Main content

Alert message

Spring 2019

Session References

Adams, D. (2002). My story: Choices for students with low vision. Retrieved June 17, 2003, from http://www.tsbvi.edu/seehear/fall02/low-vision.htm

Anthony, T.L., Bleier, H., Fazzi, D.L., Kish, D., & Pogrund, R.L. (2002).  Mobility focus: Developing early skills for orientation and mobility. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 326-404).  New York: AFB Press.

Barraga, N.C. (1978).  Program to develop efficiency in visual function: Design for instruction. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Barraga, N.C., & Erin, J.N. (2001). Sequence of visual behaviors and functions. In N.C. Barraga & J.N. Erin, Visual impairments and learning (4th ed., p. 80). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Barraga, N.C., & Erin, J.N. (2001). Visual impairments and learning (4th ed.). Austin, TX:  PRO-ED.

Blind Babies Foundation. (1998). Cortical visual impairment. In The pediatric visual diagnosis fact sheets. San Francisco: Author.

Brown, C. (2003). Recommendations to enhance visual efficiency within the physical environment. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Campbell, A.F. (2003). Optical device skills for young children. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Chen, D., & Dote-Kwan, J. (1995). Starting points: Instructional practices for young children whose multiple disabilities include visual impairments. Los Angeles: Blind Childrens Center.  

Corn, A.L. (1989). Instruction in the use of vision for children and adults with low vision. RE:view, 21, 26-38.

Cowan, C., & Shepler, R. (1990). Techniques for teaching young children to use low vision devices. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 84, 419-421.

Downing, J., & Bailey, B. (1990). Developing vision use within functional daily activities for students with visual and multiple disabilities. RE:view, 21, 209-219.

Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., & Deal, A.G. (1988). Enabling and empowering families: Principles and guidelines for practice. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Critical visual moments [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Cues and prompts as an intervention strategy [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Eye patching as an intervention strategy [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Motivation and visual behaviors [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Observational assessment of sensory preferences—Ethan [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Optical device training with a preschooler [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Using assessment results in intervention [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Visual skill clusters featuring an infant [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Visual skill clusters featuring a preschooler [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Visual skill clusters featuring a toddler [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB # 8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC  27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2004). Visual conditions vignettes, Session 5. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Erin, J.N. (1996). Functional vision assessment and instruction of children and youths with multiple disabilities. In A.L. Corn & A.J. Koenig (Eds.), Foundations of low vision: Clinical and functional perspectives (pp. 221-245). New York: AFB Press.

Erin, J.N., Fazzi, D.L., Gordon, R.L., Isenberg, S.J., & Paysse, E.A. (2002). Vision focus: Understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 52-106). New York: AFB Press.

Goetz, L., & Gee, K. (1987a). Functional vision programming.  A model for teaching visual behaviors in natural contexts.  In L. Goetz, D. Guess, & R. Stremel-Campbell (Eds.), Innovative program design for individuals with dual sensory impairments (pp. 77-97). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Goetz, L., & Gee, K. (1987b). Teaching visual attention in functional contexts:  Acquisition and generalization of complex visual motor skills. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 81, 115-117.

Good, W.V., Jan, J.E., DeSa, L., Berkovich, A.J., Groenveld, M., & Hoyt, C.S. (1994). Cortical visual impairment in children. Survey of Ophthalmology, 38(4), 351-364.

Gould, E., & Sonksen, P. (1991). A low vision aid clinic for pre-school children. The British Journal of Visual Impairment, 9, 44-46.

Hall, A., & Bailey, I. (1989). A model for training vision functioning. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 83, 390-396.   

Hall-Lueck, A., Dornbusch, H., & Hart, J. (1999).  The effects of training on a young child with cortical visual impairment:  An exploratory study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 93(12), 778-793.

Heryet, C. (Producer), & Jan, J. (Writer/Director). (2001). Help your child see: Promoting the vision development of young children with ocular visual impairment [Video]. (Available from Visually Impaired Program, British Columbia’s Children’s Hospital, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3N1) Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Pub. L. No. 105-17, (1997)

Jan, J.E., Groenveld, M., Sykanda, A.M., & Hoyt, C.S. (1987). Behavioural characteristics of children with permanent cortical visual impairment. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 29, 571-576

Kaye, S.B., Chen, S.I., Price, G., Kaye, L.C., Noonan, C., Tripathi, A., et al. (2002). Combined optical and atropine penalization for the treatment of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia. Journal of American Association For Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 6(5), 289-293.

Klein, M.D., Chen, D., & Haney, M. (2000). Promoting learning through active interaction. A guide to early communication with young children who have multiple disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. 

Kushner, B.J. (2002). Atropine vs patching for the treatment of moderate amblyopia in children [Editorial]. Archives of Ophthalmology, 120(3), 387-388.

