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Below are descriptions of 4 students.

Download the Microsoft Word student description and the associated VISSIT form

Sample VISSIT – STUDENT A "Lily"

Lily is a 5-year-old girl who has a history of "extensive multifocal cystic encephalomalacia involving bilateral cerebral hemispheres". Dr. XXX reports, "likely cortical vision impairment", legally blind and, "... appears to have no vision". Lily also has a history of HSV meningitis as an infant, cerebral palsy, seizure disorder, encephalopathy, and developmental delay. She is able to alert to sounds and to her name being called; turn or tilt her head towards music, bells, and instruments; sit in an adapted chair; smile when she is happy; and demonstrate discomfort (as when she is wet). She demonstrates the 3 distinct criteria for Cortical Visual Impairment: 1) eye exam does not explain the child's functional use of vision, 2) history of a neurologic incident or some neurologic sequelae, and 3) demonstrates the unique visual and behavioral characteristics associated with CVI.

With regard to her vision, Lily is able to visually attend to and track an 8-inch lighted red ball when it is presented in either her far left or far right visual field or no more than 12 inches away from her face. She also visually attends to other targets that are either lighted or have reflective qualities. No distance viewing is observed, other than staring at ceiling lights and sunlight for brief moments. Results from her learning media assessment indicate that Lily relies heavily on her auditory mode for learning, but will explore real objects that are of a single, bright color, reflective, and/or can light up.

Lily is transitioning from a school-based self-contained classroom into a homebound setting with services being provided in her home.

Sample VISSIT – STUDENT B "Rose"

Rose is an 8-year old 2nd grader in the resource and general education classroom with inclusion support. Her diagnosis is total blindness due to congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, retinopathy of prematurity, and retinal dysplasia. Rose receives support throughout her day from the resource teacher, TVI, and teaching assistants to address the behavioral needs of her behavioral intervention plan. She is functioning below grade level in all areas of the core curriculum. She is an emergent reader and has mastered the braille alphabet with minimal reversals. Rose is currently reading approximately 15 sight words and is beginning to sound out consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words independently. She is reading uncontracted braille at this time. Rose uses a Mountbatten Braille writer and an iPad for music activities during her break time.

In addition to literacy needs, assistive technology, and access to the core curriculum, ECC evaluation conducted 2 months ago indicated significant needs in the areas of organizational skills, communication modes, social interactions, personal care, and self-determination.


Ivy is a 2 year old student with Down syndrome and low vision. She has been receiving services through ECI for OT, PT, Speech, VI, and O&M. She currently wears glasses and has normal hearing. Based on information from her current low vision evaluation, Ivy's best corrected visual acuity at near and distance was about 20/100 with no apparent visual field restriction. She seems to function within the 20/80-20/100 range. According to the results of the Oregon Project Curriculum and Skills Inventory, Ivy is functioning on age level in the areas of cognitive development, compensatory skills, social skills, fine motor, and gross motor. Ivy's greatest areas of need are language development and self-help skills.

Ivy is homeschooled with three older sisters, all under 8 years of age. Ivy is able to model after her older siblings. Her strengths include imitation, exploration, highly motivated learning style, and frequent interactions with family and service providers. Her greatest area of need up until the last two months was communication; signing was used which she imitated for her expressive language skills, although her receptive skills are excellent. In the last couple of months she is beginning to try to say the word along with the sign, or at least the beginning sounds of the word. Many excellent APH products, iPad, games, etc., have been used to encourage her communication. Ivy's family engages all their children in many rich social and independence-building activities, which include peer interactions, field trips, daily routines, and integrating educational activities into daily lifestyle.


