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Created by Scott Baltisberger, TVI / Outreach Education Consultant and Chrissy Cowan, TVI and Outreach Mentor Coordinator

These are a series of lesson plans for teaching self-determination skills to students with visual impairments. You may also download a printable file in PDF or Word format.

Created by Scott Baltisberger, TVI / Outreach Education Consultant and Chrissy Cowan, TVI and Outreach Mentor Coordinator

These are a series of lesson plans for teaching self-determination skills to students with visual impairments. You may also download a printable file in PDF or Word format.

Unit 1 and Unit 2 Overview

Unit 1:  The Eye and Sight

Topics 

  • What is an Eye?  (Lesson 1)
  • How Does an Eye Work?  (Lesson 2)
  • Everyone Has Different Eyes – Animals  (Lesson 3)
  • Everyone Has Different Eyes – People  (Lesson 4)
  • How is My Eye Special?  (Lesson 5)

Unit 2:  Student Toolbox

Topics

  • How Does My Vision Affect My Access to Information?
    • K-2nd Grade  (Lesson 6)
    • 3rd-12th Grade  (Lesson 7)
    • My Personal Goals (Lesson 8 -all grades)
  • Strategies for Increasing Access
    • Strategies for Braille Readers (Lesson 9)
    • Strategies for Print Readers (Lesson 10)
    • Strategies for Using Audible Materials (Lesson 11)
  • Strategies for Communicating with Others about Access
    • Personal Preferences for Access to Visual Media (Lesson 12)
    • Creating a Product to Communicate Visual Strategies/Tools with Teachers (Lesson 13)

Topic: What is an eye?

Unit 1 Lesson 1:  The Eye and Sight

Topic:  What is an eye?

Unit Goal: Student will describe how the visual system functions and also the nature of his/her individual visual system (cause of specific visual impairment).

Lesson objective(s): Student will identify all major structures of the eye.

Rationale:  When a student has specific knowledge about the structure of the eye, he or she can discuss the nature of vision in general, and his or her own specific visual condition with more confidence and ownership.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory Ask student to think about how they get information from the environment.Guide toward naming body parts that take in sensory information - ears, tongue, fingers, nose, eyes. The five senses: hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, seeing
Introduction "Today we will talk about one of those body parts: The Eye.""Can you name any of the parts of the eye?"Allow student to name any parts he/she can."   
Stating the Goal "After our lesson, you will be able to show me all the parts of the eye, both inside and outside, and also tell what each part is called."  
Instruction Using an eye poster or an eye model, point out the different structures of the eye and provide their names. Make sure student repeats the names, pronouncing them correctly.First present exterior structures. Next present interior structures, moving from surface to inside. * Note: Depending on age and abilities of the student, it may be helpful to omit some structures from the discussion in order to reduce the amount of information and complexity of the task. Eye brow, eye lash, eye lid, eye ball, sclera, cornea, iris, pupil, lens, anterior chamber, posterior chamber, retina, macula, optic nerve
Variation 1 Draw a picture of the eye together, labeling each part as they are drawn.Provide a black line drawing of the eye, color each part as you discuss.Provide a raised line, tactile diagram of the eye.  

 Resources and materials:

Eye poster

Eye model:

Topic: How does an eye work?

Unit 1 Lesson 2:  The Eye and Sight

Topic:  How does an eye work?

Unit Goal: Student will describe how the visual system functions and also the nature of his/her individual visual system (cause of specific visual impairment).

Lesson objective(s): Student will describe the function of all major structures of the eye and the sequence of events that occur to result in seeing.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

"Previously we talked about the five different senses, how we get information about our environment and the parts of the body that make use of that sense. We talked about the eye in more detail and learned that it has many different parts, both inside and outside."

The five senses:

hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, seeing

Introduction

"Each of the parts of the eye has a special job. Do you know what are the special jobs of any of the parts?All these parts working together create the sense that we call 'seeing'."

 

Stating the Goal "When we finish our lesson today, you we be able to tell me what each part does and how."

 

Instruction 1

"People use different words to talk about using the eye to get information. Three words that you will hear are: seeing, sight and vision. They all mean the same thing."

Seeing, Sight, Vision

Instruction 2

"The first thing that is needed in order for seeing to happen is a light source. It can be the sun, the moon, a light bulb or a candle.The light source sends out light rays and the rays bounce off something."

Light source, Light rays

Instruction 3

Use model, picture, drawing or tactile diagram of the eye to demonstrate pathway of light:

Light rays bounce off object and go toward the eye

Through cornea - like window that lets light in but protects inside of the eye

Iris and pupil - controls amount of light that goes inside the eye. Too much light can hurt the eye

Lens - Focuses light

Interior chamber - like a big room, lets light go through

Retina - receives light; is covered with cells (rods and cones) that transfer the light to electrical impulses and sends them to the optic nerve

Optic nerve - carries information to the brain

Visual Cortex - part of the brain that processes electronic information into information that shows us what we see

(It may be fun to practice this several times with the student picking different objects to "see". You could draw a picture of the object together or make up a story about why you need are looking at that particular object.)

Cornea, Iris, Pupil, Lens, Interior chamber, Retina (rods and cones), Optic nerve, Visual cortex

Check for Understanding

"Show me how we would see ________."

Using model, picture, drawing or tactile diagram, have student demonstrate the pathway that an image takes along the visual pathway, from the observed object to the visual cortex.

 

Closure

"Now we've learned about each part of the eye and the special job each of those parts have to help us see things. Next time we will talk about different kinds of eyes and how each one is special and unique from one another."

 

Rationale: An understanding of the mechanics of visual perception will allow the student to better understand the nature of his or her own visual condition.

Note: Amount of detail presented to the student may vary according to age and/or level of comprehension. For some students, a more simplified version of the visual pathway may be more appropriate. Other students may benefit and enjoy learning about additional structures.

Resources and materials:

Eye poster:

Eye model:

Websites to explore:

Topic: Everyone Has Different Eyes - Animals

Unit 1 Lesson 3: The Eye and Sight

Topic:  Everyone Has Different Eyes - Animals

Unit Goal: Student will describe how the visual system functions and also the nature of his/her individual visual system (cause of specific visual impairment).

Lesson objective(s): Student will identify how the eyes of at least four different animals function, how they are similar to one another and how they are different.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

"Today we're going to learn more about eyes. Can you show me the parts of the eye and tell me what they do?"

(Student uses materials to name parts and describe visual pathway)

 

Introduction

"What are some things that have eyes?" (Student names animals or bugs that have eyes.)

"Have you noticed anything that is different about different animals' eyes?" (Student names differences. May include size, color, position, etc.)

"Let's look at a few different animals and learn about some other ways that each animal's eyes are unique."

 

Stating the Goal

"After our lesson today, you will be able to tell how the eyes of animals are different and why they are different."

 

Instruction 1

Collect pictures of several animals and also (if possible) of that animal’s eye. You can present these in a booklet form or as separate sheets of paper. Look at the pictures and let the child identify the animal. Talk about the animal’s environment and behavior. Talk about how each animal's eyes are different because they are used in different ways.

Environment, Behavior

Instruction 2

Obtain one of the books about animal eyes (see "Resources" below). Read book together and discuss the information.

 

Instruction 3

Explore websites that provide information about animal eyes (see "Resources"). Discuss each animal, its behavior, environment and eyes in more detail.

 

Some examples of animal eyes

Box jellyfish has 24 eyes.

Camels have three eyelids.

Squid have eyes 27 centimeters across.

Dogs can't distinguish between red and green.

Goats have square pupils.

Owls can't move their eyes, that is why they swivel their head at almost 360 degrees.

Worms don't have any eyes.

Chameleons can move each eye in different directions at the same time.

Rattlesnakes can see infrared heat signatures of other animals.

 

Check for Understanding

Child writes the names of four different animals and what is special about the eyes of each one.

Child draws pictures of four animals and also a picture of their eyes, showing what is special about each.

Play game with cards: Name or picture of animal on one set of cards, picture of or description of eyes on other set of cards. Child matches.

 

Closure

"There are all different kinds of eyes in the world. They come in all shapes, sizes and colors and they do different things. It is natural that the eyes of different animals are different. One eye is not better than the other; each is good for its purpose. Next time, we'll talk about how people's eyes can be different too."

 

Rationale: By studying the eyes of animals, which show great variation, the student will understand that diversity in eyes is common and normal. This understanding will enable the student to approach the concept of differences among human eyes as completely natural phenomena. This, in turn, will reduce feelings of being "different" from others due to having a visual impairment.

Note: Amount of detail presented to the student may vary according to age and/or level of comprehension. For some students, a more simplified version of the visual pathway may be more appropriate. Other students may benefit and enjoy learning about additional structures.

Resources:

Books

  • Eye to Eye: How Animals See the World by Steve Jenkins
  • Animal Eyes by Mary Howland
  • Animal Eyes by Daisy Griffen

Web

Topic: Everyone Has Different Eyes - People

Unit 1 Lesson 4: The Eye and Sight

Topic: Everyone Has Different Eyes - People

Unit Goal: Student will describe how the visual system functions and also the nature of his/her individual visual system (cause of specific visual impairment).

Lesson objective(s): Student will identify at least four ways in which human eyes differ from one another.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

Review the parts of the eye and the visual pathway. Use a model or diagram or draw a picture.

