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Alert message

Pearson’s User Experience Research team, part of the Global Accessibility Team is reaching out to Teachers of Visually Impaired students (or coordinators and administrators who may be able to put us in touch with Teachers of Visually Impaired students) in an effort to learn more about the tools and technologies the teachers and students use on a daily basis.

We need feedback to help us learn more about the students.  This short survey is comprised of questions designed to collect information from those individuals who know students with visual impairments better than anyone else; the teachers.

The results of the survey will be completely confidential. The data will only be used to help us fill in gaps, learn more about the students, and help Pearson improve our products to support the needs of children with visual impairments.

What can you get by helping us?

Once the survey has closed, the research team will randomly choose 1 participant to receive a new Apple iPad for helping us with our project.

If you are interested and are willing to help us out, please complete the survey.

Do you know other TVIs that may be interested in completing this survey?  Please help us by sending this note to any colleagues or groups you may know.  We really appreciate your help!

Here is the survey link again: 

https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/tvi-survey

Please feel free to reach out to our lead researcher, Jeremy Adams, with any questions or thoughts.  

Thank you very much for your time and consideration.

 

Open Electronic Book Forum (OEBF)

The purpose of the Open eBook Forum (OEBF) is to create and maintain standards and promote the successful adoption of electronic books. The OEBF is an association of hardware and software companies, publishers and users of electronic books and related organizations whose goals are to establish common specifications for electronic book systems, applications and products that will benefit creators of content, makers of reading systems and, most importantly, consumers. The OEBF is helping to catalyze the adoption of electronic books; to encourage the broad acceptance of these specifications on a worldwide basis among members of the Forum, related industries and the public; and to increase awareness and acceptance of the emerging electronic publishing industry. The OEBF is composed of member organizations (each of which may have one or more representatives) and a Board of Directors. The members determine the policies and activities of the organization.

http://www.openebook.org 

Digital Audio-Based Information System Consortium (DAISY Consortium)

The DAISY Consortium is establishing the International Standard for the production, exchange, and use of the next generation of "Digital Talking Books." The DAISY Consortium is made up of organizations throughout the world who serve persons who are blind or print disabled. Blindness organizations which are active members in the DAISY Consortium and will begin producing Digital Talking Books in DAISY format include Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic (RFB&D), American Foundation for the Blind (AFB), American Printing House for the Blind (APH), Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB), and the U.K. Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB), to name just a few. The object of the DAISY Consortium is to improve the access to all kinds of information for blind and visually impaired people. DAISY Digital Talking Books are expected on the market in 2000.

http://www.daisy.org 

Digital Talking Book (DTB)

A Digital Talking Book is envisioned to be, in its fullest implementation, a group of digitally-encoded files containing an audio portion recorded in human speech; the full text of the work in electronic form, marked with the tags of a descriptive markup language; and a linking file that synchronizes the text and audio portions. The need to digitize audio collections around the world is clear. Currently, each country has its own system and format for serving its clients. To read talking books on cassettes is similar to the ancient way of reading scrolls. There is a lot of winding and rewinding. In a digital talking book the reader has random access to the sections via the talking table of contents. The digitization of books intended for persons with disabilities provides opportunities to increase the quality and availability of information to print disabled persons.

American National Standards Institute/National Information Standards Organization (ANSI/NISO)

A committee of the United States based National Information Standards Organization (NISO), in conjunction with the internationally known DAISY Consortium, is working on a specification for Digital Talking Books. This will serve as the next generation of information technology for persons who are blind and print disabled. At the heart of this specification is an XML DTD that incorporates the elements of structure needed to provide access to information. The specification goes on to define how the textual information can be synchronized with digitally recorded human speech through Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL), a recommendation of the W3C. The specification identifies six classes of books that have varying amounts of text mixed with audio. Most significantly, one class of book contains only text, with no recorded human speech. Access to the information would be through synthetic speech, refreshable braille or dynamically generated large print.

http://www.niso.org 

Document Type Definition (DTD)

This is a formal definition of a discrete set of XML tags usually targeted at a particular type of application. For example, the Document Type Definition for the Digital Talking Book would define tags for things one finds in a book, e.g., chapter, paragraph, footnote, jacket, etc.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

The W3C is an international industry consortium founded in 1994. Its mission is to promote the evolution and ensure the interoperability of the World Wide Web. Working with the global community, the Consortium produces specifications and reference software for free use around the world. The World Wide Web Consortium established the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) in 1997. Changing the Web's underlying protocols, applications and, most importantly, the way content is developed can significantly improve access to the Web by people with disabilities. The WAI has working groups developing comprehensive and unified sets of accessibility guidelines for content accessibility, browser accessibility, and authoring tool accessibility.

http://www.w3.org and http://www.w3.org/wai/ 

The Extensible Markup Language (XML)

The XML is the universal format for structured documents and data on the Web. It is a set of rules, guidelines, conventions for designing text formats for data, in a way that produces files that are easy to generate and read (by a computer), that are unambiguous, and that avoid common pitfalls, such as lack of extensibility, lack of support for internationalization/localization, and platform-dependency. Like HTML, XML makes use of tags (words bracketed by '<' and '>') and attributes (of the form name="value"), but while HTML specifies what each tag & attribute means (and often how the text between them will look in a browser), XML uses the tags only to delimit pieces of data, and leaves the interpretation of the data completely to the application that reads it. In other words, if you see "<p>" in an XML file, don't assume it is a paragraph. Depending on the context, it may be a price, a parameter, a person.

http://www.w3.org 

Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML)

HTML is the lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML, and can be created and processed by a wide range of tools from simple plain text editors. HTML uses tags such as <h1> and </h1> to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links etc.

http://www.w3.org

SMIL

The Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) is written as an XML application and is currently a W3C recommendation. Simply put, it enables authors to specify what should be presented; therefore, enabling them to control the precise time that a sentence is spoken and make it coincide with the display of an image appearing on the screen. The SMIL language has been designed for ease of access for authoring simple presentations with a text editor. The key to success for HTML was that attractive hypertext content could be created without requiring a sophisticated authoring tool. The SMIL language achieves the same goal for synchronized hypermedia.

http://www.w3.org/AudioVideo

Optical Character Reader (OCR):

A device which can optically analyze a printed text, recognize the letters or other characters, and store this information as a computer text file. OCRs are usually limited to recognizing the styles and sizes of type for which they are programmed.