Bud is an 8th grade student who attends all general education classes. His visual diagnosis is oculocutaneous albinism, with an acuity of 20/120 in both eyes. Bud is very social and has friends; however, he does encounter bullying. Bud feels this is related to his physical appearance (white hair and very light skin tone). According to his Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) evaluation, Bud's strengths include social skills, recreation/leisure, independent living skills, and career education. His needs in the ECC include the areas of assistive technology (iPad use for access to documents and distance targets), compensatory skills (specifically access to small print and learning to use audio materials to compensate for visual fatigue and taking notes on his iPad), self-advocacy (letting adults know what his visual accommodations are), and sensory efficiency (using methods to improve his visual functioning in school and home settings). Whereas Bud reads on grade level, his reading speed is decreased when reading large print books (which he prefers not to use) and homework documents. Bud would benefit from activities (which include optical devices) designed to increase reading speed and fluency so that he will be able to maintain the pace required in his classrooms and access regular print materials more efficiently.

In addition to the needs stated previously, Bud is transitioning into a new high school, and will require orientation to his new campus and support to prepare a portfolio to share with his teachers explaining his etiology and accommodations.

Andrew, D. P. S., Pederson, P. M., & McEvoy, C. D. (2011). Research methods and design in sport management.   Champiagn, IL: Human Kinetics. 

Luiselli, J. K., & Reed, D. D. (2011).  Social validity. In Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. (Vol. 3, p. 1406).  New York, NY: Springer US.

Messick, S. (1989).  Validity.  In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement 3rd ed., pp. 13-104).  New York: Macmillan. 

Pogrund, R. L., Darst, S., & Munro, M. (2015). Initial validation study for a scale used to determine service intensity for itinerant teachers of students with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 109(6), 433-444

United States Department of Education. (2004). Regulations: Part 300.320. In Building the legacy: IDEA 2004 (Child with a disability). Retrieved from


Descargue el folleto ECC (pdf 89kb)

El término currículo básico expandido (ECC) se utiliza para definir los conceptos y habilidades que a menudo requieren instrucción especializada con alumnos ciegos o con discapacidad visual con el fin de compensar la disminución de las oportunidades de aprender de paso observando a los demás. Además del plan de estudios de educación general que todos los estudiantes se les enseña, los estudiantes con impedimentos visuales, desde el nacimiento, también necesitan instrucción en la ECC. Las áreas incluyen ECC (A) necesita que resultan de la discapacidad visual, que permiten al estudiante "para participar y progresar en el currículo de educación general; y (B ) otras necesidades educativas que resultan de la discapacidad del niño ", como lo requiere IDEA (34 CFR 300.320 ( a) ( 2 ) (A ) (B ) ). Código de Educación de Texas (TEC) 30.002 (c) (5) y (e) (5) requiere la flexibilidad de los distritos escolares para hacer los arreglos necesarios para que ocurran los servicios "más allá de las horas de clase regulares para asegurar que el estudiante aprende las habilidades y recibe la instrucción" en el ECC.

Con la aprobación de la medida SB 39 en 2013 (Texas 83a Sesión Legislativa), se requiere la evaluación en todos los ámbitos de la ECC para los estudiantes con impedimentos visuales. Las necesidades prioritarias deben ser identificadas por el equipo del IEP y la instrucción proporcionada en estas áreas.

Nueve áreas del ECC

Tecnología de Asistencia

La tecnología de asistencia es un término genérico que incluye herramientas de ayuda y de adaptación, así como los servicios de instrucción que pueden mejorar la comunicación, el acceso y el aprendizaje. Puede incluir equipos electrónicos tales como interruptores, dispositivos móviles y tomadores de notas portátiles; acceso a la computadora como el software de magnificación, los lectores de pantalla y el teclado; y los dispositivos de baja tecnología, como un ábaco, una máquina Braille, materiales de aprendizaje activo (por ejemplo, Little Room ®), y dispositivos ópticos.

Educación Profesional
La educación de carrera proporcionará a los estudiantes con discapacidad visual de todas las edades la oportunidad de aprender a través de experiencias prácticas acerca de los trabajos que pueden no ser conscientes de lo contrario sin la capacidad de observar a las personas que trabajan. También aprenden habilidades relacionadas con el trabajo, tales como asumir la responsabilidad, la puntualidad, y mantener la concentración. La educación de carrera ofrece a los estudiantes oportunidades para explorar y descubrir las fortalezas e intereses y el plan para la transición a la vida adulta.

