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Apple Resources

Support and resource websites

  • AppleVis- A community-powered website for Mac users who are blind and visually impaired.
  • Mac-cessibility Network is a group of volunteers with visually impairments who provide news, commentary, podcasts, and other resources for Apple products.
  • MacForTheBlind - another support and resources site designed for users with visual impairments
  • Flying Blind, LLC provides a Tech Tidbits Newsletter that comes out every Thursday, and you can subscribe to it via their website.


  • Google Drive with VoiceOver - This step-by-step guide offers a basic introduction to some of the key components of Google Drive for VoiceOver users.


  • iBlindTech - Apple product demonstrations and app reviews from users who are visually impaired.
  • How to be Blind - A community of users with visual impairments producing podcasts and articles on Apple products and other tech devices and applications.
  • Cool Blind Tech - podcasts about Apple products and other technology.

Braille Display Resources

Apple OS Keyboard Shortcut Commands

VoiceOver VO keys = Control + Alt

VoiceOver QuickStart Tutorial = VO (Control + Alt) + Command ⌘ + F8

General Keyboard Commands

Keys Action
Command ⌘ + Tab Switch between current and previous open applications
Hold Command ⌘ + Press Tab    Cycles among active applications
Esc Exit out of menu bars and dialog boxes
Command ⌘ + N Open new window
Command ⌘ + O Open existing document
Command ⌘ + M Minimize active window
Command ⌘ + W Close document but not application
Command ⌘ + Q Quit application
Command ⌘ + Spacebar Activate Spotlight search
Tab Navigate forward in a dialog box
Shift + Tab Navigate backward in a dialog box
Spacebar Press button in dialog box
Command ⌘ + E Eject USB drive (select drive in Finder)

Help and Settings Commands and Instructions

Command ⌘ + Shift + \ Quick access help
VO + H VoiceOver Help
VO + HH VoiceOver command help
VO + K Open VoiceOver Key
VO + Command ⌘ + ← or →    Select volume, rate, pitch, voice
VO + Command ⌘ + ↑ or ↓ Adjust selected volume, rate, pitch, or voice
VO + F8 Open VoiceOver Utilities
VO + Command ⌘ + F8 Open VoiceOver Tutorial

Allow cursor to wrap: Go to VO Utilities > Navigation Utility Page > check the “Allow cursor wrapping” checkbox.

Group items for web navigation: Go to VO Utilities > Web Utility Page > select “Grouping Items” radio button.

Use Function Keys as Standard Keys: Go to Dock > System Preferences > Hardware > Keyboard > check the “Use all F1, F2, etc. keys as standard function keys” box. NOTE: When this option is selected, press the Fn key to use the special features printed on each key (e.g., Fn + F12 to increase the volume).

Set up List View in Finder: press Command ⌘ + 2 to activate list view.

Load application to the Dock:

  • Open an application.
  • VO + D to go to the Dock.
  • VO + ← or → to navigate to the open application in the Dock.
  • VO + Shift + M to open the contextual menu
  • VO + ↓ to Options
  • VO + → to open Options sub-menu
  • VO + ↑ or ↓ to select “Keep in Dock”
  • VO + Spacebar to activate

General VoiceOver Keyboard Commands

Keys Action
Command ⌘ + F5    Turn VoiceOver On or Off
Ctrl Stop/start VoiceOver speaking
VO + Z Repeat last phrase
VO + Shift + W Read all window content
VO + F1 twice Open “Application Chooser”
VO + D Navigate to Dock
VO + ← or → Navigate Dock menu
VO + Spacebar Open an application from the Dock
VO + Shift + D Navigate to Desktop
VO + M Navigate to Menu Bar
VO + ← or → Navigate Menu Bar
VO + ↑ or ↓ Navigate Menus and Sub-Menus
Escape Exit a Menu or Menu Bar
VO + Shift + M Activate a Contextual Menu
VO + M M Navigate to Menu Extras (Wifi, Bluetooth, Date/Time, etc.)

Interacting with Elements - Commands & Instruction

Keys Action
VO + Shift + ↓ Start interaction
VO + Shift + ↑ Stop interaction
VO + Arrow Keys    Navigate controls (checkboxes, radio buttons, etc.)
VO + Spacebar Select or Enable a control

Activating a Pop-Up Menu

  1. Start Interaction (VO + Shift + ↓)
  2. Show Items (VO + Spacebar)
  3. Choose Item (VO + ↑ or ↓)
  4. Select item (VO + Spacebar)

Navigating a Stepper (One example may be calendar settings with month, day, year)

  1. Start Interaction
  2. Change setting (VO + ↑ or ↓)
  3. Navigate to next area (VO + ← or →)

Navigating a Table

  1. Start Interaction
  2. Navigate within a table (VO + Arrow keys)
  3. Read Row (VO + R)
  4. Read Column Header (VO + C)
  5. Read Column (VO + C C)