Langley, M.B. (1998a). Cortical visual impairment. ISAVE: Individualized systematic assessment of visual efficiency (Vol. 1). Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Langley, M.B. (1998b). Minimal responsiveness. ISAVE: Individualized systematic assessment of visual efficiency (Vol. 1). Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Levack, N., Stone, G., & Bishop, V. (1994). Low vision: A resource guide with adaptations for students with visual impairments. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Mansfield, N.C., & Horn, M. (1993). My new glasses: A book for parents and children.  Culver City, CA: Institute for Families of Blind Children.

National Eye Institute. (2003). Reduced daily eye patching effectively treats childhood's most common eye disorder. Retrieved August 13, 2003, from http://www.nei.nih.gov/news/pressreleases/051203.htm

The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (2002). A randomized trial of atropine versus patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Archives of  Ophthalmology, 120, 268-278.

The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (2003). A randomized trial of patching regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Archives of Ophthalmology, 121, 603-611.

Rosen, S. (1998). Educating students who have visual impairments with neurological disabilities. In S.Z. Sacks & R.K. Silberman (Eds.), Educating students who have visual impairments with other disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Topor, I. (1999). Functional vision assessment and early interventions. In D. Chen  (Ed.), Essential elements in early intervention: Visual impairment and multiple disabilities. New York: AFB Press.

Topor, I. (2003). Intervention recording form. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Utley, B., Goetz, L., Gee, K.M., & Sailor, W. (1981). Vision assessment and program manual or severely handicapped and/or deaf-blind students. Reston, VA:  Council for Exceptional Children. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 250-840). 

Visually Impaired Preschool Services (Producer). (1996). Video six: Through their eyes: An introduction to low vision [Video]. (Available from Visually Impaired Preschool Services, 1229 Garvin Place, Louisville, KY 40203)

Watson, G. (1989). Competencies and a bibliography addressing students’ use of low vision devices. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 83, 160-163.

Wilkinson, M. (2000). Low vision devices: An overview. In F.M. D’Andrea & C. Farrenkopf (Eds.), Looking to learn: Promoting literacy for students with low vision (pp. 117-136). New York: AFB Press.

Wiseley, E., Greer, S., & Reed, L. (1990). Strategies to encourage infants, toddlers and preschoolers to wear their glasses. Tucson, AZ: Arizona State Schools for the Deaf and Blind.

Wright, K.W. (2003). Visual development and amblyopia. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (pp. 157-171). New York: Springer.

Zimmerman, G.J. (1996). Optics and low vision devices. In A.L. Corn & A.J. Koenig (Eds.), Foundations of low vision: Clinical and functional perspectives (pp. 115-142). New York: AFB Press.

Session References

American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, & American Academy of Ophthalmology. (2001). Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics, 108(3), 809-811.

Awner, S., & Catalano, R.A. (1998). Nystagmus. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.), Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 466-481). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Bahar, C., Brody, J., McCann, M.E., Mendiola, R., & Slott, G. (2003). A multidisciplinary approach to educating preschool children with optic nerve hypoplasia and septo-optic nerve dysplasia. RE:view, 35(1), 15-21.

Bateman, J.B. (2003). Chromosomal anomalies of the eye. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 675-704). New York: Springer.

Blind Babies Foundation. (1998). Albinism. In The pediatric visual diagnosis fact sheets. San Francisco: Author.

Blind Babies Foundation. (1998). Cortical visual impairment. In The pediatric visual diagnosis fact sheets. San Francisco: Author.

Blind Babies Foundation. (1998). How the eye and the brain work together. In The pediatric visual diagnosis fact sheets. San Francisco: Author.

Blind Babies Foundation. (1998). Optic nerve hypoplasia. In The pediatric visual diagnosis fact sheets. San Francisco: Author.

Blind Babies Foundation. (1998). Retinal diseases. In The pediatric visual diagnosis fact sheets. San Francisco: Author.

Blind Babies Foundation. (1998). Retinopathy of prematurity. In The pediatric visual diagnosis fact sheets. San Francisco: Author.

Brodsky, M.C., Conte, F.A., Taylor, D., Hoyt, C.S., & Mrak, R.E. (1997). Sudden death in septo-optic dysplasia: Report of 5 cases. Archives of Ophthalmology, 115,   66-70.

Brodsky, M.C., Fray, K.J., & Glasier, C.M. (2002). Perinatal and subcortical visual loss: Mechanisms of injury and associated ophthalmologic signs. Ophthalmology, 109(1), 85-94.

Buckley, E.G. (1998). Pediatric cataracts and lens anomalies. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.), Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 258-282). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Carden, S.M., & Good, W.V. (2003). Cortical visual impairment. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (pp. 936-939). New York: Springer.

Chow, L.C., Wright, K.W., Sola, A., & CSMC Oxygen Administration Study Group. (2003). Can changes in clinical practice decrease the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants? Pediatrics, 111(2), 339-345.

Connolly, B.P., Ng, E.Y.J., McNamara, J.A., Regillo, C.D., Vander, J.F., & Tasman, W. (2002). A comparison of laser photocoagulation with cryotherapy for threshold retinopathy of prematurity at 10 years: Part 2 refractive outcome. Ophthalmology, 109(5), 936-941.

