br /> <a href="http://www.livemath.com/"> ht tp://www.live math.com</a><br /> http://www.math speak.org</p>
<p><strong>Math Speak</strong>. In MathEQ Expression Editor highlight an expression and MathSpeak This to hear your computer read the expression as a human would read it aloud.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.nist.gov/">National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST)</a><br /> NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 3460, <br /> Gaithersburg, MD 20899-3460<br /> (301) 975-NIST (6478) <br /> TTY (301) 975-8295<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:inquiries EP_AT nist EP_DOT gov">inquiries EP_AT nist EP_DOT gov</a><br /> Website: http://www.nist.gov</p>
<p><strong>NIST Prototype Tactile Visual Display </strong></p>
<p>Computer scientists and engineers at NIST have created a tactile graphic display that brings electronic images to the blind and visually impaired in the same way that Braille makes words readable.</p>
<hr />
<p>Tactile Dynamics, Inc.<br /> 110 Commerce Drive, Suite 210<br /> Fayetteville, GA 30214<br /> Tel: 770-716-9222<br /> Fax: 770-716-9599<br /> Website: http://www.wyfiwyg.com/ no longer active</p>
<p><strong>TDI Full-Page Braille Display </strong></p>
<p>Their patent was awarded in November 2004. They have worked out most of the manufacturing issues and should have demo units available mid spring 2005.</p>
<p>Many innovations evolved as the development process progressed. Originally, they anticipated a bdm (braille display module) 30-dots by 30-dots as a basic component out of which larger displays could be assembled. A lot of time and little funds encouraged them to simplify the assembly steps further. A standard industrial technology, which they discovered recently, permits the manufacture of displays as 1 unit as big as 24-inches by 24-inches. They can consequently offer 2 initial models, text-only with 6-dot and 8-dot characters, 20 cells by 6 lines and 40 cells by 25 lines at retail prices $2600 and $5200 approximately.</p>
<p>The current design does permit braille text as well as tactile graphics. Dot elements are spaced uniformly on the grid so this is possible. They want braille product developers to create the necessary driver software before we enter the tactile graphics arena.</p>
<p>They will be presenting at CSUN in March 2005 and anticipate a prototype will be available for show and tell.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.touchgraphics.com/">Touch Graphics</a><strong></strong><br /> 330 West 38 Street Suite 1204<br /> New York, NY 10018 USA<br /> Phone: 212-375-6341<br /> FAX: 646-452-4211<br /> Contact: Steven Landau<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:sl EP_AT touchgraphics EP_DOT com">sl EP_AT touchgraphics EP_DOT com</a><br /> http://www.touc hgraphics.com</p>
<p><strong> TTT: Talking Tactile Tablet </strong></p>
<p>TouchGraphics Company has begun work on a sophisticated Authoring Tool that will allow teachers of blind and visually impaired students to create their own talking tactile pictures for the TTT, a new computer peripheral device. This site will offer news on the product as it is developed, and will provide special information to members of the Teachers' Design Collaborative, a group of experts in the field who are participating in the Research & Design process. Check in regularly to learn of our progress, and to find out about an exciting opportunity to receive free materials in exchange for your participation in the development process.</p>
<hr />
<p><strong> </strong> <a href="http://www.viewplus.com/">ViewPlus Technologies, Inc.</a><br /> 1853 SW Airport Avenue <br /> Corvallis, Oregon 97333 <br /> Phone: 541.754.4002 <br /> Fax: 541.738.6505 <br /> e-mail: <a href="mailto:info EP_AT viewplus EP_DOT com">info EP_AT viewplus EP_DOT com</a> <br /> Website: http://www.viewplus.com/</p>
<p><strong>The Accessible Graphing Calculator (AGC) is new and improved.</strong><strong></strong></p>
<p>AGC is a scientific calculator that provides voiced feedback, and can even make those graphs accessible by audio. Extremely versatile it can import data from Excel ® and a host of other applications. Sighted users can use the access the AGC through a slick visual user interface. And, of course, it can print perfect tactile copies of graphs in seconds by printing directly to any Tiger Embosser. The AGC is accessible to anyone who can use a computer, regardless of ability, allowing the user to concentrate on math, not on learning the tools to access it.</p>