Discuss some of the interesting things learned about the eyes of animals. How are the different and why are they different?

 

Introduction 

Discuss some of the interesting things learned about the eyes of animals. "How are they the same and how are they different? Why are they different?"

"Just like there are differences between the eyes of different animals, the eyes of different people can also be different."

 

Stating the Goal

"We will learn about some of the ways that the eyes of people can be different. You will be able to tell me five different ways that our eyes are unique."

 

Instruction

You may want to read together one of the books (see "Resources" below) that address visual differences in people and use this as an introduction to the concept. Ask student to think about the eyes of peers and adults. What do they notice are some things that are different?

Some things that a student might notice:

  • Color (iris)- brown, blue, green, black, yellow, hazel, etc.
  • Size - big, small, tiny, etc.
  • Shape - round, oval
  • Glasses - some have them, some don’t. Different kinds of glasses.
  • Blinking - Blinking, rubbing, other behaviors associated with eyes.
  • Droopy - eyelids
  • Eye contact - don't like to look at you
  • Other things you might bring up:
  • Acuity - Some students are able to see things that are far away. Some kids can see things that are near.
  • Field - Some students might tend to trip or not see things that are on the floor or off to one side.

Iris, Pupil, Epicanthic fold - affects shape of eye, Acuity, Fields, Eye contact

Check for Understanding

Student draws a picture of people, including their eyes, including information that illustrates what makes each one both unique and similar.

Student makes a list or chart, such as a Venn diagram, of types of eyes and how they are the same and how they are different.

Teacher and student discuss the student's product.

 

Closure

"Now we know how eyes can be different, not only between different types of creatures but also between different people. We see that these differences are very common and very natural."

 

Rationale: When a student understands that it is natural for there to be variation in the structure and function and behavior of the eyes of different individuals, it will allow them to view his or her own visual condition as natural and no more or less than that of their peers.

Resources:

Books

  • Arthur's Eyes by Marc Brown
  • Does and Owl Wear Eyeglasses by Harriet Ziefert
  • Jacob's Eye Patch by Beth and Jacob Shaw

Topic: How is MY Eye Special?

Unit 1 Lesson 5: The Eye and Sight

Topic:  How is MY Eye Special?

Unit Goal: Student will describe how the visual system functions and also the nature of his/her individual visual system (cause of specific visual impairment).

Lesson objective(s): Student will describe the nature of his or her visual impairment, including the specific structures that are affected and how this impacts how he/she sees.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

Review parts of the eye.

Discuss differences and similarities that can be found among eyes in both the animal and human worlds.

 

Introduction 

"We've learned that eyes are similar in many ways but also that eyes can have many differences and that this is a natural thing. Today, let's talk about our own eyes and what might be special about them."

 

Stating the Goal "Once we are finished with today's lesson, you will be able to tell people all about your own eyes and your own vision."  

Instruction

The content of this lesson will, of course, be very individualized according to the nature of the student's visual impairment.

Using an eye model, chart or drawing, point out structures that are affected by the student's etiology.

Demonstrate the path that light takes through the visual system, noting how the affected structures in turn affect what the student sees.

Vocabulary will be specific to the student's visual impairment.

Instruction

You may want to introduce a term, such as "visual impairment" at this time, explaining that it is used to indicate when an individual’s vision is different from that of most other persons.

Alternatively, you might want to wait and present this concept as a separate lesson during the "History" or "Rights" Units.

visual impairment, extraordinary vision, atypical vision, different vision

Instruction

Locate a website with information specific to the student's visual impairment and explore it together.Obtain a book that addresses the visual impairment and read together.Create your own booklet using information from a website to explore together.

 

Check for Understanding

Using a model or chart of the eye, student independently demonstrates part of the eye affected by visual impairment and how this, in turn affects vision.

Student draws a picture of her eye and writes a short paper or paragraph that describes their visual impairment.

 

Closure

"Sometimes our friends or our teachers might not understand why you are not able to see certain things in the same way that they see them. Knowing how your vision is special can help you explain it to them. In the future, we will talk about some more ways that we can help other people better understand your special vision (visual impairment)."

 

 Rationale: Having the knowledge of how his or her own eyes function, and the vocabulary to talk about it, will enable the student to better advocate for him- or herself with peers and adults.

Note: The amount and type of information presented in this lesson will vary to a great degree based not only on the student's visual impairment but also his/her age and grade level.

Resources:

Websites

Albinism - http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/genetic/albinism.html

Books

  • My Fair Child by Maureen Ryan (albinism)
  • Albino Animals by Kelly Milner Halls

Topic: How Does My Vision Affect My Access to Information? K-2nd Grade

Unit 2 Lesson 6:  Student Toolbox

Topic:  How Does My Vision Affect My Access to Information? K-2nd Grade

Unit Goal:   Student will develop a set (toolbox) of strategies to optimize visual functioning in a variety of settings.

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to express vision strengths and limitations in relation to school, community, and home activities.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

Ask the student to think about things he likes to do or need to do at home, at school, and in community settings (like the grocery store, at a park, etc.). As the student names activities and/or objects, ask how easy or difficult it is to see clearly.

community

Introduction 

“Your vision may affect how you do things.  There are probably many things you can do on your own, like brush your teeth or eat a meal; then there are things you might need a little help with seeing or doing, like using a microwave or crossing a street; or maybe there are things that are just too difficult for you to see, like words written on a board or menus in a restaurant.  We are going to figure out the things you can see/do on your own, things you ask others to help you with, and things you just can see/do at all.  Once we fill in this list, we are going to work at finding out ways to help you become more independent—or do things without too much help from others.”  

 

Stating the Goal

“After our lesson, you will have a list of the activities and things you can see on your own or with an optical device, and things you could work on to see without the help of others with a little more instruction.

 

Instruction

Introduce the worksheet How I View the World.  Using the worksheet as a guide, create a list of activities and things the student can see without help or with an optical device, things he asks others to help with, and things he cannot see at all.  

Optical device

Instruction

 Ask the student to select some items on the worksheet that (s)he would like to see better or be able to access. 

Discuss the possibility of increasing independence and participation once (s)he can improve access skills.  Note:  for the functionally blind student, “see” may mean “figure out” or “do” through tactile strategies. 

AccessIndependence

Check for Understanding

“Let’s look back over your list. (read list to the student)  Is there more you would like to add?”

 

Closure

“Today you listed activities and things you can see on your own or with an optical device.  There are also some things/activities you need someone else to help you with.  We are going to be working on ways in which you can access as many things on your own (independently) as possible, without depending on others.” 

 

 Rationale:  This lesson is designed to begin a conversation with the student about building independence.  There will be some items the student mentions that you feel could be topics for future lessons.  For example, “I can’t see the teacher when she writes on the board”, may lead to a future lesson on the devices needed to read the board, and how to politely advocate for yourself when you can’t see something.  Make sure home, school, and community settings are addressed.  Student may need prompting on typical activities for all three settings.  Avoid questions such as, “Can you see_________?”  Rather, say “Tell me how you see____________.”  

Materials

Topic: How Does My Vision Affect My Access to Information? Grades 3-12

Unit 2 Lesson 7:  Student Toolbox

Topic:  How Does My Vision Affect My Access to Information? Grades 3-12

Unit Goal: Student will develop a set (toolbox) of strategies to optimize visual functioning in a variety of settings.

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to express vision strengths and limitations in relation to school, community, and home activities.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

Ask the student to think about things he needs to do in his home, at school, and in community settings (like the grocery store, at a park, etc.) that typically require vision.  As the student names activities and/or objects, ask how easy or difficult it is to see or perform these tasks.

 

Introduction 

“Your vision may affect how you do things. We are going to complete a survey of visual tasks to figure out just how hard or easy visual tasks can be for you.  Once we fill in this survey, we are going to work at finding out ways to help you become more independent—or do things without too much help from others."

 

Stating the Goal

“After our lesson, you will have an idea of visual tasks you need to be able to access in home, school, and community settings.  When you are finished with the Visual Tasks Survey, your score will help us determine which skills we can begin to work on to increase your self-confidence and independence in these settings.” 

access

Instruction Introduce the “Visual Tasks Survey”.  Review the instructions, including the scoring rubric.
  1. Allow student to complete this survey.
  2. Total the score and find the range at the bottom of the survey.
  3. If the score is between 22 and 88, discuss some tools and strategies that could be used with individual items to increase independence and participation.  Make a list of these tools/strategies specific to each task.  Future lessons will involve training for specific tools/strategies to increase access, independence, and self-confidence.
  4. Review Tools for Accessing Different Environments and Increasing Self-Sufficiency to see which might apply to the student.

assistive technology

Instruction

If the score is between 22 and 88, discuss some tools and strategies that could be used with individual items to increase independence and participation. Make a list of these tools/strategies specific to each task.  Future lessons will involve training for specific tools/strategies to increase access, independence, and self-confidence. 

 

Check for Understanding

“Let’s look back over your survey. What areas (of access) do you feel are your strengths?  What areas do you feel you need to work on to increase your access/independence?”

 

Closure

“Today you took a close look at typical visual tasks that occur in school, at home, and in the community.   In future lessons, we are going to be working on skills to help you access as many things on your own (independently) as possible, without depending on others.” 