Cook, C., Sulik, K.K., & Wright, K.W. (2003). Embryology. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 3-38). New York: Springer.

Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. (2002). Multicenter trial of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity: Natural history ROP: Ocular outcome at 5½ years in premature infants with birth weights less than 1251 g. Archives of Ophthalmology, 120, 595-599.

Dattani, M.T., Martinez-Barbera, J.P., Thomas, P.Q., Brickman, J.M., Gupta, R., Wales, J.K.H., et al. (2000). Molecular genetics of septo-optic dysplasia. Hormone Research, 53, 26-33.

Drack, A.V., & Kimura, A.E. (2003). Retinitis pigmentosa and associated disorders. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 539-555). New York: Springer.

Eibschitz-Tsimhoni, M. (2003). Ocular manifestations of inherited diseases. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 1021-1057). New York: Springer.

Elston, J. (2000). Visual pathway disorders. In A. Moore & S. Lightman (Eds.), Fundamentals of clinical ophthalmology: Paediatric ophthalmology (pp. 223-235). London: BMJ Books.

Eustis, H.S., Mungan, N.K., & Ginsberg, H.G. (2003). Combined use of cryotherapy and diode laser photocoagulation for the treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity. Journal of AAPOS, 7(2), 121-125.

Ferrell, K. (1998). Project PRISM: A longitudinal study of developmental patterns of children who are visually impaired (final report). Greeley, CO: University of Northern Colorado, Division of Special Education.

Flynn, J.T. (1991). Retinopathy of prematurity. In L.B. Nelson, J.H. Calhoun, & R.D. Harley (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology (3rd ed., pp. 59-77). Philadelphia: W.B.       Saunders.

Gilbert, C.E., Anderton, L., Dandona, L., & Foster, A. (1999). Prevalence of visual impairment in children: A review of available data. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 6(1), 73-82.

Gilbert, C.E., Rahi, J., Eckstein, M., O'Sullivan, J., & Foster, A. (1997). Retinopathy of prematurity in middle-income countries. The Lancet, 350, 12-14.

Good, W.V., Jan, J.E., DeSa, L., Barkovich, A.J., Groenveld, M., & Hoyt, C.S. (1994). Cortical visual impairment in children. Survey of Ophthalmology, 38(4), 351-364.

Hatton, D. (1991). Leading causes of blindness in the infant-preschool population. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 85, 99.

Hatton, D.D., Bailey, D.B., Burchinal, M.R., & Ferrell, K.A. (1997). Developmental growth curves of preschool children with vision impairments. Child Development, 68, 788-806.

Hatton, D.D., & Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment Collaborative Group. (2001). Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment: First-year results. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(7), 418-433.

Hellstrom, A., Aronsson, M., Axelson, C., Kyllerman, M., Kopp, S., Steffenburg, S., et al. (2000). Children with septo-optic dysplasia—How to improve and sharpen the diagnosis. Hormone Research, 53, 19-25.

Hertle, R.W. (2003). Nystagmus and ocular oscillations in infancy and childhood. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 954-969). New York: Springer.

Hodgins, P., & Harris, C.M. (2000). Paediatric eye movement disorders. In A. Moore & S.Lightman (Eds.), Fundamentals of clinical ophthalmology: Paediatric ophthalmology (pp. 191-199). London: BMJ Books.

Hoon, A.H., Jan, J.E., Whitfield, M.F., McCormick, A.Q., Richards, D.P., & Robinson, G.C. (1988). Changing pattern of retinopathy of prematurity: A 37-year clinic      experience. Pediatrics, 82(3), 344-349.

Jan, J.E., Groenveld, M., Sykanda, A.M., & Hoyt, C.S. (1987). Behavioural characteristics of children with permanent cortical visual impairment. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 29, 571-576.

Kaye, S.B., Chen, S.I., Price, G., Kaye, L.C., Noonan, C., Tripathi, A., et al. (2002). Combined optical and atropine penalization for the treatment of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 6(5), 289-293.

Kushner, B.J. (1998). Amblyopia. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.), Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 125-139). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Kushner, B.J. (2002). Atropine vs patching for the treatment of moderate amblyopia in children [Editorial]. Archives of Ophthalmology, 120(3), 387-388.

Langley, M.B. (1998). Cortical visual impairment. In ISAVE: Individualized systematic assessment of visual efficiency (Vol. 1). Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Levack, N., Stone, G., & Bishop, V. (1994). Low vision: A resource guide with adaptations for students with visual impairments. Austin, TX: Texas School for         the Blind and Visually Impaired.

McManaway, J.W., & Bonsall, D.J. (2003). Management of common pediatric neuro- ophthalmology problems. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 1004-1018). New York: Springer.

McNamara, J.A., Tasman, W., Brown, G.C., & Federman, J.L. (1991). Laser photocoagulation for stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology, 98, 576-580.

McNamara, J.A., Tasman, W., Vander, J.F., & Brown, G.C. (1992). Diode laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity: Preliminary results. Archives of Ophthalmology, 110, 1714-1716.