<p><strong>Ink & braille</strong> - plus ink & tactile graphics. The Tiger TM Pro embosser now has the option to print ink text and emboss braille concurrently, and even overprint.</p>
<p><strong>IVEO Software with Touch Pad</strong> - allows you to touch, hear, and see electronic documents simultaneously.</p><p>Currently, research is in the works to make mathematics more accessible to the blind, and the following projects are just completed, undergoing beta testing, or still in the planning/prototype stage. For more information on their work in progress contact:</p>
<p><a href="http://www.dessci.com/">Design Science, Inc.</a><br /> 140 Pine Avenue, 4th Floor<br /> Long Beach, CA 90802<br /> Phone: 800-827-0685 (no technical support calls at this number)<br /> Main: 562-432-2920 <br /> Fax: 562-432-2857<br /> Contact: Neil Soiffer <br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:neils EP_AT dessci EP_DOT com">neils EP_AT dessci EP_DOT com</a><br /> Website: http://www.dessci.com</p>
<p><strong> MathPlayer's Math-to-Speech Technology. </strong> MathPlayer 2.0 makes math in web pages accessible to visually impaired readers.</p>
<p>Dr. Neil Soiffer, Senior Scientist at Design Science, will be presenting a session at CSUN 2005 entitled, "<a href="http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2005/proceedings/2407.htm">Advances In Accessible Web-Based Mathematics</a>." He'll discuss how the recent reauthorization of the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and ongoing standards and technology development will make mathematical expressions on web pages and other media accessible to everyone. He will also be demonstrating how math in web pages can be made accessible today. The talk takes place noon Wednesday, March 16th, in Marriott's Boston Room. A session abstract is available from CSUN:</p>
<p><a href="http://www.dessci.com/accessibility/">For more on math accessibility</a>(http://www.dessci.com/accessibility/)</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.dotlessbraille.org/"> Dotless Braille</a><br /> Contact: Susan Jolly<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:easjolly EP_AT ix EP_DOT netcom EP_DOT com">easjolly EP_AT ix EP_DOT netcom EP_DOT com</a><br /> http://www.dotlessbraille.org</p>
<p><strong>Nemeth Back Translator </strong></p>
<p>They are almost finished developing open source software, BackNem, to back-translate all linear (but not yet spatially-arranged) Nemeth braille expressions to MathML. BackNem is written in Java so it can be installed on any computer. The generated MathML can then be displayed as print math by using any number of freely available browsers. Examples include Microsoft Internet Explorer in conjunction with the MathPlayer (see Design Science above) plug-in as well as Netscape.</p>
<p>They plan to make a beta test version of BackNem available starting in September 2004. Please watch <a href="http://www.dotlessbraille.org/">Dotless Braille</a> for details. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. IIS-0312487.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.ghbraille.com/">gh, LLC</a><br /> 1305 Cumberland Avenue<br /> West Lafayette, IN 47906 <br /> Phone: (765) 775-3776 <br /> Toll Free: (866) MY-3-DOTS [693-3687 ] <br /> FAX: (765) 775-2501<br /> E-mail: gh<a href="mailto:info EP_AT ghbraille EP_DOT com"> info EP_AT ghbraille EP_DOT com</a> <br /> Website: http://www.ghbraille.com </p>
<p><a href="http://www.gh-mathspeak.com/index.php"> MathSpeak" Initiative</a><br /> http://www.gh-mathspeak.com/index.php</p>
<p>A grant from the <a href="http://www.21fund.org"> Indiana 21st Century Research and Technology Fund</a> was awarded to <a href="http://www.ghbraille.com"> gh, LLC</a> in the <a href="http://www.21fund.org/pdfs/Round_5_Summary.pdf"> Summer of 2004</a> to develop MathSpeak". gh was chosen by Indiana's Department of Commerce to research and develop a standard for the production of Digital Talking Book versions of Math and Science Books (using MathSpeak"), and a software player (the gh PLAYER") module that can properly render the math and science both aurally and visually. Specifically, several mathematics textbooks, one science textbook, and a standardized test involving math and science are being prepared in this format by gh and tested among print disabled students in a variety of settings.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.hentermath.com/">Henter Math, LLC</a><br /> Phone: 888-533-MATH (6284) or 727-347-1313 <br /> FAX: 727-302-9422<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:Support EP_AT hentermath EP_DOT com">Support EP_AT HenterMath EP_DOT com</a><br /> Website: http://www.hent ermath.com</p>