Goal One

March 26, 2001

Analyze NISO XML File Format To Determine Its Suitability For Converting Textbook Content Into Braille And Other Accessible Formats
OBJECTIVERESPONSIBLE PEOPLETIME FRAMEUpdated Notes
1. Send DTD guidelines to publishers At http://www.loc.gov/nls/niso You will find the standards work on the XML DTD we will be talking about. This is labeled 3.0, because DAISY has built specifications along these lines and these have been labeled 2.x. You can find the Structure Guidelines at: http://www.daisy.org/structure These two documents are what are needed to produce files according to the standard. Julie Copty Before Sept. 19 meeting. Completed.
2. Publishers review materials and post questions for DTD and structure guidelines Michael Moodie to log results and put into database Ongoing No questions from publishers to date
3. Publishers select textbooks (chapters) and secure files Pearce McNulty and Publishers Oct -April 2001 AND ongoing 3/26 matrix of chapters and books under development
4. Publishers identify conversion houses Publishers Send names to Julie Copty (Dec 2000) 1/17 completed.
5. Publishers send materials out for bids/approve bids Publishers Nov.- April 2001 AND ongoing 3/26-more to be identified by publishers--- Based on matrix
6. Identify delivery date for converted files Publishers Nov. - April 2001 1/17--some completion
7. Continue working with converted files from conversion vendors and explore new vendors Pearce McNulty/publishers Ongoing Underway. No additional updates 3/15/01
8. Share converted files and print copies with file review subcommittee (James Pritchett's group)--

This is a an activity that will occur for each chapter/book reviewed. # 8-11 are a continuous process until the files are correct and all appropriate checks have been conducted.

Pearce Mc Nulty--

Publishers

Ongoing- 1/17 decided a matrix will be developed to identify the books/chapters needed
9. Provide feedback on correct use of markup. Send feedback to publishers and publishers will share with conversion houses.

 

James Pritchett will collect feedback One month after submission of files and print copies by publishers Print copies received 3/09/01
10. Publishers submit corrected files from conversion houses. To James Pritchett from publishers Ongoing  
11. Distribute corrected files to braille software developers and Digital Talking Book (DTB) producers.
James Pritchett send to Joe Sullivan, Robert Stepp and RFB&D Ongoing  
12. Braille software producers make available versions of software to subgroup Joe Sullivan and Robert Stepp April 2001  
13. DTB producers make available beta versions of recording software DAISY and RFB&D    
14. Braille producers begin testing beta software with sample files Diane Spence, Eileen Curran, Larry Schutchan, Betsy Burnham, Bob Walling, Sharon Von See, Debbie Davis,Jim Allan, and JoAnna Venneri ngoing
To begin when beta software is available
 
15. DTB producers test DTB production software with sample files RFB&D Ongoing
 
16. Braille producers provide feedback to software developers Diane Spence, Eileen Curran, Larry Schutchan, Betsy Burnham, Bob Walling, Sharon Von See, Debbie Davis, JoAnna Venneri, and Jim Allan three weeks after receipt of electronic file with accompanying print version from publishers  
17. Software developers identify source of problems---either their software or the DTBook 3 DTD Joe Sullivan and Robert Stepp Ongoing  
18. Software developers finalize software and documentation Joe Sullivan and Robert Stepp Summer 2001  
19. Begin to define national training components, including materials, exercises and sample books as it relates to Goal 2. Mary Ann Siller Advisory group to meet summer 2001  

Goal Two

March 26, 2001

Demonstrate The Increased Efficiency And Benefits To Braille Transcribers And Accessible Book Producers of Using Publisher Files From The Proposed Format (NISO XML format)
OBJECTIVERESPONSIBLE PEOPLETIME FRAMECOMPLETION DATE
1. Announce in a press release the joint task force commitment and work with NISO XML. AFB, RFB&D, AAP TBD after 1/17/01  
2. Submit paper to C-Sun. Jim Allan and George Kerscher October 2000 Proposal Completed

Speech will be given 3/22/01 by Jim Allan

3. Identify publication areas - newsletters journals, etc. AAP, AFB, RFB&D February-September 2001 3/26--no additional areas
4. Identify appropriate constituents to inform and/or meet with to describe this effort - states, publishers, textbook departments through Dept. of Education and Braille-type conferences, state conferences, transcribers, other. AAP, AFB, RFB&D Ongoing Jan 17, 2001 at the AAP School Division annual meeting
5. Develop a press release about the transcription software. George Kerscher, Joe Sullivan, Robert Stepp, AFB and AAP After field testing  
6. Develop a training system, including materials, exercises and sample books. JTTF Braille Producers subgroup AFB SF advisory group to meet summer 2001 in to discuss design of training 3/26/01 meeting is being planned
7. Begin nationwide training. AFB, CTEVH, BANA, NBA Based on completion of Braille software programs with DAISY/NISO XML  

American Foundation for the Blind Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum

[From the November 2000 JVIB "From the Field" column]

Mary Ann Siller and Marie Amerson

The Association of American Publishers (AAP) hosted a one-day meeting on June 15, 2000, in Washington, DC, to hear presentations from the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) Solutions Forum members on emerging technologies that could provide better access to textbooks and other instructional materials for students with visual impairments. The 41 participants, two thirds of the participants represented publishers, discussed important news in electronic publishing, such as the development of a cross-platform standard for electronic files, dual stream publishing for print books and e-books, synchronized audio and text, and how organizations serving people with disabilities can work together with publishers. As a result of this meeting, AAP, AFB Solutions Forum, and Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic have formed the Joint Technology Task Force. The goals of the new task force include analyzing the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) XML (Extensible Markup Language) file format to determine its suitability for converting textbook content into braille and other accessible formats and promoting and demonstrating to accessible book producers the efficiency and benefits of using publisher files in NISO XML format. For more information, contact:

Mary Ann Siller, Coordinator (This contact information is no longer valid 2/2015)
AFB Solutions Forum Project, AFB Southwest
260 Treadway Plaza, Exchange Park
Dallas, TX 75235
phone: 214-352-7222
E-mail:
Web site: www.afb.org/

The AFB Solutions Forum has been working closely with other blindness organizations and the AAP to develop a consensus on federal legislation that could hasten the delivery of textbooks to children who are blind or visually impaired. AFB Solutions Forum experts in technology, production, and policy making have met repeatedly to discuss potential legislation to ensure the availability of texts in a standardized electronic format, suitable for conversion into accessible media. The best policies to achieve these objectives are still under discussion.