Habilidades compensatorias

Habilidades compensatorias incluyen las habilidades necesarias para acceder al plan de estudios que incluye el desarrollo de conceptos; modos de comunicación; organización y habilidades de estudio; acceso a materiales impresos; y el uso del braille / Nemeth, gráficos táctiles, objeto y / o símbolos táctiles, el lenguaje de signos, y los materiales de audio.

Habilidades de Vida Independiente

Habilidades de vida independiente incluyen las tareas y funciones que realizan las personas en la vida diaria para aumentar su independencia y contribuir a la estructura familiar. Estas competencias incluyen la gestión personal de higiene, habilidades para comer, preparación de alimentos, tiempo y dinero, cuidado de la ropa, ylas tareas del hogar. Las personas con visión aprenden por lo general este tipo de rutinas diarias a través de la observación, mientras que los individuos con impedimentos visuales a menudo necesitan instrucción sistemática y frecuente practicar en estas tareas diarias.

Orientación y Movilidad (O & M)

Orientación y movilidad permite a los estudiantes de todas las edades y habilidades motoras que orientarse a su entorno y de avanzar lo más independiente y segura posible. Los estudiantes aprenden sobre ellos mismos y sus entornos, incluyendo el hogar, la escuela y la comunidad. Lecciones de O & M incorporar las habilidades que van imagen básica del cuerpo, las relaciones espaciales, y con propósito de movimiento para el uso del bastón, los viajes de la comunidad, y el uso de transporte público. Tener Habilidades de O & M permite a los estudiantes a adquirir independencia en la mayor medida posible, con base sobre sus necesidades y habilidades individuales.

Recreación y Ocio

Ser incapaz de observar a los demás reduce el conocimiento de opciones de recreación y esparcimiento. La enseñanza de habilidades de recreación y de ocio se asegurará de que los estudiantes con impedimentos visuales tengan oportunidades para explorar, experimentar y elegir actividades físicas y de tiempo libre, ambos organizados e individuales, que ellos disfrutan. Esta instrucción debe centrarse en el desarrollo de habilidades para toda la vida.


La libre determinación incluye la saber elegir, hacer decisiones, resolución de problemas,  abogar por si mismo,  la asertividad, y la fijación de metas. Los estudiantes con impedimentos visuales a menudo tienen menos oportunidades para desarrollar y practicar las habilidades específicas que conducen a la autodeterminación. Los estudiantes que conocen y valoran lo que son y que tienen habilidades de autodeterminación se vuelven defensores eficaces de sí mismos y por lo tanto tienen más control sobre sus vidas.

Eficiencia sensorial

Eficiencia sensorial incluye instrucción en el uso de la visión, el oído, el tacto, el olfato y el gusto. También se aborda el desarrollo de los sistemas propioceptivos, cenestésicos y vestibulares. Aprender a usar sus sentidos de manera eficiente, incluyendo el uso de dispositivos ópticos, permitirá a estudiantes con discapacidad visual que puedan acceder y participar en actividades en la escuela, el hogar y entornos comunitarios.

Habilidades de Interacción Social

Habilidades de interacción social incluyen la conciencia del lenguaje corporal, los gestos, las expresiones faciales, y espacio personal. La instrucción también incluye aprender acerca de las relaciones interpersonales, el autocontrol, y la sexualidad humana. Casi todas las habilidades sociales se aprenden mediante la observación visual otras personas. La enseñanza de habilidades de interacción social en la escuela, el trabajo y los lugares de ocio es crucial. Tener habilidades sociales apropiadas a menudo puede significar la diferencia entre el aislamiento social y una vida plena como un adulto.