<p><strong>Virtual Pencil </strong></p>
<p>VPAlgebra is now available! Henter Math is pleased to announce the release of Virtual Pencil Algebra, computer software for interactive access to algebra for students who are blind or visually impaired. This standard Windows application presents the equations visually for the sighted teachers, and audibly for the blind students.</p>
<br /><hr />
<p><a href="http://www.livemath.com/">MathMonkeys, LLC</a><br /> 26 Church Street, Harvard Square<br /> Cambridge, MA 02138<br /> Phone: 617.497.2096<br /> FAX: 617.497.2116<a id="_Hlt78903802" name="_Hlt78903802"></a><br /> <a href="http://www.livemath.com/"> ht tp://www.live math.com</a><br /> http://www.math speak.org</p>
<p><strong>Math Speak</strong>. In MathEQ Expression Editor highlight an expression and MathSpeak This to hear your computer read the expression as a human would read it aloud.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.nist.gov/">National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST)</a><br /> NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 3460, <br /> Gaithersburg, MD 20899-3460<br /> (301) 975-NIST (6478) <br /> TTY (301) 975-8295<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:inquiries EP_AT nist EP_DOT gov">inquiries EP_AT nist EP_DOT gov</a><br /> Website: http://www.nist.gov</p>
<p><strong>NIST Prototype Tactile Visual Display </strong></p>
<p>Computer scientists and engineers at NIST have created a tactile graphic display that brings electronic images to the blind and visually impaired in the same way that Braille makes words readable.</p>
<hr />
<p>Tactile Dynamics, Inc.<br /> 110 Commerce Drive, Suite 210<br /> Fayetteville, GA 30214<br /> Tel: 770-716-9222<br /> Fax: 770-716-9599<br /> Website: http://www.wyfiwyg.com/ no longer active</p>
<p><strong>TDI Full-Page Braille Display </strong></p>
<p>Their patent was awarded in November 2004. They have worked out most of the manufacturing issues and should have demo units available mid spring 2005.</p>
<p>Many innovations evolved as the development process progressed. Originally, they anticipated a bdm (braille display module) 30-dots by 30-dots as a basic component out of which larger displays could be assembled. A lot of time and little funds encouraged them to simplify the assembly steps further. A standard industrial technology, which they discovered recently, permits the manufacture of displays as 1 unit as big as 24-inches by 24-inches. They can consequently offer 2 initial models, text-only with 6-dot and 8-dot characters, 20 cells by 6 lines and 40 cells by 25 lines at retail prices $2600 and $5200 approximately.</p>
<p>The current design does permit braille text as well as tactile graphics. Dot elements are spaced uniformly on the grid so this is possible. They want braille product developers to create the necessary driver software before we enter the tactile graphics arena.</p>
<p>They will be presenting at CSUN in March 2005 and anticipate a prototype will be available for show and tell.</p>
<hr />
<p><a href="http://www.touchgraphics.com/">Touch Graphics</a><strong></strong><br /> 330 West 38 Street Suite 1204<br /> New York, NY 10018 USA<br /> Phone: 212-375-6341<br /> FAX: 646-452-4211<br /> Contact: Steven Landau<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:sl EP_AT touchgraphics EP_DOT com">sl EP_AT touchgraphics EP_DOT com</a><br /> http://www.touc hgraphics.com</p>
<p><strong> TTT: Talking Tactile Tablet </strong></p>
<p>TouchGraphics Company has begun work on a sophisticated Authoring Tool that will allow teachers of blind and visually impaired students to create their own talking tactile pictures for the TTT, a new computer peripheral device. This site will offer news on the product as it is developed, and will provide special information to members of the Teachers' Design Collaborative, a group of experts in the field who are participating in the Research & Design process. Check in regularly to learn of our progress, and to find out about an exciting opportunity to receive free materials in exchange for your participation in the development process.</p>
<hr />
<p><strong> </strong> <a href="http://www.viewplus.com/">ViewPlus Technologies, Inc.</a><br /> 1853 SW Airport Avenue <br /> Corvallis, Oregon 97333 <br /> Phone: 541.754.4002 <br /> Fax: 541.738.6505 <br /> e-mail: <a href="mailto:info EP_AT viewplus EP_DOT com">info EP_AT viewplus EP_DOT com</a> <br /> Website: http://www.viewplus.com/</p>
<p><strong>The Accessible Graphing Calculator (AGC) is new and improved.</strong><strong></strong></p>