For more information, contact:
Mark Richert, AFB Governmental Relations
820 First Street, NE, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20002;
phone: 202-408-8170
E-mail: .

Presented to the AFB Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum 

Louisville, Kentucky

October 11, 2000 

Download RTF version (22k)

Table of Contents 

I. Introduction

II. Survey Information

A. Development and Distribution of the Survey 

B. Definitions

C. Acronyms

III.  Major Impressions

A. Respondents


Introduction

Recognizing that timely provision of textbooks and instructional materials in the appropriate accessible media continues to be a major problem confronting students who are blind or visually impaired in America’s classrooms, the American Foundation for the Blind formed the Textbooks and production and distribution of textbooks and instructional materials and has as its goal the development of a coordinated action plan for assuring equality of access to instructional materials for students who are blind or visually impaired.

The AFB Solutions Forum is directly related to Goal #7 of the National Agenda for the Education of Children and Youths with Visual Impairments, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities (Corn, Hatlen, Huebner, Ryan, & Siller, 1995). This goal is one of eight goals that is being addressed at national, state and local levels. Goal 7 reads:

Access to developmental and educational services will include an assurance  that instructional materials are available to students in the appropriate media  and at the same time as their sighted peers.

The Electronic Files and Research and Development Work Group is one of five work groups of the AFB Textbook and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum that addresses different issues related to Goal 7. The other work groups include Legislative and Policy Making; Production; Training and Other Needs; and Communication and Collaboration.

The Electronic Files and Research and Development Work Group investigates the issue of how students with visual impairments currently access multimedia information and how this process can be facilitated.

The Electronic Files and Research and Development Work Group developed the Multimedia Presentations Survey described in this document. This survey has the following purposes:

  1. to learn about the current use of Textbooks using multimedia presentations (e.g., on CD-ROM) and the internet at schools,
  2. to gather examples of titles used in general and special education classes,
  3. to learn how teachers adapt or provide access to Textbooks that use multimedia presentations,
  4. to determine what attributes of multimedia presentations are adaptable and accessible and which are not,
  5. to identify the barriers and facilitators to accessing multimedia presentations by students with visual disabilities,
  6. to identify needs for training teachers in the use and adaptation of multimedia presentations for students with visual disabilities,
  7. to identify teachers’ current use of technical assistance resources in multimedia presentations, and
  8. to identify supports and initiatives at the national level that may increase students’ access to multimedia presentations.

The survey has several sections: major impressions; demographics; teacher knowledge; Access and Use of Multimedia Presentations and Access Technologies; barriers and solutions to the use of multimedia presentations and access technologies; useful and difficult features and adaptations of multimedia presentations; Current Practices Regarding Assessment and Access to Multimedia Presentations; and technical assistance for teachers of students with visual impairments.

Data are provided based on the researchers’ judgement about whether the number or percentage of respondents, or other information would be most useful for readers. When percentages are given, they are given for those respondents who answered the specific question. When the number of responses to a particular question is very small or when the number responding is of interest, the exact number is given (e.g., n=5).

This is an executive summary, emphasizing the findings and bringing together data from different questions in this and other surveys of the AFB Solutions Forum. It is anticipated that the AFB Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum committees will review this report in light of the committee’s work and the work of the full Solutions Forum. As time and resources are available, the researchers welcome requests for additional data or presentation of data in different formats.

Within the next few months, manuscripts will be developed for submission to professional journals. At that time, a more thorough discussion of the findings will be available.

Survey Information

Development and Distribution of the Survey

Although the AFB Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum stakeholders had heard of many alarming anecdotes about the lack of equal access to multimedia presentations, a national in-depth study of the nature of the issue had never been completed.  In October 1999 The AFB Solutions Forum decided that a national survey should be initiated.  The following timeline shows the processes followed:

October 1999  

The Electronic Files and Research and Development Work Group was the appropriate body to initiate the survey.  Dr. Jim Allan (workgroup facilitator) and Madeleine Rothberg, project director, National Center for Accessible Media, WGBH in Boston and a member of the committee, drafted the fist set of questions with Mary Ann Siller, AFB Solutions Forum Project Coordinator.  

The AFB Solutions Forum stakeholders met in Kentucky on October 21, 1999. This group consisted of textbook publishers, producers of specialized media, assistive technology specialists, policy makers, educators, representatives of Instructional Materials Resource Centers, parents, consumers, and representatives of agencies and organizations involved in the production and distribution of textbooks and instructional materials. The work group requested attendees give suggestions to improve the draft of the survey. The survey was also placed on the AFB Solutions Forum web page with the purpose of obtaining additional comments.  

December 1999

Drs Anne Corn and Robert Wall of Vanderbilt University received a contract to assist with further development of the survey, to conduct the statistical analyses, and to prepare the executive summary. Their work was to begin following the distribution of a pilot survey in March 2000.

February 2000

State coordinators of the National Agenda for the Education of Children and Youths with Visual Impairments, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities were contacted for assistance in survey distribution. They were how many teachers of students with visually impaired were teaching in their states and if they would be able to provide address labels. 15 state coordinators were not able to do so due to confidentiality and offered to send prepared packets to teachers in their states. Labels were purchased from the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER). In addition, lists of teachers held by AFB regional offices were placed in the total database.

March 2000

A pilot survey was distributed to 15 teachers who were geographically disbursed throughout the U.S. This survey was compiled using the committee’s draft along with input from stakeholders and those who responded via the on-line survey.

The completed surveys from the pilot were shared with Dr. Corn and Dr. Wall. They further developed the survey and returned it to the work group. The work group then reviewed the new version and provided input regarding such components as wording, additions and deletions, length, and format.

The work group determined that 2500 teachers of students with visual impairments should receive the final version of the national survey.  

April 2000  

State National Agenda coordinators provided an approximate number of teachers to whom the surveys could be sent. This number along with the labels received from CEC and AER, and the AFB regional offices totaled approximately 4,000.

In order to reduce the total number of teachers, an effort was made to first reduce duplications, i.e., names that were found on more than one list. Then, based on approximate numbers of teachers in respective states, a proportional number of surveys were assigned to each state.

During the week of April 10, 2000 the survey was mailed to 2,500 teachers of students with visual impairments.

May 2000

Although the due date was set for May 4, 2000, all surveys that were received by June 1, 2000 were considered for data analysis.