VoiceOver Reading Commands

Keys Action
VO + A Read all
VO + B Read from beginning of document to VO cursor
VO + W Read current word
VO + → Read next word
VO + ← Read previous word
VO + W W Spell current word
VO + W W W Spell current word phonetically
VO + S Read current sentence
VO + Command ⌘ + Fn + ↑ Read previous sentence
VO + Command ⌘ + Fn + ↓    Read next sentence
VO + C Read current character
Read next character
Read previous character
VO + P Read current paragraph
VO + Shift + Fn + ↑ Read previous paragraph
VO + Shift + Fn + ↓ Read next paragraph
VO + L Read current line
VO + ↑ Read previous line
VO + ↓ Read next line
VO + Z Repeat last phrase
VO + T Read text attributes

Managing Files using Apple Finder

Keys Action
Command ⌘ + N Open new Finder window (computer focus on Finder)
VO + Arrow keys Navigate Finder (→ and ← to move forward/backward)
VO + Shift + ↓ Interact with Finder Sidebar, Browser, or Toolbar
Command ⌘ + 2 View as list
VO + ↑ or ↓ Navigate list of files
Command ⌘ + O Open selected item
Command ⌘ + Shift + N Create new folder (type folder name, then press Enter)
Command ⌘ + C Copy item (file or folder)
Command ⌘ + V Paste item (file or folder)
Shift + ↑ or ↓ Select multiple items
Command ⌘ + A Select all items in the front Finder window
Command ⌘ + Delete Move to Trash
Command ⌘ + Shift + Delete Empty Trash
Command ⌘ + Option + Esc Choose an application to Force Quit
Command ⌘ + Shift + Option + Esc    Force Quit the front-most application
Command ⌘ + Shift + C Open the Computer window
Command ⌘ + Shift + D Open the Desktop folder
Command ⌘ + Shift + A Open the Applications folder

Accessing the Internet using Safari

Keys Action
Command ⌘ + L Move computer focus to the address bar (will select all text)
Enter Go to web address after typing in address bar
VO + → or ← Navigate to ensure VO focus is on HTML content
VO + A Read all webpage
VO + Shift + ↓ Interact with HTML content
VO + → or ← Navigate HTML content
VO + Shift + ↓     Interact with group within HTML content
VO + → or ← Navigate items in a group within HTML content
VO + Spacebar Activate link within HTML content or within a group
Command ⌘ + [    Back one web page
Command ⌘ + ] Forward one web page

Tabbed Browsing

Keys Action
Command ⌘ + T Open a new tab
Ctrl + T Cycle between open tabs
Command ⌘ + W    Close an open tab

Web Rotor

Keys Action
VO + U Activate Web Rotor
VO + → or ← Select navigation list (headers, links, web spots, etc.)
↑ or ↓ Navigate options in list
Enter Choose an item (sends VO focus to that item)
VO + Spacebar    Activate link (for instance, if link chosen)

Web Spots

Web Spots are virtual tags on web pages that are automatically created by VoiceOver. They are not available on all websites. They may be created by a user.

Keys Action
VO + Command ⌘ + N  Next web spot
VO + Command ⌘ + Shift + N  Previous web spot
VO + → or ← Navigate selected web spot
VO + Command ⌘ + Shift + } Create a web spot
VO + Command ⌘ + Shift + { Remove a web spot
VO + Command ⌘ + Shift + { {    Create a “sweet spot” (appears first in list of web spots)

More Navigation Commands

Keys Action
VO + Command ⌘ + L Navigate by Links
VO + Command ⌘ + H Navigate by Headings
VO + Command ⌘ + F Navigate by Frames
VO + Command ⌘ + T    Navigate by Tables
VO + Shift + U    Hear a link’s URL
VO + I List items in a window

Quick Nav Commands

left + right arrows Turns QuickNav on or off (to use commands below)
up + down arrows Activate the selected item. (open app, press button)
left or right Selects the previous or next item
up or down Preforms or move to the selected rotor option
up + left or right Change to next or previous rotor setting
Alt + left or right Move to next or previous horizontal screen/page
Alt + up or down Move/scroll up or down the screen/page
Control + up or down    Select the first or last item in the area
Control + left or right Go to next or previous container/area


Recommended reading - VoiceOver guide

Good practice website

Using Apple Dictionary (ver 2.2)

VO + → or ← Navigate to Edit/Search bar (type or paste word, then Enter)
VO + → Navigate to HTML content
VO + A Listen to all definition
VO + Shift + ↓    Interact with HTML content
VO + → Navigate within HTML content (read definition by group)
⌘ + A Select all
⌘ + C Copy (definition can be pasted and edited in word processor)