 

 Rationale: This lesson is designed to begin a conversation with the student about building access to visual tasks and independence.  Future lessons will build upon how the student answered each individual task rating, and might include instruction on the tools/strategies that would help the student gain independence on specific tasks. Access skill instruction will differ, depending on many factors, such as the student’s visual acuity, stamina, availability of assistive technology, etc.  It is important to note that, as a student’s ability to access tasks increases, his self-confidence and ability to represent himself as a person with a visual impairment who can compete with his peers increases as well. 

Materials:

Resources for Skill Instruction:

Looking to Learn (AFB Press) for teaching optical devices

TSBVI website (www.tsbvi.edu) for teaching specific assistive technology skills

ESC 10 website (http://www.region10.org/supplementary-services/programs/vi-assistive-technology/) for teaching specific assistive technology skills

ECC Essentials, Teaching the Expanded Core Curriculum to Students with Visual Impairments, Allman C.B., and Lewis, S., AFB Press, 2014.

Topic: How Does My Vision Affect My Access to Information? Personal Goals

Unit 2 Lesson 8:  Student Toolbox

Topic 1:  How Does My Vision Affect My Access to Information? -  My Personal Goals

Unit Goal: Student will develop a set (toolbox) of strategies to optimize functioning on visual tasks in a variety of settings

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to express vision strengths and limitations in relation to school, community, and home activities.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

Ask the student to think about what his special interests are.  What skills might be needed within these special interests? 

Personal goal

Introduction 

"Sometimes it helps to clarify your personal goals in order to figure out the tools and strategies you will need to accomplish these goals.  A personal goal can be short-term, like walking to a friend’s house independently; or, longer-term, like finding a part-time job.  In this lesson we will explore these goals and figure out the steps you would need to take, tools and strategies you would need to use, and supports and resources that will help you reach your goals." 

Tools, Strategies

Stating the Goal

"This lesson will help you clarify your personal goals related to leisure activities, recreation, school, independent living skills, and/or career pursuits." 

 

Instruction

Ask the student to complete #1 on the My Goals worksheet.

Discuss #2 on the worksheet together.

Create a document for #3, listing the steps the student would need to take to achieve one or each of the three goals.

Create a document for #4, listing supports and resources to complete the steps listed in #3.  Supports and resources may be technology, people, or agencies. 

Supports

Check for Understanding

Check to make sure the student’s goals are realistic and achievable in a relatively short amount of time. 

 

Closure

“Today we’ve selected 3 goals you would like to work on (restate the goals).  You have identified supports and resources to help you reach these 3 goals.  For our next few lessons we will start taking the steps necessary to help you achieve your goals.”

 

Rationale: The intent of this lesson is to get the student to think about setting goals and learning the visual strategies and/or accommodations he might need to achieve these goals.  The assumption is that learning the skills needed to accomplish one’s goals contributes to self-determination.  Goals may be short term, such as walking unassisted to a friend’s house or preparing a meal; goals may be longer term, such as something related to work, or going to college.  A standard interest inventory may help the process of figuring out the students interests, which could then be followed by a conversation about goal setting. 

Materials:

Resources for Skill Instruction:

Look for interest inventories on Pinterest (https://www.pinterest.com/explore/student-interest-inventory/)

Look for student goal setting worksheets on Pinterest (https://www.pinterest.com/wileyteaching/goal-setting/ )

Topic: Strategies for Increasing Access

Unit 2 Lesson 9:  Student Toolbox

Topic 2:  Strategies for Increasing Access -  Strategies for Braille Readers

Unit Goal: Student who are using braille will develop a set of strategies (toolbox) to optimize functioning on visual tasks in a variety of settings

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to efficiently use strategies and assistive technology to increase independent access to visual tasks.  Strategies might include using a braille device, audible materials, tactile materials, assistive technology, and/or working with a partner

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

Ask the student to describe the kinds of learning activities he needs to complete in any given class.  (e.g., copy/read near and distance materials, give a speech, read from a textbook/work sheet, complete a written assignment, read charts/ maps/ graphs). 

Tell the student you will be working together to develop ways to complete these typical classroom activities using a variety of tools and strategies. 

Tools, Strategies

Introduction 

“We are going to be looking at the tools, such as assistive technology devices you have that help you participate in classroom activities, and the strategies (ways of getting things done).  We’ll see how well these are working for you, and look at ways to increase your proficiency with these tools and strategies.  We’ll also try to determine if there are additional tools/strategies that might work better for you.”  

 

Stating the Goal

"This lesson will help you learn strategies to optimize functioning on visual tasks in a variety of settings."

 

Instruction

Begin by writing down the learning activities the student named (see Anticipatory).  Add to this as needed.

Ask the student to show you the equipment he uses for braille, as well as any AT he uses for access to auditory materials.  Determine student’s proficiency on each piece of equipment, including telling you the kinds of activities he is able to do with each piece.

Complete the My Strategies for Completing Visual Tasks in School worksheet

Make a list of each class the student attends.  Using the results of the My Strategies for Completing Visual Tasks in School worksheet, ask which of these tools/strategies he uses for each individual class.  Are there any problem areas?  Are there things he is currently not able to access at all?

Ask him to select a visual task (from the left column) to begin to “fine tune”, given the AT equipment issued.

Begin to work on strategies for using technology to access individual visual tasks.  Some of these strategies will involve braille AT, and some will involve auditory AT.  Each strategy will require initial assessment (what does the student already know) and instruction (how can the student use this equipment to access this particular activity). A great resource for braille-access skills can be found on pp. 193-195 and pp. 197-201 in ECC Essentials.  A resource for auditory access skills and technology can be found in chapters 4-5 in Learning to Listen, Listening to Learn.

Create a document or other product (i.e., PowerPoint) that can be shared with others and gives access details across the curriculum.

Begin to explore access outside the school, and how the same tools could be used to access recreational and career-related activities.

MP3 Player

Check for Understanding

Check to make sure the student understands the connection between using a device and accessing specific tasks.  The device is a tool to help them participate with their peers on classroom assignments/activities. 

Check to see if the student can complete this statement, “With this ______ (tool), I am able to participate with my peers on these activities/tasks________________.”

 

Closure

“Today we have learned how to use a tool or strategy to complete a specific task or tasks in a specific subject area class.  Our next several lessons will continue to build the tools/strategies and the settings in which you can use these in your classes.”

 

 Rationale: The intent of this lesson is to come up with a plan for accessing all the typical classroom tasks.  There will be different student-specific tools for this, including assistive technology, auditory strategies, and even the use of educational partners.  Since classrooms/subject areas are so varied, ultimately you will want to cover each class, completing a summary of access strategies called “My Strategies for Completing Visual Tasks in School”.  Along the way you will be assessing the student’s competency in using technology, and teaching the student how to use a device to access to classroom activities. Once the student has a record of the strategies and tools he uses for access, as well as the necessary skills in using the technology, he will use this record to advocate for his skills and needs with individual classroom teachers. 

Note: This unit is not intended to cover skill instruction for specific devices, and relies on the teacher’s ability to access additional instructional materials for teaching skills related to assistive technology within the context of classroom tasks.

Materials:

Resources for Skill Evaluation and Instruction:

SETT Framework (acronym for Student, Environments, Tasks, and Tools), by Joy Zabala.  http://www.joyzabala.com/

ECC Essentials, Teaching the Expanded Core Curriculum to Students with Visual Impairments, Allman C.B., and Lewis, S., AFB Press, 2014.  See chapter 6, “Assistive Technology”.

Learning to Listen, Listening to Learn, Barclay, L.A., Editor. AFB Press, 2012

Assistive Technology for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, A Guide to Assessment. Presley, I., and D’Andrea, F.M., AFB Press, 2009. 

Auditory Strategies:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/auditory-strategies

Assistive Technology and Listening:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/assistive-technology-and-listening

Overview of Technology:  http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1074-overview-of-technology-for-visually-impaired-and-blind-students#BrailleAccess    

“Reading, ‘Riting, ‘Rithmetic & Recreation” – Overview of Assistive Technology: http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1077-reading-riting-rithmetic-a-recreation-overview-of-assistive-technology

Learning Ally (auditory materials and equipment) https://www.learningally.org/Educators/Resources/GetStartedNow.aspx

Topic: Strategies for Increasing Access - Strategies for Print Readers

Unit 2 Lesson 10:  Student Toolbox

Topic:  Strategies for Increasing Access - Strategies for Print Readers

Unit Goal: Student who are using print will develop a set of strategies (toolbox) to optimize functioning on visual tasks in a variety of settings

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to efficiently use strategies and assistive technology to increase independent access to visual tasks.  Strategies might include using an optical device, audible materials, assistive technology, and/or working with a partner.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

Ask the student to describe the kinds of learning activities he needs to complete in any given class.  (e.g., copy/read near and distance materials, give a speech, read from a textbook/work sheet, complete a written assignment, read charts/maps/graphs). 

Tell the student you will be working together to develop ways to complete these typical classroom activities using a variety of tools and strategies. 

Tools, Strategies

Introduction 

"We are going to be looking at the tools, such as assistive technology devices you have that help you participate in classroom activities, and the strategies (ways of getting things done).  We’ll see how well these are working for you, and look at ways to increase your proficiency with these tools and strategies.  We’ll also try to determine if there are additional tools/strategies that might work better for you."  