Definitions

Multimedia presentations
refers to any textual material presented via a mode other than hard copy print or Braille. Examples include video, computer, internet, CD-ROM, and laserdisk. Multimedia software and websites can include movies, animations, simulations, audio, and graphics. Some software may take the form of a Textbooks while other software may be supplemental material that you provide. This survey was not asking about the use of videotapes or television, only about use of computer software or the internet.
Access technology
any device that allows a student to comprehend or understand the same information presented to a sighted student (e.g., screen reader, screen magnification software)
Adaptation
when the presentation of material is altered (e.g., providing a verbal description of an animated presentation on a CD-ROM)

Acronyms

AER       Association  for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired

TVI       Teacher of students with visual impairments

Major Impressions

  1. Respondents felt more comfortable with general technology than with technology designed specifically for students with visual impairments. This finding raises the question of the level of expertise we expect of a TVI for a given piece of assistive technology. 
  2. The general pattern of technology use for blind and low vision students is similar, except that low vision students seem to be more facile with a wider range of technologies. Blind students prefer the PC platform. Low vision students, while they use the PC platform as often as blind students, are more likely to also use the Mac platform. This might indicate that the PC platform is more friendly to users who have no vision. Or that the PC platform is better able to run the specialized programs that a person without vision is apt to use. 
  3. As one would expect, there were very different patterns in the use of access technology between blind and low vision students. Blind students are more apt to use Braille based systems while low vision students are more apt to use optical devices or a system that enhances the visual presentation of material. Nonetheless, it is interesting to note that a moderate percentage  of each group (blind, low vision) would use technology primarily aimed at the other group. This might reflect students with low vision who read in both print and Braille and, based on their acuity, were classed by their teachers as being "blind" or "low vision" for the purposes of this survey. 
  4. By and large, general technologies are being used by blind and low vision students similarly in public schools, schools for the blind, and by itinerant teachers. The exceptions are that PC computers are used more often in special schools. While teachers in special schools might use PC computers more often for both groups of students, they seem to be using them to access a wider variety of informational venues for blind students as opposed to low vision  students.
  5. Access technology use by blind students was not different across the job categories of their teachers, except that blind students were more likely to use Braille output devices for computers if they were in a special school. However, low vision students used several pieces of access technology less in all situations than probability would expect. For the Braille based technologies, this is understandable. However, it is surprising for screen readers and speech synthesizers. These are two technologies one would expect low vision students to be using in all educational placements. It also appears that of the three educational situations, a public school classroom is the placement in which a low vision student is least likely to be using these particular access technologies. 
  6. When blind students accessed multimedia presentations, they used verbal description as often as any specific piece of technology. Low vision students were slightly less likely to rely on verbal description but not by much. There was a generally wide range of technologies used by both groups. 
  7. The pattern of technology use by blind and low vision students is similar for districts that have and have not adopted texts with multimedia formats. However, the percent of technology use is higher for most technologies in those districts that have adopted at least one text with a multimedia format. This might reflect school divisions with a more aggressive technology development policy, teachers with a greater investment in the use of technology with their students, or states with more funds allocated for technology dissemination and training. It is impossible to tell what factors underlie these results.
  8. Teachers saw their own lack of knowledge and training as one of the largest barriers to students using technology more effectively. 
  9. Teachers note that slightly less than 1/3 of their students have, to date, received an assistive technology assessment.
  10. When presented with scenarios that might require the use of multimedia in regular education classes, teachers tended to rely on one of two responses: enlarging software (e.g., Zoomtext) or speech software (e.g., JAWS). When faced with a scenario that did not have an obvious access solution, a majority of teachers relied on verbal description.

Demographics Respondents

A total of 410 viable surveys were returned. This indicates a useful return rate of 15.89%. 65 non-usable surveys were returned. Responses were received from 44 states and 4 Canadian provinces. No responses were received from Alaska, Delaware, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nevada, or Washington, DC.

377/405 of the respondents (93.1%) indicated they were certified TVIs. 233/407 (57.2%) were members of AER.

Grouping job roles into itinerant, public schools (not itinerant), and special schools; 325 respondents worked as itinerant instructors (79.67%), 62 worked in public schools (not as itinerant teachers) (15.12%), and 20 worked in special schools (4.88%). This grouping of identified job categories will be used in several later analyses.

An average of 6.24 (SD = 17.42) teachers of students with visual impairments were reportedly employed in a district, co-op, etc. However, 29.8% reported one or fewer position per unit, 50.1% reported 2.75 or fewer positions and 75.7% reported 7 or fewer positions. This shows that for 1/4 of the respondents, they are functioning alone in their area.

The American Foundation for the Blind 
Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum

From the Results of the National Survey
Conducted by the American Foundation for the Blind
Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum's
Electronic Files and Research and Development Work Group

Dr. Robert Wall, Vanderbilt University, and Mary Ann Siller, AFB

January 2002

More and more schools are adopting textbooks that include multimedia presentations. However, these textbooks are not accessible to students who are blind or visually impaired. To determine the current use of technology in accessing multimedia formats, in the spring of 2000 the AFB Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum conducted a national survey of teachers who instruct students with visual impairments. We were interested in determining the access challenges these teachers face and solutions they are using in the classroom.

The AFB Solutions Forum is a collaborative national effort on the part of textbook publishers; access technology specialists; producers of braille, large print, and audio; parents; educators; and consumers. The AFB Solutions Forum is a project of AFB's National Education Programs.

A wide array of technology currently is used in America's public schools. For students with a perceptual impairment, the range of technology is often increased by the need for alternate information media and the ability to present and access these alternate media. For students with visual impairments, the provision and access of information through braille, large print, and speech can involve many different pieces of technology.

A total of 410 teachers from 44 states and four provinces responded to the survey, which produced the following significant findings.

Demographic features of respondents

  • 93.1% were teacher of students with visual impairments (TVIs)
  • 57.2% were AER members
  • 79.7% were itinerant teachers
  • 15.1% worked in Local Education Authorities (LEAs)
  • 4.9% worked in special schools for the blind
  • 30% of TVIs were the only TVI in their LEA

Most of the teachers surveyed felt more comfortable using general technology than  technology designed specifically for students with visual impairments. From 70 to 90 percent of the respondents felt they had a working knowledge of word processors, closed circuit television, e-mail, and the Internet. Only 50 to 60 percent felt they had a working knowledge of optical devices, braille transcription software, braille note takers, or screen readers.

This response raises questions concerning how much expertise can be expected of a teacher with a given piece of assistive technology and where training in its use is available. More training in general and specialized technology use is needed for both teachers and students.