Para obtener información adicional acerca de la ECC, consulte:


Desarrollado por Tejas Comité ECC 04/28/14  

Thomas T. Beeler
P.O. Box 659
Hampton Falls, NH 03844-0659

InfoCon - large print on demand
4550 North Pershing Avenue. Suite 7
Stockton, CA  98207
fax 209.478.7074 

ISIS Large Print

The Large Print Bookshop
P.O. Box 5375
Englewood, CO 80155
Phone: (303)721-7511
Fax: (303)721-7512
(located within the Denver Book Mall
32 N. Broadway
Denver, CO 80203)

Library Reproduction Service (LRS)
14214 S. Figueroa St
Los Angeles, CA 90061-1034

North Books
Box 1277
Wickford, RI 02852
(401) 294-3682
North Books deals in 'public domain' titles, mainly classics.

Simon & Shuster w/ Thorndike Press -  large print
Thorndike Press
PO Box 159
Thorndike, Maine 04986

Ulverscroft Large Print
Box 1230
West Seneca, NY 14224
(800) 955-9659

Wheeler Publishing
P.O. Box 531
Accord, MA 02018-0531


Random House Publishers - ILA Ip cookbooks etc.

Thanks to Kelly Marts and Joan Hudson-Miller for this information.

Excellent weblink resources are listed topically below. Or, you may use the 'search' at the top of the website for additional results.

See also: Low Vision Service Provider Directory

Carolyn Carman-Merrifield, O.D.
Tobin Holloway, O.D.
5616 SW Green Oaks Blvd., Suite B
Arlington, TX 76017
(817) 572-2050

Laura Miller, O.D.
Northwest Hills Eye Care
3808 Spicewood Springs Rd. #100
Austin, TX 78759
FAX: 512-340-0009

William Townsend, O.D.
1801 4th Avenue, Suite C
Canyon, TX 79015
(806) 655-7748

Ann Wild, O.D.
2746 Longmire Dr
College Station, TX 77845
(409) 764-1554

Stephanie H. Fleming, OD
Dallas Services - Low Vision Clinic
5442 La Sierra Drive 
Dallas TX 75231 
(214) 828-9900

Kory S. Cummings, O.D.
1101 West Rosedale
Fort Worth, TX  76104

Angela (Christie) Koplos, O.D.
El Paso Lighthouse
200-A Washington St.
El Paso, TX 79905
fax 915-845-5829

Dr. John S. Bowen, O.D.
1900 Long Prairie Rd. Ste 130
Flower Mound, TX 75022

Nicole Hooper, O.D.
Swati Modi, O.D.
Ana M. Perez, O.D.
Justin Ward, O.D.
Stan Woo, O.D.
University Eye Institute, Center for Sight Enhancement
University of Houston Main Campus/Optometry
4901 Calhoun
Houston, TX 77204-6052
(713) 743-0799

Bhavani Iyer OD, FAAO
Center for Visual Rehabilitation
University of Texas, Dept of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
(Formerly known as Hermann Eye Center)
6400 Fannin, 18th floor
Houston, TX- 77030
713 559 5269713 559 5271

Larry Spitzberg, O.D.
14441 Memorial Drive #13
Houston, TX 77079-6737
(281) 497-2988

Andrew Mann, O.D.
email for all is

  • 25248 Grogans Park Drive
    The Woodlands, TX 77380
  • 2853 Eastex Freeway
    Beaumont, TX 77706
  • 1722 Nederland Avenue
    Nederland, TX 77627
  • UTMB Galveston
    700 University Blvd
    Galveston, TX 77551

Texas Tech University Health Science Center
Low Vision Clinic
Thompson Hall
Lubbock, TX 79430
(806) 743-2410

Matthew Hudson, O.D.
401 West First Street
Mt. Pleasant, TX 75455
(903) 572-1991

Ashley Risner, O.D.
Residency Trained in Low Vision Rehabilitation
The Retina Center
2806 East 29th Street
Bryan, Texas 77802
(979) 776-8330

Nancy El-Hitamy Amir, O.D.
Santa Rosa Low Vision Clinic
315 N. San Saba # 900
San Antonio, TX 78207
(210) 228-0030

Larry M. Chism O.D.
136 Shelley Drive
Tyler, Texas 75701
Locations throughout Texas

Caia D. Homerstad, O.D.
Victoria Eye Associates
107 James Coleman Drive
Victoria, TX  77904
(361) 582-0283