<p>AGC is a scientific calculator that provides voiced feedback, and can even make those graphs accessible by audio. Extremely versatile it can import data from Excel ® and a host of other applications. Sighted users can use the access the AGC through a slick visual user interface. And, of course, it can print perfect tactile copies of graphs in seconds by printing directly to any Tiger Embosser. The AGC is accessible to anyone who can use a computer, regardless of ability, allowing the user to concentrate on math, not on learning the tools to access it.</p>
<p><strong>Ink & braille</strong> - plus ink & tactile graphics. The Tiger TM Pro embosser now has the option to print ink text and emboss braille concurrently, and even overprint.</p>
<p><strong>IVEO Software with Touch Pad</strong> - allows you to touch, hear, and see electronic documents simultaneously.</p>Download Computerized Nemeth Code Tutor2009-12-18T15:44:22-06:002009-12-18T15:44:22-06:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/nemeth-code-items/1531-download-computerized-nemeth-code-tutorMeghan Currey<h2><a id="Download" name="Download"></a></h2>
<p>This program requires Microsoft Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000 <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#note">(see note)</a>, or Windows XP <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#note">(see note)</a>. Download the following 3 files to 3 separate floppy disk labeled <strong>1</strong>, <strong>2</strong>, and <strong>3</strong>.</p>
<p><strong>******</strong></p>
<p><strong>This tutorial WILL NOT work on 64-bit Vista or Windows 7.</strong></p>
<p><strong>******</strong></p>
<ul>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#attachments">Download setup disks at bottom of page or Download nemeth.zip (includes all 3 installation files - 2.8 mb)</a></li>
</ul>
<p>Put the disk labeled #1 into your disk drive and</p>
<ul>
<li>Select <strong>Run</strong> ... from the program manager's File Menu (Window's 3.1) or from the Start Menu (Window's 95).</li>
<li>type <strong>a:\setup.exe</strong> into the box labeled "Command Line" (Window's 3.1) or "Open" (Windows 95) and then press <strong>Enter.</strong></li>
<li>The default directory is <strong>c:\rdimath</strong>, but coy can choose an alternate location.
<ul>
<li>If you install to a directory other than the default, you must make one manual change after installation...</li>
<li>Open Notepad</li>
<li>Load the file <strong>mother.ini</strong>, which is stored in your <strong>\windows</strong> subdirectory during installation</li>
<li>Locate the lines at the beginning of the file<br /> <strong>[Root]<br /> RootPath=c:\rdimath</strong></li>
<li>change <strong>c:\rdimath</strong> to the drive and directory you chose during installation</li>
<li>Save the file</li>
<li>Quit Notepad.</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h4><a id="note" name="note">Notes</a> on Work Around Procedures for Use of the Computerized Nemeth Code Tutor in Windows 98</h4>
<p>Unfortunately, a problem has arisen in the operation of the Computerized Nemeth Code Tutor in Windows 98 and Windows ME. When you click on buttons for exercises, you get an error box that has the message, "cannot find next question." At this point, you should click "OK." Then the exercise screen appears. The first question appears partially obscured by a white rectangle. At that point, you should click "next" on the menu. Then the rectangle disappears and you can proceed from there. Each and every time you move to a new exercise, you must follow these procedures.</p>
<h4>Notes for Use of the Computerized Nemeth Code Tutor in Windows 2000 and XP</h4>
<p>With Windows 2000 and XP, everything works beautifully again until you get to the proofreading questions. You can read the print problem, but the braille version, that you are to proofread, will not appear on the screen. You will need to work these as "braille to print" questions.</p>
<p><a name="attachments"></a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/1531_setup.exe" target="_blank">Setup Disk 1</a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/1531_setup.2" target="_blank">Setup Disk 2</a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/1531_setup.3" target="_blank">Setup Disk 3</a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/Nemeth.zip" target="_blank">Nemeth.zip (All three files.)</a></p><h2><a id="Download" name="Download"></a></h2>
