Main content

Alert message

A or Acc:

Accommodation; mechanism by which eye spontaneously adjusts to objects at different distances to achieve a clear image.

C, CC:

With correction; wearing prescribed lenses with glasses.


Counting fingers; low visual acuity; used in conjunction with distance. For example, CF at I foot - the individual can count fingers at a distance of one foot.


Diopter; lens strength.


Extraocular muscles. A check to see if the individuals eye can move normally in different fields.

ET or ST:

Esotropia; inward deviation of eye, towards nose.


Fluorescein angiogram; a dye test. Dye is injected into blood and a picture is taken of the retina.


Behind the lens. Examination of the eye to check what is behind the lens.


Hand motion (also known as hand movement); used in conjunction with distance. For example, HM at 1 foot means the individual can see hand movement at one foot.


Intraocular pressure; the pressure of aqueous humor within the eye.

Jl, J2, J3:

Jaeger test; a test for near vision. Lines of reading matter printed in a series of various sizes of type.


Light perception; ability to distinguish light from dark.


Light projection; the ability to perceive and localize light.


Muscle balance; how eyes line up.


No light perception; inability to distinguish light from dark.


Right eye; oculus dexter.


Left eye; oculus sinister.


Both eyes together; oculi unitas.


Pupils; equally round and reactive to light. If optic nerve is damaged the pupils will not respond normally.


Perceives and localizes light in one or more quadrants.


Presbyopia; a gradual lessening of the power of accommodation due to a physiological change which affects eyes after the age of forty.

SS, S, or SC:

Without correction; not wearing glasses.

V, Va, or VA:

Visual acuity; the ability of the eye to perceive the shape of objects in the direct line of sight. Visual acuity is measured by viewing standardized letters of varying sizes and is expressed as a fraction such as 20/20.


Visual field; entire area which can be seen without moving the gaze, normally 180 degrees.


Exotropia; outward deviation of eye, away from nose.

20/20 Vision:

Normal visual acuity; ability to correctly perceive an object or letter of a designated size from a distance of 20 feet.

20/70 Vision:

Visual acuity notation; ability to see at 20 feet what others with normal acuity are able to see at 70 feet. Visually impaired.

20/200 Vision:

Visual acuity notation; ability to see at 20 feet what others with normal acuity are able to see at 200 feet. Legally blind.


Plus or convex; farsighted.


Minus or concave lens; nearsighted.