Patterns of general technology use for blind and low vision students are similar, but low vision students seem to be more facile with a wider range of technologies. More than 80 percent of both groups use some form of word processing and a PC platform on a daily basis. Over 50 percent of both groups access the Internet regularly. About 25 percent of each group uses e-mail regularly. Low vision students use the PC platform as often as blind students, but are more likely to also use the Mac platform. Only 27 percent of blind students use a Mac platform regularly, compared with 48 percent of low vision students. Slightly more low vision students use CD-ROMs regularly (51% compared to 39% for blind students).

Blind and low vision students have very different patterns in the use of access technology. Blind students are more likely to use braille-based systems (over 60 percent use a portable braille note taker, screen reader, or speech synthesizer), while low vision students are more likely to use optical devices or a system that enhances the visual presentation of material (over 60 percent use optical devices, closed circuit television, or screen magnification software). However, a moderate percentage of each group (up to 16 percent for blind students and 11 percent for low vision students) uses technology primarily aimed at the other group. This might reflect students with low vision who read in both print and braille and are classified as being "blind" or "low vision" based on their level of acuity.

General technologies are being used similarly by blind and low vision students whether they are in public schools, in special schools for the blind, or under supervision of itinerant teachers. However, PC computers are used more often in special schools. While teachers in special schools might use PC computers with both groups of students, they tend to use them to access a wider variety of informational venues for blind students than for low vision students.

Blind students are more likely to use braille output devices for computers if they are in a special school. However, low vision students use several pieces of access technology less in all situations than would be expected. This is understandable for braille-based technologies but surprising for screen readers and speech synthesizers, which low vision students would be expected to use. A low vision student is least likely to be using these particular access technologies in the public school classroom.

While a wide range of technologies is used by blind and low vision students to access multimedia presentations, blind students also use verbal description as often as any specific piece of technology. Low vision students are slightly less likely to rely on verbal description. The pattern of technology use by blind and low vision students is similar for various school districts, regardless of whether or not they have adopted texts with multimedia formats. However, the use of most technologies is higher in those districts that have adopted at least one text with a multimedia format. This might reflect school divisions with a more aggressive technology development policy, teachers who use technology more with their students, or states with more funds allocated for technology dissemination and training.

Of the teachers surveyed, 67 percent consider their own lack of knowledge and training one of the greatest obstacles to effective student use of technology. Other obstacles cited include inaccessible content (40 percent) and insufficient time with students (40 percent). Solutions proposed by teachers include more technical training for teachers (39 percent), more funding for software, equipment, and upgrades (37 percent), and reducing the numbers of students in a teacher's caseload (12 percent). To get students in regular education classes more involved, teachers of students with visual impairments suggested more one-on-one instruction, making applicable software such as Zoomtext and JAWS readily available, pre-teaching required computer skills, and engaging the cooperation and enthusiasm of the regular education teacher.

Many ideas were expressed on how to involve students more and increase their effective use of technology. An appropriate starting point would be to determine the specific technological needs and abilities of each student. The total group of teachers surveyed noted that slightly less than one-third of their students to date have received an assistive technology assessment. For 28 percent of the respondents, none of their students had ever had an assistive technology assessment.

The teachers were presented with scenarios that might require the use of multimedia in regular education classes and asked to indicate what modifications would be needed. They tended to rely on one of two technologies, enlarging software (e.g., Zoomtext) or speech software (e.g., JAWS). When faced with a scenario that did not have an obvious access solution, a majority of teachers relied on verbal description. Most suggestions to increase the effective use of technology by students with visual impairments involved increased training for teachers and/or students.

Percentages of teachers making various recommendations

  • 23.8%             local and state in-service or summer training for staff and students
  • 12.9%             hands-on computer training for TVIs
  •   8.8%             training targeted to professionals with statewide responsibilities for VI students
  •   6.7%             more time allocated for training
  •   2.9%             certification standards for TVIs in technology
  • 13.3%             more technology specialists
  • 12.1%             increased funding for computers and equipment
  •   8.4%             increased accessibility of software and websites
  •   7.1%             increase in places to access tech support, e.g., 800 numbers
  •   6.7%             increased number of tech labs
  •   6.7%             curriculum for teaching technology skills

While the availability of training in existing and emerging technologies is paramount at the state and local levels, making informational venues more accessible for students with visual impairments is also important. WGBH's National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) is one such program that is developing guidelines for making software and multimedia presentations more accessible. However, even with these guidelines, funding sources must be created to channel technology to students so they can readily access the information.

Selected Readings

Rothberg,. M. Wlodkowski, T. (2000). Making Educational Software Accessible:  Design Guidelines Including Math and Science Solutions.  Boston: WGBH/NCAM
Available online at http://ncam.wgbh.org/

Selected Resources

American Foundation for the Blind
National Education Programs
260 Treadway Plaza
Dallas, Texas 75235
214-352-7222
FAX-214-352-3214

AFB Textbooks and Instructional Materials Solutions Forum
Electronic Files and Research and Development Work Group

Complete Analysis of the AFB Solutions Forum Survey of Multimedia Presentations for Students with Visual Impairments 

 

American Foundation for the Blind
National Literacy Center
100 Peachtree Street, Suite 620
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
404-525-2303
FAX:  404-659-6957

The technology component of the AFB National Literacy Center seeks to encourage the use of technology to develop, enhance and maintain literacy skills for individuals who are blind or visually impaired.

Center for Applied Special Technology, Inc. (CAST)
39 Cross Street, Suite 201
Peabody, MA 01960
978 531-8555 Telephone
978 538-3110 TTY
FAX:  978 531-0192
E-mail:

Closing the Gap
P.O. Box 668
Henderson, MN 56044
507-248-3294

 

Trace Research and Development Center
5901 Research Park Blvd.
Madison, WI 53719
608-263-3827 and 608-263-5408
FAX:  608-263-8848

WGBH-National Center on Accessible Media (NCAM)
125 Western Avenue
Boston, MA 02134
617-300-3400
E-mail:  

 

Upshaw Institute for the Blind
16625 Grand River Avenue
Detroit, MI 48227
313-272-3900

In keeping with AFB's mission to achieve equality of access to information for people who are blind or visually impaired, this document is available, upon request, in one or more of the following formats: electronic file.

By John Rose

The following step-by-step guide offers an introduction to the key components of Google Drive for JAWS users.

This guide presumes that the JAWS keyboard is set for laptop mode, so the JAWS command key is Caps Lock. If the JAWS keyboard is set for desktop mode, the JAWS command key is Insert.