<p>This program requires Microsoft Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000 <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#note">(see note)</a>, or Windows XP <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#note">(see note)</a>. Download the following 3 files to 3 separate floppy disk labeled <strong>1</strong>, <strong>2</strong>, and <strong>3</strong>.</p>
<p><strong>******</strong></p>
<p><strong>This tutorial WILL NOT work on 64-bit Vista or Windows 7.</strong></p>
<p><strong>******</strong></p>
<ul>
<li><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#attachments">Download setup disks at bottom of page or Download nemeth.zip (includes all 3 installation files - 2.8 mb)</a></li>
</ul>
<p>Put the disk labeled #1 into your disk drive and</p>
<ul>
<li>Select <strong>Run</strong> ... from the program manager's File Menu (Window's 3.1) or from the Start Menu (Window's 95).</li>
<li>type <strong>a:\setup.exe</strong> into the box labeled "Command Line" (Window's 3.1) or "Open" (Windows 95) and then press <strong>Enter.</strong></li>
<li>The default directory is <strong>c:\rdimath</strong>, but coy can choose an alternate location.
<ul>
<li>If you install to a directory other than the default, you must make one manual change after installation...</li>
<li>Open Notepad</li>
<li>Load the file <strong>mother.ini</strong>, which is stored in your <strong>\windows</strong> subdirectory during installation</li>
<li>Locate the lines at the beginning of the file<br /> <strong>[Root]<br /> RootPath=c:\rdimath</strong></li>
<li>change <strong>c:\rdimath</strong> to the drive and directory you chose during installation</li>
<li>Save the file</li>
<li>Quit Notepad.</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
<h4><a id="note" name="note">Notes</a> on Work Around Procedures for Use of the Computerized Nemeth Code Tutor in Windows 98</h4>
<p>Unfortunately, a problem has arisen in the operation of the Computerized Nemeth Code Tutor in Windows 98 and Windows ME. When you click on buttons for exercises, you get an error box that has the message, "cannot find next question." At this point, you should click "OK." Then the exercise screen appears. The first question appears partially obscured by a white rectangle. At that point, you should click "next" on the menu. Then the rectangle disappears and you can proceed from there. Each and every time you move to a new exercise, you must follow these procedures.</p>
<h4>Notes for Use of the Computerized Nemeth Code Tutor in Windows 2000 and XP</h4>
<p>With Windows 2000 and XP, everything works beautifully again until you get to the proofreading questions. You can read the print problem, but the braille version, that you are to proofread, will not appear on the screen. You will need to work these as "braille to print" questions.</p>
<p><a name="attachments"></a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/1531_setup.exe" target="_blank">Setup Disk 1</a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/1531_setup.2" target="_blank">Setup Disk 2</a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/1531_setup.3" target="_blank">Setup Disk 3</a><br /><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/attachments/Nemeth.zip" target="_blank">Nemeth.zip (All three files.)</a></p>EKD - Testing Programs: Mathematics Assessment Program2010-01-04T20:15:41-06:002010-01-04T20:15:41-06:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/e-policy-items/1641-ekd-testing-programs-mathematics-assessment-programWebmaster<h2>MATHEMATICS DIAGNOSIS </h2>
<p>TSBVI will review and consider any assessment instruments that the commissioner develops and makes available or contracts for the development and dissemination of assessment instruments that may be used to diagnose mathematics skills of students with visual impairments.</p>
<p>The results of such assessment instruments may not be used for purposes of appraisals and incentives under Education Code Chapter 21 or accountability under Chapter 39 or 39A.</p>
<p><em>Education Code 28.007</em></p>
<p>Adopted: 1/31/03</p>
<p>Amended: 1/25/13, 11/15/18</p>
<p>Reviewed:</p><h2>MATHEMATICS DIAGNOSIS </h2>
<p>TSBVI will review and consider any assessment instruments that the commissioner develops and makes available or contracts for the development and dissemination of assessment instruments that may be used to diagnose mathematics skills of students with visual impairments.</p>
<p>The results of such assessment instruments may not be used for purposes of appraisals and incentives under Education Code Chapter 21 or accountability under Chapter 39 or 39A.</p>
<p><em>Education Code 28.007</em></p>
<p>Adopted: 1/31/03</p>
<p>Amended: 1/25/13, 11/15/18</p>