Moore, A.T. (2000). Intraocular tumours. In A. Moore & S. Lightman (Eds.), Fundamentals of clinical ophthalmology: Paediatric ophthalmology (pp. 143-153). London: BMJ Books.

Morse, M.T. (1990). Cortical visual impairment in young children with multiple disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 84, 200-203.

Morse, M.T. (1999). Cortical visual impairment: Some words of caution. RE:view, 31(1), 21-26.

Msall, M.E., Phelps, D.L., DiGaudio, K.M., Dobson, V., Tung, B., McClead, R.E., et al. (2000). Severity of neonatal retinopathy of prematurity is predictive of neurodevelopmental functional outcome at age 5.5 years. Pediatrics, 106(5), 998-1005.

Murphree, A.L., & Christensen, L.E. (2003). Retinoblastoma and other malignant intraocular tumors. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 584-599). New York: Springer.

Nelson, L.B. (1998). Strabismus disorders. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.), Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 146-198). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Nischal, K.K. (2003a). Developmental anomalies of the anterior segment and globe. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 369-390). New York: Springer.

Nischal, K.K. (2003b). Pediatric iris abnormalities. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 430-449). New York: Springer.

Noorily, S.W., Small, K., DeJuan, E., & Machemer, R. (1992). Scleral buckling surgery for stage 4B retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology, 99(2), 263-268.

Ober, R.R., Palmer, E.A., Drack, A.V., & Wright, K.W. (2002). Retinopathy of prematurity. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 600-628). New York: Springer.

Olitsky, S.E., & Nelson, L.B. (1998). Strabismus disorders. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.), Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 146-198). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Palmer, E.A., Glynn, J.T., Hardy, R.J., Phelps, D.L., Phillips, C.L., Schaffer, D.B., & Tung, B. (1991). Incidence and early course of retinopathy of prematurity. The Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Ophthalmology, 98(11), 1628-1640.

Parker, K.L., Hunold, J.J., & Blethen, S.L. (2002). Septo-optic dysplasia/optic nerve hypoplasia: Data from the national cooperative growth study (NCGS). Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 15, 697-700.

Paysse, E.A., Miller, A., Brady-McCreery, K.M., & Coats, D.K. (2002). Acquired cataracts after diode laser photocoagulation for threshold retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology, 109, 1662-1665.

The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (2002). A randomized trial of atropine vs patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Archives of Ophthalmology, 120, 268-278.

The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (2003). A randomized trial of patching regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Archives of Ophthalmology, 121, 603-611.

Phelps, D.L. (1989). Retinopathy of prematurity: A neonatologist’s perspective. In S.J. Isenberg (Ed.), The eye in infancy (pp. 417-427). Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc.

Phillips, P.H., & Brodsky, M.C. (2003). Congenital optic nerve abnormalities. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 918-935). New York: Springer.

Phillips, P.H., Spear, C., & Brodsky, M.C. (2001). Magnetic resonance diagnosis of congenital hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 5(5), 275-280.

Porro, G., Dekker, E.M., Nieuwenhuizen, O.V., Wittebik-Post, D., Schilder, M.B.H.,

Schenk-Rootlieb, A.J.F., et al. (1998). Visual behaviors of neurologically impaired

children with cerebral visual impairment: An ethological study. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 82, 1231-1235.

Prevent Blindness America. (2003a). Amblyopia. Retrieved July 31, 2003, from https://www.preventblindness.org/amblyopia-lazy-eye

Prevent Blindness America. (2003b). Strabismus. Retrieved July 31, 2003, from https://www.preventblindness.org/strabismus

Prevent Blindness America & National Eye Institute. (2002). Vision problems in the U.S. Retrieved June 3, 2004, from http://www.nei.nih.gov/eyedata/pdf/VPUS.pdf

Quinn, G.E., Dobson, V., Siatkowsi, R.M., Hardy, R.J., Kivlin, J., Palmer, E.A., et al. (2001). Does cryotherapy affect refractive error? Results from treated versus control eyes in the cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity trial. Ophthalmology, 108(2), 343-347.

Reynolds, J.D., & Olitsky, S.E. (2003). Pediatric glaucoma. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 483-498). New York: Springer.

Roodhooft, J.M.J. (2002). Leading causes of blindness worldwide. Bulletin of the Belgian Societies of Ophthalmology, 283, 19-25.

Russell-Eggitt, I., Harris, C.M., & Kriss, A. (1998). Delayed visual maturation: An update. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 40, 130-136.

Shields, J.A., & Shields, C.L. (1998). Ocular tumors of childhood. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.), Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 397-409). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Siatkowski, R.M., & Flynn, J.T. (1998). Retinopathy of prematurity. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.) Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 60-81). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Steinkuller, P.G., Du, L., Gilbert, C., Foster, A., Collins, M.L., & Coats, D.K. (1999). Childhood blindness. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 3, 2-32.

Sternberg, P., Lopez, P.F., Labert, H.M., Aaberg, T.M., & Capone, A. (1992). Controversies in the management of retinopathy of prematurity. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 113, 198-202.