 

Stating the Goal

"This lesson will help you learn strategies and tools to optimize functioning on visual tasks in a variety of settings."

 

Instruction

Begin by writing down the learning activities the student named (see Anticipatory).  Add to this as needed.

Ask the student to show you the equipment he uses for accessing print, as well as any AT he uses for access to auditory materials.  Determine student’s proficiency on each piece of equipment, including telling you the kinds of activities he is able to do with each piece.

Complete the My Strategies for Completing Visual Tasks in School worksheet

Make a list of each class the student attends.  Using the results of the My Strategies for Completing Visual Tasks in School worksheet, ask which of these tools/strategies he uses for each individual class.  Are there any problem areas?  Are there things he is currently not able to access at all?

Ask him to select a visual task (from the left column) to begin to “fine tune”, given the AT equipment issued.

Begin to work on strategies for using technology to access individual visual tasks.  Some of these strategies will involve AT to access print, and some will involve auditory AT.  Each strategy will require initial assessment (what does the student already know) and instruction (how can the student use this equipment to access this particular activity). A great resource for information access skills can be found on pp. 190-191 and pp. 197-201 in ECC Essentials.  A resource for auditory access skills and technology can be found in chapters 4-5 in Learning to Listen, Listening to Learn.

Create a document or other product (i.e., PowerPoint) that can be shared with others and gives access details across the curriculum.

Begin to explore access outside the school, and how the same tools could be used to access recreational and career-related activities.

MP3 Player, Screen enlargement software, Electronic tablet, Optical device

Check for Understanding

Check to make sure the student understands the connection between using a device and accessing specific tasks.  The device is a tool to help them participate with their peers on classroom assignments/activities.  Check to see if the student can complete this statement, “With this ______ (tool), I am able to participate with my peers on these activities/tasks________________.”

 

Closure

“Today we have learned how to use a tool or strategy to complete a specific task or tasks in a specific subject area class.  Our next several lessons will continue to build the tools/strategies and the settings in which you can use these in your classes.”

 

 Rationale: The intent of this lesson is to come up with a plan for accessing all the typical classroom tasks.  There will be different student-specific tools for this, including assistive technology, auditory strategies, and even the use of educational partners.  Since classrooms/subject areas are so varied, ultimately you will want to cover each class, completing a summary of access strategies called “My Strategies for Completing Visual Tasks in School”.  Along the way you will be assessing the student’s competency in using technology, and teaching the student how to use a device to access to classroom activities. Once the student has a record of the strategies and tools he uses for access, as well as the necessary skills in using the technology, he will use this record to advocate for his skills and needs with individual classroom teachers. 

Note: This unit is not intended to cover skill instruction for specific devices, and relies on the teacher’s ability to access additional instructional materials for teaching skills related to assistive technology within the context of classroom tasks.

Materials:

Resources for Skill Evaluation and Instruction:

SETT Framework (acronym for Student, Environments, Tasks, and Tools), by Joy Zabala.  http://www.joyzabala.com/

ECC Essentials, Teaching the Expanded Core Curriculum to Students with Visual Impairments, Allman C.B., and Lewis, S., AFB Press, 2014.  See chapter 6, “Assistive Technology”.

Learning to Listen, Listening to Learn, Barclay, L.A., Editor. AFB Press, 2012

Assistive Technology for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, A Guide to Assessment. Presley, I., and D’Andrea, F.M., AFB Press, 2009. 

Auditory Strategies:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/auditory-strategies

Assistive Technology and Listening:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/assistive-technology-and-listening

Overview of Technology:  http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1074-overview-of-technology-for-visually-impaired-and-blind-students#BrailleAccess   

Reading, “Riting, ‘Rithmetic & Recreation – Overview of Assistive Technology:

http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1077-reading-riting-rithmetic-a-recreation-overview-of-assistive-technology

Learning Ally (auditory materials and equipment) https://www.learningally.org/Educators/Resources/GetStartedNow.aspx

Three videos on the topic of teaching students to use optical devices, found at http://www.tsbvi.edu/selected-topics/optical-devices :

  1. Instruction in the Use of Optical Devices
  2. Optical Device Use, Part 2: Visual Access In a Range of Environments
  3. Optical Device Use, Part 3: Selling Optical Device Use to the Tough Customer

Topic: Strategies for Increasing Access - Strategies for Using Audible Materials

Unit 2 Lesson 11:  Student Toolbox

Topic:  Strategies for Increasing Access - Strategies for Using Audible Materials

Unit Goal: Student will develop skills to benefit from audible materials.

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to efficiently use audible information and technology as a back-up strategy for print. 

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

"Sometimes reading assignments may be lengthy, and there may be reading assignments that are difficult to get in a print/braille format.  In these instances, it’s a good idea to supplement with audible materials." 

Auditory, Audible

Introduction 

"We are going to be learning how to use the auditory equipment efficiently as a way to deal with visual fatigue and as an auditory way to access print materials. By the end of this unit you should feel comfortable with using audible materials efficiently."

 

Stating the Goal

"These lessons will help you learn strategies and tools to optimize functioning with audible materials, including audio books, audible output on computers/tablets, live readers, and lectures." 

Audio books

Instruction:Critical Listening Skills

Read aloud, starting with short sentences and moving to longer paragraph/stories.  For each, as the student to recall as many details as he can.

Work with the student on taking simple notes as he listens.

Read aloud a paragraph or passage and ask the student to restate the order in which events happened. Have the student write out events as he listens, then place these events in chronological order.

Read a paragraph to the student and ask him to state the main idea.

  

Instruction:Technology for Listening 

Begin by listening to recorded books for pleasure and discussing these.

Use auditory games on the computer/tablet to enhance listening skills.

Listen to a screen reader while using the computer.

Listen to audible literature on digital players (such as an MP3 player) and retell story.

Teach the student how to set up a tablet for auditory output (Voice Over or Google Voice) and practice using this on materials the student is interested in.

Visit the Learning Ally website together to review how to access/use this service.

Teach the student how to use the Learning Ally Audio app.

 

MP3 Player, Voiceover/Google Voice, Learning Ally, Learning Ally Audio App 

Instruction:Using Digital Books

Teach student how to access e-books via synthesized speech or read with a refreshable braille display.

Teach student how to use an MP3 player, CD player, e-book reader, PDA, smart phone, or computer to access digital talking books.  This skill includes navigating through the audible text:  examine the book by page, section, chapter, table of contents, and an index; setting bookmarks

Teach student how to take written notes of critical information as they listen and how to use these notes to study for exams.

E-Books/Digital Text, Digital Talking Books, Audio Books

Instruction:Audio-Assisted Reading

It is important that students are able to listen to gain information.  Audio-assisted reading is a method for students to use recorded books along with the corresponding print/braille book.  For steps in this lesson, refer to handout, Audio Assisted Reading, by Ike Presley. These steps can also be found in Learning to Listen/Listening to Learn, pp. 138-140. 

Audio-Assisted Reading

Check for Understanding

Your final check for understanding will be a student who can function efficiently with audible materials, and can express his preferences for using audible materials to teachers.

 

Closure

Once the student can use audible materials, develop a grid or listing of classes and make note of where or on which materials could be paired with auditory content. 

 

 Rationale: The intent of this lesson series is to teach the student the necessary listening skills as a tool to access learning materials.  Within the context of the expanded core curriculum (ECC), this lesson covers the categories of Sensory Efficiency, Assistive Technology, Compensatory Skills, and Self-Advocacy.  The student will need to have efficient listening skills and advocate for audible materials as a tool for learning.  Audible materials are varied—from lectures to voice output devices—and will require targeted instruction.  Listening, within the context of learning, is not a passive activity, but rather one in which the student must have methods for listening with discrimination, make notes, and be able to retrieve information efficiently.

Note: Make sure your student has a current hearing assessment.

Materials:

  • Computer system with screen-reading software
  • MP3 Player
  • Learning Ally Audio App and Reading Ally Membership
  • E-reader with voice output
  • Bookshare Membership
  • Read2Go App

Resources for Skill Evaluation and Instruction:

ECC Essentials, Teaching the Expanded Core Curriculum to Students with Visual Impairments, Allman C.B., and Lewis, S., AFB Press, 2014.  See chapter 6, “Assistive Technology”.

Learning to Listen, Listening to Learn, Barclay, L.A., Editor. AFB Press, 2012.  Chapters 4 and 5.

Assistive Technology for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, A Guide to Assessment. Presley, I., and D’Andrea, F.M., AFB Press, 2009. 

Auditory Strategies:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/auditory-strategies

Assistive Technology and Listening:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/assistive-technology-and-listening

Overview of Technology:  http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1074-overview-of-technology-for-visually-impaired-and-blind-students#BrailleAccess

“Reading, Riting, ‘Rithmetic & Recreation” – Overview of Assistive Technology:http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1077-reading-riting-rithmetic-a-recreation-overview-of-assistive-technology

Learning Ally (auditory materials and equipment) https://www.learningally.org/Educators/Resources/GetStartedNow.aspx

Texas Talking Book Program https://www.tsl.texas.gov/tbp/index.html and BARD mobile App.