<p>Reviewed:</p>Elementary Math Skills Continuum2009-11-13T15:05:24-06:002009-11-13T15:05:24-06:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/publications/1048-elementary-math-skills-continuumWebmaster<p>by TSBVI Elementary Teachers<br /> © TSBVI 1996 - 22 pages <span>FREE! </span></p>
<p><em>Math concepts arranged in "clusters" for grades K-5 </em></p>
<ul>
<li>Includes Abacus skills referred to in Use of the Cranmer Abacus </li>
<li>Skills for counting, adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing </li>
<li>Basic geometry skills </li>
</ul>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/math_continuum.pdf">Download Math Continuum as PDF (827k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/math_continuum.doc">Download Math Continuum as DOC (435k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/math_continuum.rtf">Download Math Continuum as RTF (796k)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#top">Go to top</a></p>
<hr />
<h2><a name="read"></a>Elementary Reading Skills Continuum</h2>
<p>by TSBVI Elementary Teachers<br /> © TSBVI 1996 - 24 pages <span>FREE! </span></p>
<p><em>Pre-reading skills and reading skills for print and braille readers in grades K-5 </em></p>
<ul>
<li>Motor development, body image, and perceptive skills </li>
<li>Comprehension </li>
<li>Word attack skills </li>
<li>Language arts </li>
</ul>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/read_continuum.pdf">Download Reading Continuum as PDF (173k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/read_continuum.doc">Download Reading Continuum as DOC (142k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/read_continuum.rtf">Download Reading Continuum as RTF (79k)</a></p><p>by TSBVI Elementary Teachers<br /> © TSBVI 1996 - 22 pages <span>FREE! </span></p>
<p><em>Math concepts arranged in "clusters" for grades K-5 </em></p>
<ul>
<li>Includes Abacus skills referred to in Use of the Cranmer Abacus </li>
<li>Skills for counting, adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing </li>
<li>Basic geometry skills </li>
</ul>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/math_continuum.pdf">Download Math Continuum as PDF (827k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/math_continuum.doc">Download Math Continuum as DOC (435k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/math_continuum.rtf">Download Math Continuum as RTF (796k)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/#top">Go to top</a></p>
<hr />
<h2><a name="read"></a>Elementary Reading Skills Continuum</h2>
<p>by TSBVI Elementary Teachers<br /> © TSBVI 1996 - 24 pages <span>FREE! </span></p>
<p><em>Pre-reading skills and reading skills for print and braille readers in grades K-5 </em></p>
<ul>
<li>Motor development, body image, and perceptive skills </li>
<li>Comprehension </li>
<li>Word attack skills </li>
<li>Language arts </li>
</ul>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/read_continuum.pdf">Download Reading Continuum as PDF (173k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/read_continuum.doc">Download Reading Continuum as DOC (142k)</a><br /> <a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/attachments/read_continuum.rtf">Download Reading Continuum as RTF (79k)</a></p>Elementary Series - Math Masters2013-11-01T18:34:09-05:002013-11-01T18:34:09-05:00https://www.tsbvi.edu/school-year-class-description-items/3830-elem-math-math-for-munchkinsWebmaster<h4 style="font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; color: #000000;"><img style="margin: 0px 0px 5px 10px; float: right;" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/education/special/Images/STP_Course_Descrip_images/M4M2rel640x511rt.jpg" alt="M4M2rel640x511rt" width="309" height="247" />Grades 2 - 5</h4>
<p>This series class is designed to provide students in grades 2-5 who are braille readers with the ability to access math concepts through a comprehensive approach. This program includes the following four components:</p>
<ul>
<li>Nemeth Code: supports students’ abilities to read and write math expressions</li>
<li>Cranmer Abacus: supports students in completing math computations using whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, as appropriate</li>
<li>Manipulatives: support concept development related to place value, mathematical operations, and 2- and 3-dimensional figures.</li>
<li>Tactile Graphics: support students’ abilities to relate 2D representations to 3D concepts</li>
</ul>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Requirements</strong></p>