Termote, J., Schalij-Delfos, N.E., Donders, R.T., & Cats, B.P. (2003). The incidence of visually impaired children with retinopathy of prematurity and their concomitant disabilities. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 7(2), 131-136.

Thomas, P.Q., Dattani, M.T., Brickman, J.M., McNay, D., Warne, G., Zacharin, M., et al. (2001). Heterozygous HESX1 mutations associated with isolated congenital pituitary hypoplasia and septo-optic dysplasia. Human Molecular Genetics, 10(1), 39-45.

Thylefors, B., Negrel, A.D., Pararajasegaram, R., & Dadzie, K.Y. (1995). Global data on blindness. World Health Organization Bulletin, 73, 115-121.

Tornqvist, K., Ericsson, A., & Kallen, B. (2002). Optic nerve hypoplasia: Risk factors and epidemiology. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 80, 300-304.

Traboulsi, E.I. (2003). Connective tissue, skin, and bone disorders. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 740-765). New York: Springer.

Tresidder, J., Fielder, A., & Nicholson, J. (1990). Delayed visual maturation: Ophthalmic and neuro-developmental aspects. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 872-881.

Urrea, P.T., & Rosenbaum, A.L. (1989). Retinopathy of prematurity: An ophthalmologist’s perspective. In S.J. Isenberg (Ed.), The eye in infancy (pp. 428-456). Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc.

Vivian, A. (2000). The management of childhood strabismus. In A. Moore & S. Lightman (Eds.), Fundamentals of clinical ophthalmology: Paediatric ophthalmology (pp. 177-190). London: BMJ Books.

Walton, D.S. (1998). Glaucoma in infants and children. In L.B. Nelson (Ed.), Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology (4th ed., pp. 283-294). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Whiting, S., Jan, J.E., Wong, P.K.H., Flodmark, O., Ferrell, K., & McCormick, A.Q. (1985). Permanent cortical visual impairment in children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 27, 730-739.

Wright, K.W. (2003a). Binocular vision and introduction to strabismus. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 144-156). New York: Springer.

Wright, K.W. (2003b). Esodeviations. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 204-223). New York: Springer.

Wright, K.W. (2003c). Exotropia. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 224-231). New York: Springer.

Wright, K.W. (2003d). Lens abnormalities. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 450-480). New York: Springer.

Wright, K.W. (2003e). Visual development and amblyopia. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 157-171). New York: Springer.

Wright, K.W., & Spiegel, P.H. (Eds.). (2003). Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed.) New York: Springer.

Recommended Readings

  1.  Chernus-Mansfield, N. (2003). Breaking the news: The role of the physician. In K.W. Wright & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus ( 2nd ed., pp. 71-76). New York: Springer.
  2.  Erin, J.N., Fazzi, D.L., Gordon, R.L., Isenberg, S.J., & Paysse, E.A. (2002). Vision focus: understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.),  Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 52-106).  New York: AFB Press. (Read pp. 68-79.)
  3.  Killebrew, R., & Corn, A.L. (2002). An initial study of ophthalmologist-parent communication during the first office visits. RE:view, 34(3), 135-14.
  4.  Stout, A.U. (2003). Pediatric eye examination. In K.W. Wright & P.H. piegel (Eds.),  Pediatric ohthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp.57-67). New York Springer.

Recommended Readings

  1. Corn, A.L. (1983). Visual function: A theoretical model for individuals with low vision. Journal of Visual 
    Impairment & Blindness, 77
    (8), 373-377
  2. Erin, J.N., Fazzi, D. L., Gordon, R.L., Isenberg, S.J., & Paysse, E.A. (2002). Vision focus: Understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focuse: Working with young childresn who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 52-106). New York: AFB Press. (Read pp. 52-68.)

Recommended Readings

  1.  Bahar, C., Brody, J., McCann, M.E., Mendiola, R., & Slott, G. (2003). A Multidisciplinary approach to educating preschool children with optic nerve dysplasia. RE:view, 35(12), 15-21.
  2.  Flynn, J.T. (2002). Retinopathy of prematurity: An epidemiological perspective. EnVision, 7(1), 2-9.
  3.  Hatton, D.D., & Model Registry Collaborative Group. (2001). Model registry of early childhood visual impairment: First-year results. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(7), 418-433.
  4.  Morse, M.T. (1990). Cortical visual impairment: Some words of caution, RE:view, 31(1), 21-26.
  5.  Ward, M.E. (2000). The visual system. In M.C. Holbrook & A.J. Koenig (Eds.), Foundations of education: Vol. 1. History and theory of teaching children and youths with visual impairments (2nd ed., pp. 77-109). New York: AFB Press. (Read pp. 77-92.)