Getting Started:

  • Open Mozilla Firefox web browser

  • Go to the address bar: Alt + D or Ctrl + L

  • If a message box appears, type Alt + M to close message box.

  • Type "drive.google.com" then press Enter

  • Toggle JAWS virtual cursor off: Press Caps Lock + Z until you hear "Use virtual PC cursor off"

Navigation Panel:

  • Move computer focus to the navigation panel: Press the "g" key, then the "n" key

  • Navigate the panel: Use the up and down arrows to select from My Drive, Shared With Me, Recent, Starred, or Trash

  • Press enter on the selection (My Drive, Incoming, etc.)

File List:

  • Go to the list of files: Press the "g" key, then the "L" key

  • The "v" key toggles between grid and list views.

  • Use up or down arrows to navigate files

Actions Menu:

  • Press the "a" key to opens the actions menu. The actions menu is an easy way to access almost all the tasks that need to be done with a file or folder. The menu includes: preview, open with (submenu), share (dialog box), get link (dialog box), move to (dialog box), add star, rename (dialog box), manage versions (dialog box), make a copy, download, and remove.

 

The next step that I would recommend is to perform some of the actions and navigate some of the dialog boxes.

Adding a star:

  • Select a file. Press "a" to open the Actions menu.

  • Navigate using down arrow to "Add star." Press Enter.

  • Press "g", then "n" to go to the navigation pane.

  • Navigate using down arrow to "Starred". Press Enter.

  • Press "g", then "L" to go to the list of files.

  • Press down arrow to ensure that the file you starred is in the list.

Moving a file to a new folder:

  • Select a file. Press "a" to open the Actions menu.

  • Navigate using down arrow to "Move to..." Press Enter.

  • A dialog box opens. Navigate the dialog box using Tab (forward) and Shift+Tab (backward). Navigate forward using Tab to "Create Folder"

  • Press Spacebar to activate the button

  • Type the name of the folder (e.g. "Homework"). Press Enter.

  • The focus should be on the "Move" button, but you can use Tab then Shift+Tab to make sure. When the focus is on the "Move" button, press Spacebar.

  • Note: If the file is in a shared folder, it will be removed from the shared folder and put in the newly created folder. The people with whom the document is shared will no longer be able to see the document.

Searching for a file or folder:

  • Press the forward slash key (/) to go to the Search edit box.

  • Type the search term and press Enter.

  • The computer focus will be on the list of files and folders that match your search terms. Use the arrow keys to browse through the list.

  • You can use the Actions key (a) or press Enter to open the file or folder.

Sorting files and folder:

  • This task gives you the ability to change how files are sorted, giving you different ways to navigate them.

  • Press the Sort key (r).

  • Use the down or up arrow keys to move through the menu. To determine how files are sorted, listen for “checked” or “not checked” as you navigate through the following options:

    • Last modified

    • Last edited by me

    • Last opened by me

    • Name

  • Press “Enter” to select an option from the list. Your focus returns to the files and folders list for navigation.

Sharing a file or folder:

  • Locate and ensure computer focus is on the selected file or folder.

  • Press “a” to open the Actions menu.

  • Press the down arrow until you hear “Share…”.

  • Press Enter to open the “Share with others” dialog box.

  • The computer focus should be in the text edit box where you type the email address of the person to whom you want to send the file. It may benefit new users to press Tab to navigate the dialog box until JAWS reads “Enter names or email addresses… edit type in text”.

  • Type in the email address of the person with whom you wish to share the file. Press Tab.

  • Type the next email address, if you wish to share the file or folder with more than one person. Press Tab.

  • Indicate the access level for the people with whom you are sharing the file or folder.  Press Spacebar, then use the Up or Down Arrow keys to select either “Can edit,” “Can comment,” or “Can view.” Press Enter when you have selected one of the three choices. Then, press Tab.

  • You are given the option of adding a note to the person or people with whom you are sharing the file. Type a note, if you want, and then press Tab.

  • You are given the option of notifying people via email. To clear or mark the checkbox, press Spacebar. Then, press Tab.

  • Your computer focus should be on the “Send” button. To send the share invitation, press Spacebar.

  • If you would like to cancel the share invitation, press Tab again to the “Cancel” button and press Spacebar.

  • There is an option at the end of the dialog box for Advanced Sharing, which will be covered below.

Uploading a new file:

  • Access My Drive using the Navigation Pane: press “g”, then “n”

  • Upload a new file:

    • Press “c” to access the “New” button

    • Down Arrow to “File upload,” press Enter

    • The “File Upload” dialog box opens. This is a Windows Explorer dialog box that you can navigate to locate the file you would like to upload. The computer focus begins in the “File Name” text edit box . Use Tab and Shift+Tab to navigate the dialog box. Use the arrow keys to navigate within panes.

    • Once you have located the file that you want to upload and it is highlighted. Tab to the “Open” button. Press Spacebar. You can also just press Enter when the file is highlighted.

    • If the upload fails due to a server rejection, it likely means that you have been signed out of your Google account.

Creating new folders:

  • Access My Drive using the Navigation Pane: press “g”, then “n”

  • Create a new folder: Press Shift + f

  • The New Folder dialog box opens. Focus should be on the text edit box, and the text “Untitled folder” is highlighted.

  • Type the name of your new folder.

  • Tab to the “Create” button. Press Spacebar.

  • Another method for creating a new folder is accessing the “New” button:

    • Press “c” to access the “New” button

    • Down Arrow to “Folder,” press Enter

    • “Name Folder” dialog box opens. Type name of new folder.

    • Tab to “Create” button. Press Spacebar.

    • New folder is created.

Deleting files and folders:

  • Locate the file or folder you wish to delete

  • Press "a" to open the Actions menu.

  • Navigate using down arrow to "Remove.” Press Enter.

Restoring deleted files and folders:

  • Go to the Navigation Pane: Press “g”, then “n”

  • Navigate to Trash using down arrow. Press enter.

  • Focus should move to the file list in the Trash folder. If not, press “g”, then “L”

  • Navigate to the file or folder you would like to restore.

  • Press "a" to open the Actions menu.

  • Navigate to “Restore” using down arrow, then press enter.

Advanced Sharing:

  • There are a variety of options that you can select for sharing documents. Prior to reviewing this section, locate a file or folder with which you want to practice.

  • Press “a” to open the Actions menu

  • Down arrow to Share menu item. Press enter.