Resources for Skill Evaluation and Instruction:

ECC Essentials, Teaching the Expanded Core Curriculum to Students with Visual Impairments, Allman C.B., and Lewis, S., AFB Press, 2014.  See chapter 6, “Assistive Technology”.

Learning to Listen, Listening to Learn, Barclay, L.A., Editor. AFB Press, 2012.  Chapters 4 and 5.

Assistive Technology for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, A Guide to Assessment. Presley, I., and D’Andrea, F.M., AFB Press, 2009. 

Auditory Strategies:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/auditory-strategies

Assistive Technology and Listening:  http://www.pathstoliteracy.org/assistive-technology-and-listening

Overview of Technology:  http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1074-overview-of-technology-for-visually-impaired-and-blind-students#BrailleAccess

“Reading, Riting, ‘Rithmetic & Recreation” – Overview of Assistive Technology:http://www.tsbvi.edu/67-early-childhood/1077-reading-riting-rithmetic-a-recreation-overview-of-assistive-technology

Learning Ally (auditory materials and equipment) https://www.learningally.org/Educators/Resources/GetStartedNow.aspx

Texas Talking Book Program https://www.tsl.texas.gov/tbp/index.html and BARD mobile App.

Topic: Strategies for Communicating with Others about Access - Personal Preferences for Access to Visual Media

Unit 2 Lesson 12:  Student Toolbox 

Topic:  Strategies for Communicating with Others about Access - Personal Preferences for Access to Visual Media

Unit Goal: Student will develop skills to communicate preferred accommodations to compensate for vision loss.

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to create and share a product that notes strategies for increasing participation in visual activities across the school curriculum.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

"Most of your teachers have never experienced having a student with a visual impairment in their class.  There will be some assignments and materials that will be difficult for you to access (use) in the format presented by your teachers.  It will be important for you to learn how to let your teachers know, in advance as well as in the moment, what your preferred adaptations/accommodations are."   

Self-Advocacy, Access, Adaptations, Accommodations

Introduction 

"We are going to be learning how to document and communicate your preferred adaptations and accommodations for school work.  Being able to communicate with teachers will also help you advocate for your visual preferences as an adult when you are at college and/or in the work force." 

 

Stating the Goal

"This lesson will help you learn strategies and tools to communicate your need for adapted materials, and/or adaptations to the presentation of learning materials."  

 

Instruction:Collecting and Documenting Information on Vision and Access 

Work with the student to complete the worksheet, Access to Visual Media, which will help the student clarify his personal preferred methods of access across a range of visual tasks. Using information from the Access to Visual Media, the student should begin to complete the worksheet, Personal Preferences for Access. Have the student look online to research some basic (non-technical) information on his etiology to complete the first part of the Personal Preferences for Access worksheet.  He should include any additional health concerns associated with the visual impairment (e.g., sensitivity to sunlight, activities to avoid due to retinal concerns)Continue to discuss and write information in all of the categories on the Personal Preferences for Access worksheet. 

Visual Media 

Check for Understanding

At the end of this lesson the student should be able to explain his vision etiology to you and tell you how he best functions on typical classroom activities/materials.  He should also be able to state strategies he uses to access classroom activities/materials, as well as the tools he uses to increase personal access. 

 

Closure

“Can you tell some things you learned about your vision and how you complete visual tasks in your classes as a result of this lesson?  Are there some things you think we should learn more about or cover in the future related to access to visual tasks?”

 

 Rationale: This lesson is a critical component of self-advocacy and empowerment for a student with a visual impairment.  The intent is to teach the student how to clarify the ways in which he accesses an array of visual tasks, and to communicate his needs to others.  By the end of this lesson he should have a clear idea of both tools (such as assistive technology) and strategies (such as requesting downloadable copies of assignments in advance to be read on a tablet) so that he can help teachers understand specific accommodations to the school curriculum.

Materials:

Resources for Skill Evaluation and Instruction:

ECC Essentials, Teaching the Expanded Core Curriculum to Students with Visual Impairments, Allman C.B., and Lewis, S., AFB Press, 2014.  See chapter 12, “Self-Determination”.

Topic: Strategies for Communicating with Others about Access - Creating a Product to Communicate Visual Strategies/Tools with Teachers

Unit 2 Lesson 13:  Student Toolbox 

Topic:  Strategies for Communicating with Others about Access - Creating a Product to Communicate Visual Strategies/Tools with Teachers

Unit Goal: Student will develop skills to communicate preferred accommodations to compensate for vision loss.

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to create and share a product that notes tools and strategies for increasing participation in visual activities across the school curriculum.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step

Actions

Vocabulary

Anticipatory

We have spent some time studying your visual impairment, as well as the tools and strategies you need to participate with your peers in class.  In this lesson, we will create something (product) that can help them understand how you best function on visual tasks in their class.  

Difference between a  “tool” (AT) and a “strategy” Product

Introduction 

We are going to be learning how to document and communicate your preferred adaptations and accommodations for school work.  Being able to communicate with teachers will also help you advocate for your visual preferences as an adult when you are at college and/or in the work force. 

 

Stating the Goal

This lesson will help you create a product to communicate your preferred strategies and tools that compensate for your vision loss.

 

Instruction: Creating a Product 

Using the Personal Preferences for Access worksheet, allow the student to select a product through which he will communicate visual preferences to teachers.  Products could include one or any combination of these:  PowerPoint, notebook with dividers, brochure, portfolio, one-page document, and/or short video, photograph slideshow of tools/strategies.

Product should include:

  • Student’s etiology and any health concerns
  • How eye condition affects visual performance
  • Strategies used to complete visual tasks in school
  • Tools (assistive technology) used
  • Personal preferences for the presentation of school-related materials

Power Point Portfolio

Instruction:Presenting Product to Teachers

Student should practice having a discussion with his TVI first, using his product as prompt.

Select one general education teacher to listen to the student’s presentation of the product.  Gain feedback from the teacher and adjust as necessary.

Select additional teachers individually, or in a group meeting, for the student to present his product

 

Check for Understanding

The student should be able to (a) explain his visual condition (etiology), and (b) use his product as a conversational tool with others. 

 

Closure

By the end of this lesson, the student should have a product that captures the key discussion points to be shared with teachers.  He should first practice his presentation with the TVI, then with at least one general education teacher. 

 

 Rationale: The intent of this lesson series is to teach the student how to clarify how he accesses an array of visual tasks, and to communicate his needs to others. 

Materials:

Resources for Skill Evaluation and Instruction:

ECC Essentials, Teaching the Expanded Core Curriculum to Students with Visual Impairments, Allman C.B., and Lewis, S., AFB Press, 2014.  See chapter 12, “Self-Advocacy”.

Unit 3 and Lessons Overview

 Unit and Lessons Overview

This unit is the third in a series of lesson plans developed by Chrissy Cowan and Scott Baltisberger to help teachers of students with visual impairments teach students how to understand their rights as a student with a visual impairment.  The lessons in this unit are divided into six distinct topics that range from prejudice and stereotyping to the legal rights available to students in secondary and postsecondary settings.  These lesson topics contribute to self-determination and self-advocacy skills within the Expanded Core Curriculum.

Following the lessons are materials that are referenced in the individual lesson plans.

  • Unit 3:  Your Rights as a Student with a Visual Impairment

Lessons 

  • Prejudice and Stereotyping (Lesson 14)
  • Discrimination (Lesson 15)
  • Civil Rights (Lesson 16)
  • Civil Rights Movements (Lesson 17)
  • Participating in the Education Process-IEP and ARD (Lesson 18)
  • Differences in Legal Rights between Secondary & Postsecondary Settings (Lesson 19)

Topic: Prejudice and Stereotyping

Unit 3 - Lesson 14:   Your Rights as a Student with Visual Impairment

Topic:  Prejudice and Stereotyping

Unit Goal: Students will recognize their rights as a person with a visual impairment and advocate for these rights within society and educational systems.

Lesson objective(s): Student will define the terms “prejudice” and “stereotyping” and give specific examples of this from his or her life.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step Actions Vocabulary
Anticipatory

Inform student that you want him/her explore some objects together and share his/her thoughts.

Present object that has some tactile or auditory feature, especially something that is striking/startling (heat or cold, loud noise such as a buzzer, vibration – like from a novelty store, some type of small snack food that is bitter or weird-tasting, jelly beans of a single flavor). Perhaps present a series of objects that have this feature.

Talk about the object and the feature. Elicit the child’s descriptions and his/her feelings about the object: What is the physical appearance? Do they feel positive/negative/neutral? Do they feel anxious or excited when handling the object?

Present the same object but with the feature removed. When button on the buzzer is pushed, it does not buzz.

Note the child’s reaction: Are they surprised or confused? Have a discussion about their feelings.

 

Introduction

 

Guide the student toward understanding that previous experience with the object caused them to view all objects the same way, to “judge” all the objects. This “Pre-judging” is known is often not true and is known as “prejudice”. Prejudice - preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience; harm or injury that results or may result from some action or judgment.
Stating the Goal Student will be able to define the term “prejudice” and describe how and why it occurs.  
Instruction 1

Discussion: Why do people prejudge things? In what way might pre-judging be helpful? Learn protective behaviors. Examples:

  • Fire - We touch a flame and it is hot. We prejudge all fire to be hot so we no longer try to touch it, avoiding injury.
  • Knives - We see a knife can cut things. We prejudge all knives are sharp so we are careful when we handle them so we don’t get cut.
  • Reading - We learn that this letter “B” makes a certain sound. When we are reading and we see the letter, we pronounce it with the sound because we prejudge the letter to make that sound. It is easier to read this way.