Brian M. Celico, OD PA
Low Vision Clinic-Vision Aid Store
7150 Greenville Avenue-Suite 305
Dallas, Texas 75231-5185
Voice 214-265-1111     
Fax 214-265-1189

Sandra M. Fox, O.D.
Lions Low Vision Center of Texas
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
7703 Floyd Curl Dr.
San Antonio, TX 78229
Fax 210-567-8609

Note: This listing is not intended to be all-inclusive nor does it recommend or endorse any of the above listed professionals. Questions about clinical low vision exams should be directed to each individual office. If you have an addition or correction to this list, please e-mail us

Please select one of the icons below for information about the publication.

NEW!!   A Paraeducator's Handbook for Working with Students with Visual Impairments The Counting Method for the Cranmer Abacus essential tools for Learning Media and ECCTexas 2 Steps  Tomas


The Opportunity to be Equal, the Right to be Different Learn to Move You Make the Difference Basic Skills for Community Living Basic Skills Activity Routines Better Together Braille Fundamentals Calendars  Communication Elementary Concepts Empowered Evals From IEP to Teaching Strategies Functional Academics If Anyone Can, You Can Independent Living Independent Living Activity Routines Language Assessment Learning Media Assessment Making Evaluation Meaningful Mini Steps and Milestones Motor Development A Paraprofessionals Handbook Taps Taps Flash Drive Teaching Students with Visual and Multiple Impairments Transition to Adult Life Low Vision Uns the One Other Curricular Materials and Videos Expanded Core Curriculum Yoga for Children with Visual and Multiple Impairments Nemeth at a Glance Texas 2 Steps essential tools for Learning Media and ECC

Free Publications Available for Download

Note: These are free and not for purchase.

Texas Senseabilities Newsletter See Hear Newsletter Infants and Toddlers with Visual Impairments Preschool Children with Visual Impairments Selected Anomolies and Diseases of the Eye Tomas

Publications Contact Information

School Address:
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired
1100 W. 45th St.
Austin, TX 78756

To place a book order, please email a completed order form or fax a completed order form to: 512-206-9282. If you have any questions in regards to placing orders, please contact Bob Mellon at 512-206-9272.

To check on the status of an order, please contact Bob Mellon at 512-206-9272.

For questions concerning content of these publications and the use of assessment or evaluation forms included with these, please contact Debra Sewell, or call her at 512-206-9183, or contact Jeanne Williamson, or call her at 512-206-9383.

General Information

A Glossary of Color Science

Color Matters - a definitive source for color information, books, research, design and more...

Colour Order Systems in Art and Science (English, Français, German)

Color and Design

A look into color theory in web design

Understanding Color and Accessibility

HTML Color Names

Designing for the Color-Challenged: A Challenge by Thomas G. Wolfmaier

A-Prompt Project - Links


Colour Selection and the Visually Impaired - A Design Guide for Building Refurbishment

Using Color on the Web through Style Sheets

Essential Colour Checklists For Web Design

Color Blindness Resources

Definitions of Color Blindness

Living with Color Blindness

These sites are particularly interesting, as they are designed by people who are color blind, and contain their perspectives as well as additional links:

Blogs and personal articles:

Living with Color Blindness by Aimee Amodio

ydant's musings - a bit about my color blindness

Being a color blind photographer

Color Deficient Vision - provides some information on color blindness and how web designers can choose colors that are safe to use for those with color deficient vision

Information about Achromatopsia

What Teachers, School Nurses and Parents Should Know about Being Color Blind

Industrial and Occupational Color Vision Requirements


Color Blindness Tests and Simulations

Ishihara Color Blindness Tests and Simulators:

Safe Web Colours for Colour-Deficient Vision
Color Perception Issues - excellent reference, with examples

Vischeck color blindness simulator

Lighthouse Color Contrast and Partial Sight
(No additional software or equipment needed):

First Site on Color Blindness

WhatColor - a PC Toll for Colorblind People

Color Blindness Check

Color Blindness and Color Discrimination 

Resources from the Usability Interest Group of the Society for Technical Communication