Recommended Readings

  1. Getz, L.M., Dobson, V., Luna, B., & Mash, C. (1996). Interobserver reliability of the teller acuity card procedure in pediatric patients. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 37(1), 180-187.
  2. Topor, I. (1999). Functional vision assessments and early interventions. In D. Chen (Ed.), Essential elements in early intervention (pp. 157-206). New York: AFB Press.
  3. Utley, B.L. (1993). Assessing the instructional environment to meet the needs of learners with multiple disabilities including students who are deaf-blind. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1(2), 5-8

Recommended Readings

  1. Adams, D. (2002). My story: Choices for students with low vision. Retrieved June 17, 2003, from http://www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/fall02/low-vision.htm.
  2. Erin, J.N., Fazzi, D.L., Gordon, R.L., Isenberg, S.J., & Paysse, E.A. (2002). Vision focus: Understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 52-106). New York: AFB Press. (Read pp. 89-106.)
  3. Hall-Lueck, A., Dornbusch, H., & Hart, J. (1999). The effects of training on a young child with cortical visual impairment: An exploratory study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 93(12), 778-793.
  4. Zimmerman, G.J. (1996). Optics and low vision devices. In A.L. Corn & A.J. Koenig (Eds.), Foundations of low vision: Clinical and functional perspectives (pp. 115-142). New York: AFB Press. (Read pp. 124-142.)

Introduction

Welcome to Session 1, “Foundations of Developmentally Appropriate Orientation and Mobility,” of the Developmentally Appropriate Orientation and Mobility module. In this session, participants will acquire knowledge and skills that will enable them to work collaboratively with families, orientation and mobility specialists, teachers of children with visual impairments, and other early intervention team members. In addition, participants will recognize that sensory, cognitive, and motor development form the foundation for early orientation and mobility, promoting safe and independent movement, exploration, and travel within natural environments for infants and toddlers with visual impairments. Participants will also acquire knowledge about the relationship between attachment and mobility and strategies for fostering independent and safe movement and exploration in natural environments.

Objectives

After completing this session, participants will

  1. define orientation and mobility (O&M) as it applies to infants and toddlers with visual impairments.
  2. describe the history of the field of orientation and mobility and how it relates to infants and toddlers with visual impairments.
  3. describe a developmental approach to O&M for infants and toddlers and their families, including family-centered practices, natural learning opportunities, and transdisciplinary teaming.
  4. describe components of early orientation and mobility.
  5. discuss the roles of orientation and mobility specialists (OMSs) and teachers of children with visual impairments (TVIs) in facilitating sensory development and organization, cognitive development, motor development and movement, and assessment of infants and toddlers with visual impairments.
  6. describe the relationship between attachment and mobility and strategies for promoting attachment and trust.
  7. discuss the importance of and strategies for fostering independent movement and exploration in natural environments for infants and toddlers with visual impairments.
  8. describe the significance of and strategies for providing opportunities for safe movement and exploration.
  9. describe protective techniques for early travel and strategies to encourage their use.
  10. describe different types of adaptive mobility devices and tools and ways to facilitate their use.

References

Anthony, T.L. (1997). Adapted version of Koenig and Holbrook's sensory channel form. Unpublished document

Anthony, T.L. (1999). Sensory preferences of infants and toddlers with visual impairments. Unpublished document.

Anthony, T.L. (2003a). Individual sensory learning profile interview. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Bailey, B. (Writer/Director). (1993). Functional vision: Learning to look [Video]. (Available from Child Development Media, Inc., 5632 Van Nuys Boulevard, Suite 286, Van Nuys, CA 91401)

Bishop, V. (2003). Checklist for functional vision assessment: Birth to 3.  Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Brennan, V., Peck, F., & Lolli, D. (1996). Suggestions for modifying the home and school environments: A handbook for parents and teachers of children with dual sensory impairments. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind.

Brown, C. (2003). Recommendations to enhance vision and vision efficiency within the physical environment.  Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Buckley, E.G. (2003). Pediatric neuro-ophthalmology examination. In K.W. Wight & P.H. Spiegel (Eds.), Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus (2nd ed., pp. 865-875). New York: Springer.

Chen, D., Friedman, C.T., & Calvello, G. (1989). Parents and visually impaired infants. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Corn, A. (1983). Visual function: A theoretical model for individuals with low vision. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 77(8), 373-377.

DeGangi, G,A., & Greenspan, S.I. (1989). Test of sensory function in infants. Los Angeles: WPD.

Dunst,C.J., & Brunder, M.B. (1999). Family and community activity settings, natural learning environments, and children's learning opportunities. Children's Learning Opportunities Report, 1(2). Retrieved June 9, 2004, from http:www.everydaylearning.info/reports/lov1-2.pdf

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Dr. Dobson discusses the Teller Acuity Cards [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). FVA template. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Generating FVA recommendations (1) [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Generating FVA recommendations (2) [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Observational assessment of sensory preferences-Allison [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Observational assessment of sensory preferences-Ethan [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Observational assessment of sensory preferences-Jasmine  [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Resources for assessing visual abilities in young children. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Sierra at home  [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Takoda during daily routines [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Using the Teller Acuity Cards [Video clip]. (Available from Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8040)

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Visual conditions vignettes, Session 4. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Erin, J.N. (2000). Foundations of low vision: Clinical and functional perspectives. In A.L. Corn & Koenig (Eds.), Functional vision assessment and instruction of children and youths with multiple disabilities (pp. 221-245)New York: AFB Press

Erin, J.N., Fazzi, D.L., Gordon, R.L., Isenberg, S.L., & Paysse, E.A. (2002). Vision focus: Understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 52-106).  New York: AFB Press.