<p>Students must have daily access in their local schools to a math textbook and/or handouts prepared in Nemeth Code, a Cranmer abacus, a braillewriter, and appropriate math manipulatives, so that they can continue to build skills between sessions.</p>
<p><em>Grades 2-3:</em></p>
<ul>
<li>Students should understand one-to-one correspondence, recognize simple shapes and objects, understand that a number refers to a set amount or group of objects, and be able to count whole numbers to 100.</li>
<li>Solve basic problems, including story problems, related to addition and subtraction through 10.</li>
</ul>
<p><em>Grades 4-5:</em></p>
<ul>
<li>Students should understand place value to three digits, the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and should have the majority of the math facts committed to memory.</li>
<li>Students should have the potential to function mathematically on grade level, but require compensatory skills training to realize their potential, such as learning to use the abacus to complete grade-level computations.</li>
</ul>
<p>For additional information about the content of this section contact John Rose at <a href="mailto:rosej EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu">rosej EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu</a> or 512-206-9131.</p>
<p><a href="https://shortterm.tsbvi.edu/StudentReferral/Create">Make a Short-Term Programs Referral</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/calendar-and-class-descriptions?id=3842:elementary-technology-or-math-series-2&catid=190:stp-class-descriptions"><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="color: #0000ff;">Return to </span><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #0000ff; text-decoration: underline;">general</span> Series description</span></span></span></a></p><h4 style="font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; color: #000000;"><img style="margin: 0px 0px 5px 10px; float: right;" src="https://www.tsbvi.edu/images/education/special/Images/STP_Course_Descrip_images/M4M2rel640x511rt.jpg" alt="M4M2rel640x511rt" width="309" height="247" />Grades 2 - 5</h4>
<p>This series class is designed to provide students in grades 2-5 who are braille readers with the ability to access math concepts through a comprehensive approach. This program includes the following four components:</p>
<ul>
<li>Nemeth Code: supports students’ abilities to read and write math expressions</li>
<li>Cranmer Abacus: supports students in completing math computations using whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, as appropriate</li>
<li>Manipulatives: support concept development related to place value, mathematical operations, and 2- and 3-dimensional figures.</li>
<li>Tactile Graphics: support students’ abilities to relate 2D representations to 3D concepts</li>
</ul>
<p> </p>
<p><strong>Requirements</strong></p>
<p>Students must have daily access in their local schools to a math textbook and/or handouts prepared in Nemeth Code, a Cranmer abacus, a braillewriter, and appropriate math manipulatives, so that they can continue to build skills between sessions.</p>
<p><em>Grades 2-3:</em></p>
<ul>
<li>Students should understand one-to-one correspondence, recognize simple shapes and objects, understand that a number refers to a set amount or group of objects, and be able to count whole numbers to 100.</li>
<li>Solve basic problems, including story problems, related to addition and subtraction through 10.</li>
</ul>
<p><em>Grades 4-5:</em></p>
<ul>
<li>Students should understand place value to three digits, the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and should have the majority of the math facts committed to memory.</li>
<li>Students should have the potential to function mathematically on grade level, but require compensatory skills training to realize their potential, such as learning to use the abacus to complete grade-level computations.</li>
</ul>
<p>For additional information about the content of this section contact John Rose at <a href="mailto:rosej EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu">rosej EP_AT tsbvi EP_DOT edu</a> or 512-206-9131.</p>
<p><a href="https://shortterm.tsbvi.edu/StudentReferral/Create">Make a Short-Term Programs Referral</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.tsbvi.edu/calendar-and-class-descriptions?id=3842:elementary-technology-or-math-series-2&catid=190:stp-class-descriptions"><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="color: #0000ff;">Return to </span><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #0000ff; text-decoration: underline;">general</span> Series description</span></span></span></a></p>