What can we conclude? Prejudging can help us. It can be useful to apply prior experience to a current situation. We don’t have to relearn things. It can make tasks easier or safer.

Another term to describe applying prior experiences to subsequent situations is Generalization.
Instruction 2 Is prejudging always right? Can you think of some situations in which you prejudged something but it turned out to not be accurate? Examples:
  • Water - Expected water from faucet to be hot or cold and it was the opposite.
  • Travel - Walking in a familiar area that was always clear of obstructions in the past. Suddenly there is an object or piece of furniture in the way.
  • Party – Were invited to an event and thought it would be fun (or boring) and it turned out to be the opposite.
 
Instruction 3 Sometimes prejudice occurs not from our own experience but from what we hear from others. Examples:
  • Food - Person tells you it’s not very good so you are ready to not like it… But then you do like it! (Or the opposite!)
  • Music – Some people say that they hate a type of music but you find that you enjoy this style.
  • People – A friend says that another person is really nice but then that person teases you or says something unkind.
 
Instruction 4

How does this apply to people? What are some expectations that we have about certain kinds of people? Are the expectations always true?

  • Gender roles - How are boys/girls expected to be? What kinds of games do they play? What kinds of interests do they have? How do they act? How do they dress?
  • People from different backgrounds (Texans, “Yankees”, Asians, Latinos, African-Americans)
  • People with disabilities – physically challenged, speech difficulties, cognitive challenges
  • People with visual impairment -

This is called “Stereotyping”.

Stereotyping - belief that many people have about all people or things with a particular characteristic

 

Independent Practice Student fills out “Prejudice and Stereotyping” worksheets 1.a and 1.b, using personal experiences to give specific examples.  
Check for Understanding Discuss student’s responses on worksheets 14.a and 14.b. Have them tell how and why the examples they gave constitute prejudice and stereotyping.  
Closure We often engage in stereotyping and prejudice without even being aware about it. It is important to recognize when we are doing this as well as when other people are doing this to us.  

 Rationale: With a clear understanding of what constitutes prejudice and stereotyping, a student will be better able to identify when they are the target of this behavior and should take steps to address the situation through self-advocacy.

  • Resources and materials:
  • Worksheet 14.a Prejudice and Stereotyping
  • Worksheet 14.b Prejudice and Stereotyping

Websites:

 

Worksheet 1.a - Prejudice and Stereotyping

Think of three different times that you prejudged a person, a thing or a situation. Fill out the table using your experiences.

What I judged What I thought Why I thought that. What was the stereotype? What I really found
1.      
2.      
3.      

 

Worksheet 1.b - Prejudice

Think of three different times when someone prejudged you. Fill out the table using your experiences.

What they thought about me What did they think that about me? Was what they though true? What was actually true about me?
       

 

Topic: Discrimination

Unit 3 - Lesson 15: Your Rights as a Student with Visual Impairment

Topic:  Discrimination

Unit goal: Student will recognize their rights as a person with a visual impairment and advocate for these rights within and society and educational systems.

Lesson objective(s): Student will define discrimination and describe how it can negatively impact expectations.

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step Actions Vocabulary
Anticipatory Review information from previous lesson: “Prejudice and Stereotyping”.
  • Ask student to define terms prejudice and stereotyping.
  • Discuss the examples the student provided on worksheets 14.a and 14.b.

Prejudice

Stereotyping

Introduction

 

People have a natural tendency to prejudge things, including other people. We also tend to put things, including other people, into categories and assign them all the same attributes (stereotyping). Sometimes we treat people differently when we stereotype them. This is called “discrimination”. Discrimination: the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people
Stating the Goal We will see how prejudice and stereotyping can lead to discrimination.  
Instruction 1
  • Card game: Make a set of cards. Each card should represent an individual child. On one side, provide a physical description of the child. For children who are visual learners, photos or pictures could be used. The following “types” are suggested:
    • Boy with dirty face, mean look.
    • Girl wearing nice dress, hair done up.
    • Overweight child.
    • Skinny boy wearing glasses
    • Girl in a wheelchair
    • Black child
 
  • Ask the student to share their feelings and impressions about each child, writing this information down on index cards and then pair each with its descriptive card. The observations can be short sentences or single words (nice, mean, friendly, sad, funny, shy, etc.). Prompt them to think about whether they would enjoy playing with the child, would want to be friends; what they think they know about the child’s personality and life just from the description.
 
Instruction 2
  • On the reverse side of each card, provide a description of the child’s background and/or behavior. When the student has completed their responses, look over the descriptions together.
    • Note discrepancies between the student’s impressions and the actual descriptions.
    • Discuss whether the stereotyping the student applied to the children was fair.
 
Instruction 3
  • Use information from Worksheet 14.b to prompt observations about how others may be stereotyping the student him or herself.
  • Upon what might the stereotyping be based? Is it accurate?
  • Is it fair?
  • Think about what happens if not only you, but a larger group of people discriminate against the child.
 
Check for Understanding Student completes worksheet 15.a “Discrimination” using information from the activity. It may be most helpful to do these together. Discuss the responses.  
Closure Prejudice and stereotyping can have a negative impact on the way we treat one another. When groups of people engage in this practice against other groups it can result in discrimination. It is important to identify discrimination when it occurs so one can advocate for one’s self. Next lesson we will learn how groups of people engage in advocacy when they suffer discrimination.  

 Rationale: With a clear understanding of what constitutes discrimination, a student will be better able to identify when they are the target of this behavior and should take steps to address the situation through self-advocacy.

Resources and materials: Worksheet 15.a - Discrimination

Worksheet 15. a. Discrimination

Think about how you reacted to the different students in today’s activity and answer the following questions:

1. Was there a child for whom you had a false stereotype?

 

 

2.  Which child was this and why did you have the stereotype?

 

 

 3. Do you think other people might have the same stereotype?

 

 

 4. How could this stereotyping have a negative impact on the child?

 

 

 5. What are some things you can do to counteract this discrimination?

 

 

 6. Have you ever felt discriminated by other people?

 

 

 

Topic: Civil Rights

Unit 3 - Lesson 16: Your Rights as a Student with Visual Impairment

Topic: Civil Rights

Unit Goal: Student will define and give examples of “civil rights” and describe examples of civil rights movements.

Lesson objective(s): Student will define and give examples of civil rights

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step Actions Vocabulary
Anticipatory Review information from prior lesson on prejudice and discrimination. Student learned that sometimes we pre-judge people unfairly. This prejudging can be based on many different traits such as: gender, skin color, language, ethnic group or disability.

Prejudice

Discrimination

Introduction

 

What are your feelings about prejudice and discrimination? Do you feel this is true or false? Kind or unkind? Fair or unfair?

Some people may practice prejudice and discrimination even if it is unfair. However this is not only unfair or unkind… it is against the law.

 
Stating the Goal The government has laws in place that guarantee us certain freedoms and rights regardless of individual differences. These freedoms and rights are called Civil Rights. In this lesson we will learn what civil rights are and also give some examples of these rights. Civil Rights
Instruction
  • The United States government guarantees our civil rights. The Constitution and the Bill of Rights tell us what are our civil rights and what are the rules for them. Civil rights ensure that everyone is treated equally. They help us live together in a peaceful and positive manner.
  • Everyone is required to follow the rules for civil rights.
Note: You may or may not need to explore info about the Constitution and Bill or Rights, depending on your student’s age/grade level or level of knowledge.

Constitution

Bill of Rights

 

Instruction Discussion about specific civil rights. Civil rights include the freedoms to thought, speech, privacy, religion, press, assembly and association, due process, voting and movement.
  • Younger children – use Civil Rights Cards to lead discussion (see “Resources”).
  • Older children – may do guided on-line exploration of civil rights (see “Websites”). Student can pick a right and do an online search.
Thought, Speech, Religion, Press, Assembly, Due Process, Voting, Movement
Check for Understanding
  • Younger children – Play a game with the Civil Rights Cards. Matching: Each player receives five cards. Calls, “I want your …… card. Player must accurately describe the right in order to receive the card. Memory: All cards on table with description facing up. Player reads description and tries to name the right. Turns card over to check.
 
Closure Now you know a bit about what are your civil rights and why you have them. This is important because not everybody always follows the rules. Even the government doesn’t always follow the rules. In these cases, people need to advocate for their civil rights. Knowing your rights will help you know when you need to advocate. Advocate

 Rationale: When a student understands their rights as an individual, they are better able to identify when these rights have been infringed upon and advocate effectively for themselves. Having a broader perspective of the civil rights afforded to the public at large allows the student a more in-depth, contextualized understanding of the concept.

Resources and materials: 16.a - Civil Rights Cards

 

16. a. – Civil Rights Cards

 Thought

The freedom of an individual to

hold or consider a fact, viewpoint,

or thought, independent of others'

viewpoints

Speech

The right to articulate one's

opinions and ideas without fear

of government retaliation

or censorship, or societal

sanction. 