Faye, E.E. (2000). Functinal consequences of vision impairment. In B. Silverstone, M.A. Lang, B. Rosental, & E.E. Faye (Eds.), The Lighthouse handbook on vision impairment and vision rehabilitation (pp. 821-831). New York: Oxford university Press.

Geniale, T. (1991). The management of the child with verebral palsy and low vision. A neurodevelomental therapy perspective (Monograph Series No. 2). North Rocks, Australia: North Rocks Press.

Getz, L.M., Dobson, V., Luna, B., & Mash, C. (1996). Interobserver reliability of the teller acuity card procedure in pediatric patients. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 37(1), 180-187.

Hyvarien, L. (1995-96). Vision testing manual. Lake City, FL: Vision Associates.

Hyvarien, L. (2000). Vision evaluation of infants and children. In B. Silverstone, M.A. Lang, B. Rosental, & E.E. Faye (Eds.), The Lighthouse handbook on vision impairment and vision rehabilitation (pp. 821-831). New York: Oxford university Press.

Hyvarinen, L. (n.d.). Visual acuity tests. Retrieved April 4, 2003, from hhtp://www.lea-test.sgic.fi/

Koenig, A., & Holbrook, M.C. (1995). Learning media assessment: A resource guid for teachers (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Langley, M.B. (1998). In ISAVE: Individualized systematic assessment of visual efficiency. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Murphy, J.L. (2004). The process of completing a functional vision assessment for infants and toddlers with visual impairments. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Taining Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Rosenblum, P.L., & Topor, I. (2003). FVA report-Rachel. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Taining Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Shaw, R. (Executive Producer), & Quinones, H. (Producer). (2002). Peek-a-boo, I see you: Assessment of visual efficiency in babies and young children [Video]. (Available from Dominican College, 470 Western Highway, Orangeburg, NY 10962, and Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers with Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, CB #8040, UNC, CHapel hill, NC 27599-8040)

Simeonsson, R.J., Huntington, G.S., Short, R.J., & Ware, W.B. (1988). Carolina record of individual behavior (CRIB): Characteristics of handicapped infants and children. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graha, Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Smith, M., & Shafer, S. (n.d.). Assessment of biobehaviroal states and analysis of related influences. Retrieved March 26, 2003, from http://www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/archive/biobehav.htm

Smith, M., & Shafer, S. (n.d.). Example form: Assessment of biobehavioral states and analysis of related influences. Retrieved March 26, 2003, from http://www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/archive/biobehav.htm

Smith, M., & Shafer, S. (n.d.). State assessment: Levels of arousal. Retrieved March 26, 2003, from http://www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/archive/biobehav.htm

Teplin, S., & Alexander, J. (2003). Medications that influence visual functioning. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Taining Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Topor, I. (1999). Functional vision assessment and early interventions. In D. Chen (Ed.), Essential elements in early intervention: Visual Impairment and multiple disabilities (pp. 157-206). New Tork: AFB Press.

Topor, I. (2003). Caregiver checklist to determine gow the child uses vision. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Taining Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Topor, I. (2003). Mapping the child's environment. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Taining Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Topor, I. (2004). Approximate functional visual acuity for different sizes of objects and distances. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Taining Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Topor, I., & Erin, J. (2000). Educationsal assessment of visual function in infants and children. in B. Silverstone, M.A. Lang, B. Rosenthal, & E.E. Faye (Eds.), The Lighthouse handbook on vision impairment and vision rehabilitation (pp. 821-831). New York: Oxford University Press.

Trueb, L., Evans, J., Hammel, A., Bartholomew, P., & Dobson, V. (1992). Assessing visual acuity of visually impaired children using the Teller Acuity Card procedure. American Orthoptic Journal, 42, 149-152.

Utley, B. (1993). Assessing the instructional environment to meet the needs of learners with multiple disabilities including students who are deaf-blind. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1(2), 5-8.

Vistech Consultants. (1990). Teller Acuity Card manual. Dayton, OH: Vistech, Inc.

Handout F: Visual Conditions Vignettes

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Visual conditions vignettes, Session 5. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Austin

During the IFSP meeting, Austin’s family stated that they would like for him to learn to feed himself. Austin enjoys mealtime, so this is a highly motivating time to engage in activities that promote the optimal use of vision. Therefore, the TVI encouraged Austin’s mother to quietly place various foods on his highchair so that he has to shift gaze between, fixate upon, and reach for and grasp pieces of his food to feed himself. In the past, his mother had simply put his finger foods in his hand, and he had no reason to use vision to secure his food. To help Austin learn that he can make choices and to facilitate his use of vision, the TVI suggested that the mother offer him two choices of drinks, so that he must visually shift gaze between the two choices before selecting one by reaching for it. In this way, Austin will learn that he can communicate his wants by choosing one drink over another. The TVI also provided some brightly colored spoons and suggested that Austin choose the spoon that he prefers based on its color and the contrast between the spoons and the highchair tray.