  • Tab to the “Advanced” link. Press enter. The “Sharing settings” dialog box should open.

    • The focus will be in a text edit box with the link to the file highlighted, so the screenreader will begin reading the entire link. If you don’t want to listen to this, press Control to stop the screenreader from reading.

    • The link that is highlighted can be copied for sharing in a document or an email. However, the file will only be accessible based on the level of security you give it.

  • Set level of access (who has access to your file or folder)

    • Tab once to “Who has access”

    • Press enter to access the Link sharing dialog box

    • Press tab to access the selected radio button. Most files begin with link sharing off, so VoiceOver will say “Shared with specific people, selected, radio”

    • Press up or down arrows to select a different level of sharing. The levels are as follows:

      • On - Public on the web (anyone on the Internet can find and access the file or folder with no sign-in required)

      • On - Anyone with the link (anyone who has the link can access the file with no sign-in required)

      • On - Institution (if you are a member of an institution, like a school, this selection will read the name of the institution; with this selection, anyone at your institution can find and access the file)

      • On - Institution with link (if you are a member of an institution, with this selection, anyone at your institution who has the link can access the file)

      • Off - Specific people (you select people with whom to share the file; this is the default selection)

    • Tab to the “Save” or “Cancel” button. Press spacebar to select.

  • Share with specific people (similar to the Sharing a File or Folder section above)

    • Tab to “Enter names or email addresses”

    • Type the email address of the person with whom you would like to share the file or folder. Press enter.

    • Type the next email address, if you wish to share the file or folder with more than one person. Press Tab.

    • Indicate the access level for the people with whom you are sharing the file or folder.  Press Spacebar, then use the Up or Down Arrow keys to select either “Can edit,” “Can comment,” or “Can view.” Press Enter when you have selected one of the three choices.

    • Tab to the “Notify people via email” checkbox. Leave the box checked if you want the people with whom you are sharing a file to get an email about it.

    • Tab to the “Add message” link. Press enter to include an optional message in the email.

    • Tab to the “Send a copy to myself” checkbox. Select this checkbox if you would like to have a copy of the message sent to your email.

    • Tab to the “Send” button. Press spacebar to send.

    • Other options:

      • Tab to “Cancel” button. Press cancel to get out of the dialog box and return to My Drive without sharing. You can also press Escape.

      • Tab to the “Prevent editors from changing access and adding new people” checkbox. Checking this box prevents people to whom you have given edit access from changing other people’s access or sharing the document for new people to edit.

  • Determining with whom a file is shared:

    • Locate the file in My Drive, and highlight it in the file list.

    • Press the "A" key to access the Actions menu.

    • Down arrow to "Share..."

    • Press Enter.

    • Tab to the "Advanced" link. Press Enter.

    • Tab through the dialog box. The computer focus will cycle through the list of people with whom the file is shared, and you can edit the level of access each individual has (e.g. Can edit, Can view, Can comment).

    • After the list of collaborators, computer focus will open a section of the dialog box that allows you to invite more people to share the document and set their level of access. You can then either Send them a notification of the access or Cancel this action, if you do not wish to invite more people. If you input new collaborators, press the Send button. If you do not want to input new collaborators, press the Cancel button.

    • Computer focus should then move to the "Done" button. If it does not, Tab to the "Done" button. Press Spacebar.

  • Sharing a link:

    • Locate the file in My Drive, and highlight it in the file list.

    • Press the "A" key to access the Actions menu.

    • Down arrow to "Share..."

    • Press Enter.

    • Tab to "Get shareable link". Press Enter.

    • This turns link sharing on, which also has a variety of levels of access. Generally, when link sharing is turned on, it means that anyone with the link in your network (e.g. tsbvi.edu,misd.net) can access the file.

    • T​he computer focus will be in a text edit box, and the link will be highlighted.

    • Press Ctrl+C to copy the link.

    • Now you can paste the link in an email or in a document to share with anyone in your network.

    • Tab to the "Done" button or press Escape.

Compiled by John Rose, M.A., M.Ed.

Short-Term Programs, TSBVI

@TSBVI_JohnRose

512.206.9131

The following step-by-step guide offers a basic introduction to a few key components of Google Drive for VoiceOver users.

Getting Started:

  • Open the Google Chrome web browser
  • Toggle QuickNav off: Press the left and right arrow keys at the same time
  • Access the address bar (Command ⌘ + L)
  • Type "drive.google.com" then press Enter

Navigation Panel:

  • Move computer focus to the navigation panel: Press the "g" key, then the "n" key
  • Navigate the panel: Use the up and down arrows to select from My Drive, Shared With Me, Recent, Starred, or Trash
  • Press enter on the selection (My Drive, Incoming, etc.)
  • If your “My Drive” has folders, you can press right arrow to locate the folder you are looking for prior to pressing enter. This will take you directly to the desired folder location.

File List:

  • Go to the list of files: Press the "g" key, then the "L" key
  • The "v" key toggles between grid and list views. The list view is easiest to navigate using up and down arrow keys.
  • Use up or down arrows to navigate files.

Actions Menu:

  • Press the "a" key to opens the actions menu. The actions menu is an easy way to access almost all the tasks that need to be done with a file or folder. The menu includes: preview, open with (submenu), share (dialog box), get link (dialog box), move to (dialog box), add star, rename (dialog box), amake a copy, download, and remove.

The next step that I would recommend is to perform some of the actions and navigate some of the dialog boxes.

Adding a star:

  • Select a file. Press "a" to open the Actions menu.
  • Navigate using down arrow to "Add star." Press Enter.
  • Press "g", then "n" to go to the navigation pane.
  • Navigate using down arrow to "Starred". Press Enter.
  • Press "g", then "L" to go to the list of files.
  • Press down arrow to ensure that the file you starred is in the list.

Moving a file to a new folder:

  • Select a file. Press "a" to open the Actions menu.
  • Navigate using down arrow to "Move to..." Press Enter.
  • A dialog box opens. Navigate the dialog box using Tab (forward) and Shift+Tab (backward). Navigate forward using Tab to "Create Folder"
  • Press Spacebar to activate the button
  • Type the name of the folder (e.g. "Homework"). Press Enter.
  • The focus should be on the "Move" button, but you can use Tab then Shift+Tab to make sure. When the focus is on the "Move" button, press Spacebar.
  • Note: If the file is in a shared folder, it will be removed from the shared folder and put in the newly created folder. The people with whom the document is shared will no longer be able to see the document.
  • Navigate to My Drive:
    • Press "g", then "n" to go to the navigation pane.
    • Press enter on My Drive.
    • Press “g”, then “L” to access the file list.
    • Use the down or up arrows to locate the new folder.
    • Press enter to open the new folder. Ensure the document has been moved to that folder.