Religion

The freedom of an individual or

community, in public or private, to

manifest religion or belief in teaching,

practice, worship, and observance 

Press

The right to publish newspapers, 

magazines, and other printed  

matter without governmental 

restriction  

Assembly

The individual right or ability of

people to come together and

collectively express, promote,

pursue, and defend their ideas

Due Process

The legal requirement that the

state must respect all legal

rights that are owed to a person 

Voting

Voting rights cannot be abridged

on account of race, color,

previous condition of servitude,

sex, or age for those above 18 

Movement

The right of individuals to travel

from place to place within

the territory of a country, and to

leave the country and return to it 

 

Unit 3 - Lesson 17: Your Rights as a Student with Visual Impairment

Topic: Civil Rights Movements

Unit Goal: Student will define “civil rights” and describe the movement for the civil rights of persons who are blind or visually impaired

Lesson objective(s): Student will define what is a civil rights movements and describe the movement for civil rights by people with blindness and visual impairments

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step Actions Vocabulary
Anticipatory Review information presented in prior lessons on prejudice, discrimination and “Civil Rights”:
  • Prejudice is our tendency to assign value to others without first having information about them.
  • Discrimination results from prejudice; treat people with a certain trait differently from others. Result can be that these people are treated unfairly.
  • Civil Rights are laws to prevent discrimination and ensure that all people are treated fairly.

Prejudice

Discrimination

Civil Rights

Introduction

 

  • Discuss some of the prejudices explored in Lesson One - Prejudice and Discrimination: Gender, Race, Language, Disability. If many people feel prejudice for a group, they might deny that group their civil rights. In those situations, the group will need to advocate for themselves.
  • When a person publicly supports a certain idea that is called “advocacy” and that person is an “advocate”. One can be an “advocate” for civil rights. If an individual supports his/her personal rights, they are a “self-advocate”. If they join with others to support right for their group, this is sometimes called a “civil rights movement”.
  • There have been many civil rights movements in the history of our country and they have helped us grow by ensuring that we can live in a peaceful and fair manner.

Advocate

Self-advocate

Civil Rights Movement

Stating the Goal After this lesson, we will be able to describe some civil rights movements, how they came to be, what they sought to change and how they went about doing this.  

Instruction

Part 1

Different groups have felt the need to advocate for their rights due to discrimination. The discrimination has been based on race, ethnicity, gender and national origin, among other things. When members of the group see that their civil rights are not being granted, they form a civil rights movements.  

Instruction

Part 2

Examples of Civil Rights Movements: Provide an overview of two or three prominent civil rights movements in the United States. There are many materials available to address these movements (see “Resources”) and your student may already be familiar with them. If he/she is not familiar with this history or demonstrates high interest, you might explore them further using the additional resources and materials listed. Possible movements include:
  • African Americans
  • Women
  • Latin Americans
  • Native Americans
 

Instruction

Part 3

  • Note information gathered in worksheets from lessons 14, 15 and 16. We can see that VI persons can be affected by prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination. Historically persons who are VI were denied certain rights. As a group, VI persons have struggled for their rights.
  • Use the information in “Resources” under “Movement for Disability and VI Rights” to have discussion on this topic.
 
Check for Understanding Student completes Worksheet 17a – “Civil Rights Movements”  
Closure Advocating for rights occurs on both the individual and the group level. It is important to know the history of your own group, how you can contribute to the group through your own individual advocating and how the group can support you.  

 Rationale: Knowledge of the origins, goals and history of civil rights movements, including that promoting right of the visually impaired, will allow a student to better understand the historical context of their personal situation in regards to self-advocacy.

Resources and materials:

Websites:

Movement for Disability and VI Rights:

 


Worksheet 17a: Civil Rights Movements

Use what you learned from your discussions to answer the following questions about groups who struggled for their civil rights.

 1. Why are some groups denied their civil rights?

 

 

 

 2. Name three groups who started movements to advocate for their civil rights.

 

 

 

 

 3. What are three rights for which persons with visual impairment have advocated as a group.

 

 

 

 

 4. List three important events in the history of the struggle for civil rights of the visually impaired..

 

 

 

 

 5. Name one group that has advocated for the rights of persons who are visually impaired.

 

Topic: Participating in the Education Process - IEP Document and ARD Meeting

Unit 3 - Lesson 18:  Your Rights as a Student with a Visual Impairment

Topic: Participating in the Education Process - Individual Education Program (IEP) Document and the Admissions, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) Meeting

 Unit Goal: Students will recognize their rights as a person with a visual impairment and advocate for these rights within society and educational systems.

Lesson objective(s): Student is able to describe the components of an ARD meeting and participate in writing their own IEP

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step Actions Vocabulary
Anticipatory The ARD and IEP are tenets of the Individuals with Disabilities Act.  The student should be familiar with these and be able to be an active participant in the planning process.     

Introduction

 

As a student with a visual impairment, you are entitled to certain rights in school.  These rights are outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which includes an Individual Education Plan (IEP).  We are going to spend a few lessons on learning how to contribute to the creation of your own IEP, and the skills you would need to be able to comfortably participate in your ARD meeting.

(Review “What are my Rights As a Student With a Disability?”)

IDEA

ARD

IEP

Stating the Goal These lessons will teach you how to participate in the writing of your personal education plan, and give you some pointers on how to represent yourself at your ARD (IEP) meetings.   
Instruction Related to the IEP Explain that, according to IDEA, the IEP must focus on the student’s preferences, interests, needs and strengths. Every ARD meeting (called IEP meeting in other states) will discuss and write an IEP.  We will be working on how you can participate in writing and presenting your own IEP.
  1. Begin with the IEP Participation Student Rubric to get some idea on what your student knows.
  2. Show the student their own IEP.  Use “It’s All About Me! Understanding My IEP” for this activity.
  3. Begin one of the two student worksheets on understanding the parts of an IEP.  For elementary age: Complete “I’m Determined! I.D. Understanding and Preparing for My IEP”. This step may take more than one session. 
  4. Revisit the district’s IEP form.  Work with the student to fill in a blank IEP with their own information.  This could be used as a draft for their ARD meeting. 

Present Level of Performance

Accommodations

Annual Goals

Postsecondary Goals

Services

Transition

Participation in Statewide Testing

Instruction Related to the ARD Meeting

Explain that an ARD meeting is held to discuss the student’s educational programming, and each ARD meeting follows a format as per special education law (IDEA).  Restate your goal that the student participate in, and possibly lead, portions of the next ARD meeting, and that these activities will prepare him for this. 

  1. Briefly review the components of any ARD (IEP) meeting. See Simple ARD/IEP Agenda
  2. Print out IEP Participation Brochure (“Suggestions for Your Participation in the IEP Process”).  Use this to keep track of tasks that need to be done before, during, and after an ARD.
  3. One way a student can lead their ARD meeting is to introduce the meeting by sharing a presentation that reflects their preference, interests, needs and strengths. Samples of these can be found under “Sample Student PowerPoints”. Watch one of these with your student, then complete the “One Pager Implementation Guide” to give your student some ideas for creating his own PowerPoint.
  4. Create a PowerPoint with your student that can be presented at his next ARD.  Keep it short!  There is a blank IEP PowerPoint template that can be used for this.
  5. Use the IEP Participation Brochure (column called “During the Meeting”) to review the ARD meeting structure, and determine when might be the best time for your student to show his PowerPoint.
  6. Prior to the ARD meeting, check to see that the components of the first column (“Before the Meeting”) on the  IEP Participation Brochure have been completed or are in process.
  7. Practice (role play) student participation during an ARD meeting.  You both may decide that there are some parts of the meeting you (the teacher) will take, and parts the student will take.
  8. After the ARD meeting, complete the third column (“After the Meeting”) of the IEP Participation Brochure.
  9. Finish this segment on ARD meetings by completing the Student Exit Survey.  Discuss changes that could be made before the next ARD meeting

Evaluation data

Eligibility

PLAAFP

Assistive Technology

Annual Goals/Objectives

Related Services

Placement-LRE

 

Check for Understanding Use the I’m Determined website’s “Student Exit Survey” to check for understanding.  
Closure The information covered in these two activities helps you (the student) become a more self-determined individual.  It will be important for you to be able to represent yourself as the school team (including you!) discusses your future.   

 Rationale: The intent of this lesson is to educate the student about the required components of the IEP so that they can partner with their TVI in developing their own education plans.  In addition, students will learn how to represent their choices and opinions about their own education plans at the IEP/ARD meeting. 

Materials:

  • Computer or tablet to create a PowerPoint
  • Print or braille copies of the materials mentioned
  • Optical devices as needed to read print materials
  • Student’s IEP and ARD paperwork from previous ARD meeting

 Resources and Materials:

I’m Determined module on Student-Led IEPs http://www.imdetermined.org/quick_links/modules/module_four Also includes a PowerPoint (“Student-Led IEP PowerPoint) that teachers and parents should watch before beginning these lessons.           