Terry

Terry is a 17-month-old with ROP who enjoys manipulating small toys while seated in his highchair after meals. The TVI and Terry’s grandmother decide to use playtime as a time to encourage Terry to use his vision to increase his independence. Rather than handing Terry a toy to play with, his grandmother encourages Terry to use his vision in a sequence or a visual skills cluster. The grandmother may provide cues by saying, “Where’s the truck?” while tapping the highchair tray. Terry is encouraged to look (fixate), then reach for, and then grasp the desired item in order to explore it visually and tactually. Next, Terry may be asked to choose between two toys, thereby having to shift gaze, look/fixate, reach, and grasp.

Terry

Terry may initially require sound cues to locate the small toys that he plays with on his highchair tray. However, after many opportunities to locate, reach for, grasp, and play with small toys, he will learn to detect them visually without sound and tactile cues. By having consistent, fun, and interactive opportunities for using his vision, Terry learns that vision may provide more reliable and consistent information about objects than the sound cues and tactile exploration that he initially used.

Roseanna

Roseanna’s TVI and caregivers were concerned that she was not using vision to find her favorite toys. Her mother reported that Roseanna waited for another family member to bring her favorite toys even though it appeared that the toys were within Roseanna’s visual field and reach. The TVI and family members observed Roseanna during different times of day as she engaged in play in the living room, the bedroom, and the den. Roseanna appeared to have more difficulty finding favorite toys in the living room and the den than in her bedroom.

The TVI noticed that Roseanna’s bedroom was less visually cluttered than the living room and den. Both of these rooms had light-colored carpets with throw rugs. Additionally, Roseanna’s mother had organized her toys in her bedroom so that they fit into eye-level cubbies, allowing Roseanna to easily distinguish between toys. The TVI talked to the family about providing a space with eye-level storage for Roseanna in the den to see if this environmental adaptation would make a difference in Roseanna’s ability to find her toys.

Takoda

Takoda is accustomed to taking his bath in the kitchen sink. Stephanie, his mother, uses the sink because it provides Takoda a sense of security that he did not have in the regular bathtub. She noticed that when she adjusted the space (decreased size of tub), Takoda did not cry or appear scared in the water during bath time. Takoda is attracted to the color red, and his Winnie the Pooh shampoo bottle is bright red (color/intensity). Stephanie allows Takoda to look at the red washcloth coming toward his face before washing him by adjusting the amount of time she gives him to look at the cloth (time).

Sierra

Sierra, a toddler with albinism, is sensitive to outdoor light. When asked to find her brother’s bike in the backyard (familiar setting), Sierra was within a foot of it and walked past it as she faced the bright sun. Her mother asked her to turn around and walk back toward her to look for the bike. When the sun was at Sierra’s back instead of in her eyes (illumination/glare reduction), she immediately noticed the bike after she turned around. Although the bike was orange and had black tape wrapped around the handlebars, providing high contrast, the glare and degree of illumination initially interfered with Sierra’s ability to find the bike. 

Bradley

Bradley is a 2-year-old with cortical visual impairment. His TVI conducted a functional vision assessment and a developmentally appropriate learning media assessment to determine how Bradley used his vision and other senses for specific activities under certain conditions. His caregivers were particularly concerned that Bradley didn’t appear to be interested in his eating routine. The TVI offered several strategies for teaching use of vision for eating. First she determined which visual skills were necessary for Bradley to use during the eating routine: shift of gaze, scanning, fixating/localizing, reaching, grasping (critical visual moment), and taking food to his mouth. Second, she analyzed the kitchen environment for environmental factors that could be modified to enhance Bradley’s use of vision. Third, she made certain that Bradley’s caregiver knew his food preferences. Finally, she identified ways to prompt/cue Bradley to use vision for selecting his favorite foods from a tray with a background that contrasted with the food.

Dallas

Felix, the occupational therapist, was eager to meet with the Romane family and Carson, their TVI. The Romane family had expressed interest in making independent eating a goal for their son, Dallas. Dallas has cortical visual impairment and mild ataxic cerebral palsy. Felix felt comfortable in assisting the family in creating adaptations for the motor components for feeding goals, but he knew that Carson could help them in facilitating Dallas’s optimal use of vision during mealtime.
During the meeting, Carson discussed the results of Dallas’s latest functional vision assessment (FVA). Based on the FVA, they knew that Dallas responds well to the color purple and that he tends to use his right eye for central fixation and viewing. He also appears to become overly stimulated by visual clutter and by noisy environments. In order to facilitate Dallas’s feeding goals, the family decided to begin their dinner routine with the television off to reduce noise. Additionally, they decided to use a purple sippy cup placed on the right side of the highchair tray. The family also moved Dallas’s highchair so that it faced the white kitchen wall rather than the open family room. This would assist in decreasing the clutter in the background. Within a few weeks, the family noticed that Dallas was much more visually attentive during meal times and was showing progress in independently using his sippy cup during these routines.