Searching for a file or folder:

  • Press the forward slash key (/) to go to the Search edit box.
  • Type the search term and press Enter.
  • The computer focus will be on the list of files and folders that match your search terms. Use the arrow keys to browse through the list.
  • You can use the Actions key (a) or press Enter to open the file or folder.

Sorting files and folder:

  • This task gives you the ability to change how files are sorted, giving you different ways to navigate them.
  • Press the Sort key (r).
  • Use the down or up arrow keys to move through the menu. To determine how files are sorted, listen for “checked” or “not checked” as you navigate through the following options:
    • Last modified
    • Last edited by me
    • Last opened by me
    • Name
  • Press “Enter” to select an option from the list. Your focus returns to the files and folders list for navigation.

Sharing a file or folder:

  • Locate and ensure computer focus is on the selected file or folder.
  • Press “a” to open the Actions menu.
  • Press the down arrow until you hear “Share…”.
  • Press Enter to open the “Share with others” dialog box.
  • The computer focus should be in the text edit box where you type the email address of the person to whom you want to send the file. It may benefit new users to press Tab to navigate the dialog box until VoiceOver reads “Enter names or email addresses… selected edit text”.
  • Type in the email address of the person with whom you wish to share the file. Press Tab.
  • Type the next email address, if you wish to share the file or folder with more than one person. Press Tab.
  • Indicate the access level for the people with whom you are sharing the file or folder.  Press Spacebar, then use the Up or Down Arrow keys to select either “Can edit,” “Can comment,” or “Can view.” Press Enter when you have selected one of the three choices. Then, press Tab.
  • You are given the option of adding a note to the person or people with whom you are sharing the file. Type a note, if you want, and then press Tab.
  • You are given the option of notifying people via email. To clear or mark the checkbox, press Spacebar. Then, press Tab. If you uncheck the box, any note you typed will not be sent.
  • Your computer focus should be on the “Send” button. To send the share invitation, press Spacebar.
  • If you would like to cancel the share invitation, press Tab again to the “Cancel” button and press Spacebar.
  • There is an option at the end of the dialog box for Advanced Sharing, which will be covered below.

Creating new folders:

  • Access My Drive using the Navigation Pane: press “g”, then “n”
  • Create a new folder: Press Shift + f
  • The New Folder dialog box opens. Focus should be on the text edit box, and the text “Untitled folder” is highlighted.
  • Type the name of your new folder.
  • Tab to the “Create” button. Press Spacebar.
  • I have found that pressing “c” to access the “New” button is not accessible with VoiceOver (or JAWS). Google still includes that in its instructions for creating a new folder this way:
    • Down Arrow to “Folder,” press Enter (screenreader does not read)
    • “Name Folder” dialog box opens. Type name of new folder.
    • Tab to “Create” button. Press Spacebar.
    • New folder is created.

Deleting files and folders:

  • Locate the file or folder you wish to delete
  • Press "a" to open the Actions menu.
  • Navigate using down arrow to "Remove.” Press Enter.

Restoring deleted files and folders:

  • Go to the Navigation Pane: Press “g”, then “n”
  • Navigate to Trash using down arrow. Press enter.
  • Focus should move to the file list in the Trash folder. If not, press “g”, then “L”
  • Navigate to the file or folder you would like to restore.
  • Press "a" to open the Actions menu.
  • Navigate to “Restore” using down arrow, then press enter.

Advanced Sharing:

  • There are a variety of options that you can select for sharing documents. Prior to reviewing this section, locate a file or folder with which you want to practice.
  • Press “a” to open the Actions menu
  • Down arrow to Share menu item. Press enter.
  • Tab to the “Advanced” link. Press enter. The “Sharing settings” dialog box should open.
    • The focus will be in a text edit box with the link to the file highlighted, so the screenreader will begin reading the entire link. If you don’t want to listen to this, press Control to stop the screenreader from reading.
    • The link that is highlighted can be copied for sharing in a document or an email. However, the file will only be accessible based on the level of security you give it.
  • Set level of access (who has access to your file or folder)
    • Tab once to “Who has access”
    • Press enter to access the Link sharing dialog box
    • Press tab to access the selected radio button. Most files begin with link sharing off, so VoiceOver will say “Shared with specific people, selected, radio”
    • Press up or down arrows to select a different level of sharing. The levels are as follows:
      • On - Public on the web (anyone on the Internet can find and access the file or folder with no sign-in required)
      • On - Anyone with the link (anyone who has the link can access the file with no sign-in required)
      • On - Institution (if you are a member of an institution, like a school, this selection will read the name of the institution; with this selection, anyone at your institution can find and access the file)
      • On - Institution with link (if you are a member of an institution, with this selection, anyone at your institution who has the link can access the file)
      • Off - Specific people (you select people with whom to share the file; this is the default selection)
    • Tab to the “Save” or “Cancel” button. Press spacebar to select.
  • Share with specific people (similar to the Sharing a File or Folder section above)
    • Tab to “Enter names or email addresses”
    • Type the email address of the person with whom you would like to share the file or folder. Press enter.
    • Type the next email address, if you wish to share the file or folder with more than one person. Press Tab.
    • Indicate the access level for the people with whom you are sharing the file or folder.  Press Spacebar, then use the Up or Down Arrow keys to select either “Can edit,” “Can comment,” or “Can view.” Press Enter when you have selected one of the three choices.
    • Tab to the “Notify people via email” checkbox. Leave the box checked if you want the people with whom you are sharing a file to get an email about it.
    • Tab to the “Add message” link. Press enter to include an optional message in the email.
    • Tab to the “Send a copy to myself” checkbox. Select this checkbox if you would like to have a copy of the message sent to your email.
    • Tab to the “Send” button. Press spacebar to send.
    • Other options:
      • Tab to “Cancel” button. Press cancel to get out of the dialog box and return to My Drive without sharing. You can also press Escape.
      • Tab to the “Prevent editors from changing access and adding new people” checkbox. Checking this box prevents people to whom you have given edit access from changing other people’s access or sharing the document for new people to edit.

Compiled by John Rose, M.A., M.Ed.

Short-Term Programs, TSBVI

@TSBVI_JohnRose

512.206.9131