Texas Project First:  Components of an ARD meeting in Texas:  ARD agenda with definitions

Important Words to Know About Me and My IEP

http://www.imdetermined.org/files_resources/90/importantwordslessonplan.pdf

It’s All About Me: Helping Students Create PowerPoint Presentations for IEP Meetings

http://www.imdetermined.org/resources/detail/02_iep_involvement_tool

Me!  Lessons for Teaching Self-Awareness and Self-Advocacy

http://www.ou.edu/education/centers-and-partnerships/zarrow/trasition-education-materials/me-lessons-for-teaching-self-awareness-and-self-advocacy.html

Videos from I’m Determined Website

Topic: Understanding the Differences in Legal Rights Between Secondary and Post-secondary Educational Settings

Unit 3 - Lesson 19:  Your Rights as a Student with a Visual Impairment

Topic: Understanding the Differences in Legal Rights Between Secondary and Post-secondary Educational Settings

Unit Goal: Students will recognize their rights as a person with a visual impairment and advocate for these rights within society and educational systems.

Lesson objective(s): The student will be able to discriminate between their legal rights in both secondary and postsecondary educational settings. 

Teaching procedures/steps:

Step Actions Vocabulary
Anticipatory Did you realize there are laws that function as guidelines and safe guards for you within educational systems?  As a consumer in an educational system, it would be empowering for you to be aware of these laws and know how to find information on them.  Empower
Introduction All through your public school life you have been educated under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which requires schools to provide a free, appropriate, public education in the least restrictive environment designed to meet your unique needs.   When you graduate, another law, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), will ensure that you will not be a subject of discrimination based on your visual impairment

IDEA

ADA

FAPE

 

Stating the Goal We are going to learn about the difference between these 2 laws, and how they will affect you in secondary and postsecondary settings.  
Instruction Review the 6 principles of IDEA with the student. Discuss how these principles relate to the student’s program.  Reinforce this concept/vocabulary using the IDEA matching cards.  Rights-Something that is due a person by law (voting, getting an education, etc.)
Instruction

An anti-discrimination law that protects you after high school:

ADA is a civil rights law that protects people with disabilities by requiring places to be accessible to people with disabilities. ADA is different than Section 504 because it applies to more places, such as transportation (public buses), telecommunication, as well as schools

Provide a print or braille copy of a document titled “American with Disabilities Act (ADA)” found at https://ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/hq9805.html Take turns reading through this document together.  Ask the student which of these regulations might apply to him now, or possibly in the near future. Take the ADA True/False Quiz.

Discrimination

Anti-Discrimination

 

Know Your Rights and Responsibilities

Discuss the fact that, after high school, the student will bear the responsibility of communicating with others about his adaptations and modifications in educational settings and on the job. 

Colorado State University has outlined the legal mandates that uphold the rights and responsibilities of qualified students with disabilities and faculty as they relate to a student’s participation in higher education and to making accommodations. Open this page, and review these with your student:  http://accessproject.colostate.edu/sa/modules/sec3/tut_sec3.php?display=pg_6

 

Relationship between your “rights” and your personal responsibility
  For students who will be transitioning to a college, trade school, or university, review this document: “College Preparation for Students with Disabilities Handbook”.  Play the “Roll the Dice IDEA vs. ADA Game” (instructions provided as a handout)  
Checking for Understanding

Use the document “ADA and IDEA Scenarios for Role Play” to review and reinforce what the student has learned. 

As you and the student prepare for IEP meetings, review the components that constitute a “right”, or the legally required components of IDEA that are reflected in the IEP and the IEP meeting. 

 

 Rationale: Students should understand that there are laws that protect them from discrimination as an individual with a visual impairment.  One law (IDEA) is monitored by adults (parents, teachers, administrators, disability agency caseworkers) while they are in a public school system.  When they graduate, another law (ADA) will provide them with the protection they might need to avoid discrimination due to their impairment in educational settings, on the job, and in the community.  Teachers can start to educate students about their protected rights under the law by explaining the IEP, for example, and by discussing the student’s responsibility to communicate their preferences/adaptations/modifications with others. 

Resources and materials:

 

19. a. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - Matching Cards

Use with Lesson 19

Instructions:  Cut these cards apart, mix them up, and match them back together. 

 Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

Students with a disability are entitled to this.  There should be services designed to meet a student’s unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living. 

Appropriate Evaluation

Schools are required to conduct appropriate evaluations of students that are administered on a non-discriminator basis.  Evaluations must determine and make recommendations regarding a student’s eligibility for special educations services. 

 Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

A written document which uses existing evaluation information in order to meet a student’s unique educational needs.  Must include:  present levels of educational performance, goals, objectives, services & supplementary aids. 

 Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

States that students with disabilities receive their education, to the maximum extent appropriate, with nondisabled peers and that special education students are not removed from regular classes unless, even with supplemental aids and services, education in regular classes cannot be achieved satisfactorily.

 Parent Participation

Parents are notified of evaluations, and involved in all meetings regarding their child’s placement.

 Procedural Safeguards

These protect parental access to information pertaining to placement/transition planning, and evaluations.  Procedures are put in place to resolve disagreements between parents and schools regarding student placement.

19. b. ADA Quiz

Select true or false for each question.

  1. Public buildings are required to provide braille labels on doors and elevators.  T    F
  2. Dog guides are not allowed on public transportation and in public buildings.  T   F
  3. An employer is required to provide reasonable accommodations to individuals with a disability.  T   F
  4. I will be expected to pay for reasonable accommodations on the job.  T   F
  5. I have to tell people about my visual impairment in postsecondary education settings order to receive specialized services from disability support services staff. T   F
  6. Accommodations are automatically provided for me in postsecondary education.  T   F
  7. There will be a “special teacher” assigned to me in postsecondary settings that can advocate for my special needs.  T    F
  8. “Self-Identify” to a potential employer means providing my name, address, and social security number.  T     F
  9. Documentation of my visual impairment can be my glasses prescription.  T     F
  10. When in postsecondary education, you are considered an adult in the eyes of the law. T   F

Answers: 1. T, 2. F, 3. T, 4. F, 5. T, 6. F, 7. F, 8. F, 9. F, 10. T

19. c. Roll the Dice IDEA vs. ADA Game

Materials

  • Dice (braille or regular)
  • 3 small baskets or boxes
  • Use the chart titled What Are the Differences Between High School and College? from the document “College Preparation for Students with Disabilities Handbook” (found on pp. 19-22).

Game Instructions

  1. Cut the squares out, mix them up, and place them in one container (box).  Have two empty baskets/boxes:  one labeled “IN HIGH SCHOOL”, and another labeled “IN COLLEGE”. 
  2. (In most situations, the teacher and student will be competing with one another)
  3. Player 1 rolls the dice, then draws a card out of the master pile.  Read the card, and place it in one of the other two baskets.  Check the master document to see if you are right.  If you placed it in the correct basket, you get to add the points on the dice.  Player 2 gets a turn. 

 

19. d. ADA and IDEA Scenarios for Role Play

 Tell how you would handle these situations:

  1. Juan is in the 6th grade.  His class goes to the computer lab every Thursday to work on a research project.  None of the computers in the lab have software he needs to be able to enlarge the print or read the screen.  Which law supports Juan?  What should Juan say or do to let his teacher know that this adaptation is necessary for him to complete the assignments? 
  2. Jessica goes to a community college and is studying to be an occupational therapy assistant.  Much of the reading she has to do involves medical diagrams and charts with print that is way too small for her to see. Is there a law that supports Jessica?  What should Jessica do?  (refer to Rights to Assistive Technology in Higher Education http://www.disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/557401.pdf )
  3. When Julia was in her senior year of high school, a TVI contacted all of her teachers to notify them of Julia’s visual diagnosis and how they (the teachers) could accommodate for Julia’s reduced acuity.  Now Julia has enrolled in a university, and she’s not sure who will do this on her behalf.  What does ADA law say about Julia’s rights? What should Julia do?  (refer to Differences between Secondary Education and Post-secondary Education….  See “Who is responsible for initiating service delivery?”)
  4. Jaxson, who is blind, is getting ready to go talk to his university disability office and then professors about some accommodations that would help him in school.  What are some things he should mention?  (refer to http://accessproject.colostate.edu/disability/index.php for these possible answers: Priority registration; Alternative testing arrangements such as extra time; a less distracting environment; provision of a reader/scribe; and use of a computer, including adaptive software and hardware; Course materials in an alternative format such as braille or digital; Braille labels: Adaptive lab equipment (talking thermometers, calculators, probes, timers).
  5. Kate is starting her first year at her local community college.  On the first day of school she could not find the women’s restroom so she just started opening doors.  Kate was desperate!  The first door opened to a broom closet, so she ran into some mops and brooms.  She opened a second door and a man yelled, “Hey!  This is the men’s restroom!” Which law mentions labeling in public buildings, and what does it say? What can Kate do? (see ADA Signage Requirements, 703.2 http://www.mtc-inc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Signage-Requirements11.pdf )
  6. Brock is in the 5th grade and has very low vision.  His IEP has goals and objectives listed for using an iPad to make classwork and teacher lectures accessible.  His TVI is working with him on these goals, and they want Brock to be able to upload homework files and connect to the interactive board via the internet.  However, his school is saying that no students can have internet access, which means Brock won’t be able to receive and send files with his teachers.  Is there are law that is being violated here?  What can Brock and his TVI do?  (refer to “Building the Legacy:  IDEA 2004”, http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,B,300%252E105