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Expanded Core Curriculum Content Areas Resource Mapping
Content AreaAssessmentsTeaching CurriculumResourcesPossible Gaps
Assistive Technology
  • EVALS (3)
  • WIAT model (3)
  • Assistive Technology for Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired: A Guide to Assessment (2)

 

  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • 2008 Access World Guide to Assistive Technology Products (2)
  • Itinerant Teaching: Tricks of the Trade for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments (2)

 

Technology
  • EVALS (3)
  • Assistive Technology for Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired: A Guide to Assessment (2)
  • Talking Typer (1)
  • Learn Keys (1)
  • Braille + Mobile Manager (1)
  • Refreshable Braille (1)
  • Verbal View of Windows (1)
  •  
  • Foundations of Education (2)

 

Career Education
  • EVALS (3)
  • Hands On (1)
  • Prevocational Skills Development Materials (1)
  • Going Places (1)
  • Transition Tote System (1)
  • Going Places (1)
  • Foundations of Education2
  • Business Owners who are Blind or Visually Impaired (2)
  • Career Perspectives (2)
  • College Bound (2)
  • A Practical Guide to the ADA and Visual Impairment (2)
  • Health Care Professionals who are Blind or Visually Impaired (2)
  • Jobs to be Proud Of
  • Skills for Success (2)
  • Teachers who are Blind or Visually Impaired (2)
  • A Parent’s Guide to Special Education for Children with Visual Impairments (2)

 

Compensatory
  • EVALS (3)
  • Assessment of Braille Literacy Skills (ABLS) (5)
  • Brigance (1)
  • Key Math (1)
  • K-Fast (1)
  • Woodcock-Johnson (1)
  • Growing Up (1)
  • Assessment Kit (3)

 

  • Building On Patterns (1)
  • Patterns (1)
  • Braille writing Dot by Dot (1)
  • Calendar System (1)
  • Tactile Treasures (1)
  • Move, Touch & Do (1)
  • Growing Up (1)
    • Effective Use of Objects (1)
    • PATTER (1)
    • Wilson Reading System (1)
    • Turbo Phonics (1)
    • Word Play House (1)
    • StackUps (1)
    • Math Builders (1,6) (1)
    • Focus in Math (1)
    • Beginning Abacus (1)
    • Sense of Science Series (1)
    • Address Earth (1)
    • Maps Represent Real Places (1)
    • Recognizing Landforms (1)
    • Walk/Run for Fitness (1)
    • Jump Rope to Fitness (1)
    • Expandable Calendar Boxes (1)
    • Tactile Connections (1)
    • Fun Braille (1)
    • Braille Contraction Recognition (1)
    • Touch and Tell (1)
    • Freund Longhand Writing (1)
    • Web Chase (1)
    • Scattered Crowns (1)
    • Braille Fundamental (3)
    • Un’s the One (3)

 

  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • Braille Literacy: A functional Approach (2)
  • Reach Out & Teach (2)
  • Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Multiple Impairments (2)
  • Foundations of Braille Literacy (2)
  • Guidelines & Games for Teaching Efficient Braille Reading (2)
  • Hand in Hand: Essentials of Communication and O&M for students who are deafblind (2)
  • Instructional strategies for Braille Literacy (2)
  • Looking to Learn: Promoting Literacy Skills in Students with Low Vision (2)
  • Making the Most of Early Communication (2)
  • Focused On: Social Skills (2)
  • How to Thrive, Not Just Survive (2)
  • Teaching Social Skills to Students with Visual Impairments (2)
  • Beginning with Braille: Firsthand Experiences with a Balanced Approach to Literacy (2)

 

Independent Living
  • EVALS (3)
  • Brigance (1)
  • Oregon Project4
  • INSITE (7)

 

  • Sherlock Talking Label Identifier (1)
  • Making Picture Recipes (1)
  • Money Handling & Budgeting (1)
  • Money Talks (1)
  • Reclaiming Independece (1)
  • Independent Living Series (3)
  • INSITE (7)
  • Oregon Project (4)
  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • How to Thrive, Not Just Survive (2)
  • Early Focus: Working with Young Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired (2)
  • Toward Independence: The Use of Instructional Objectives in Teaching Daily Living Skills (2)
  • Reach Out and Teach (2)

 

O&M
  • EVALS (3)
  • TAPS (3)
  • Twist, Turn, & Learn (1)
  • PATTER (1)
  • TAPS (3)
  • Mini Guide (1)
  • K-Sonar Curriculum Guide (1)
  • Chang Kit (1)
  • Picture Maker: Wheatley Board (1)
  • PATTER (1)
  • Walk/Run for Fitness (1)
  • Jump Rope to Fitness (1)
  • Miniguide US (1)
  • O&M Tactile Graphics (1)
  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • Imagining the Possibilities (2)
  • Independent without Sight or Sound (2)
  • Early Focus: Working with Young Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired and Their Families (2)
  • An Orientation & Mobility Primer for Families and Young Children (2)
  • O&M Techniques: A Guide for the Practitioner (2)
  • Reach Out and Teach (2)
  • English/Spanish Basics for O&M Instructors (2)
  • Collaborative Assessment (2)
  • Foundations of Orientation and Mobility (2)
  • Hand in Hand (2)
  • How to Thrive, Not Just Survive (2)
  • The Art & Science of Teaching O&M2
  • Simon Says Is not the Only Game (2)
  • Teaching O&M in the Schools: An Instructor’s Companion (2)

 

Recreation/Leisure
  • EVALS (3)
  • Guided Art Stories (1)
  • Time for Art Projects (1)
  • Portable Sound Source (1)
  • Walk/Run for Fitness (1)
  • Jump Rope to Fitness (1)
  • Armadillo Army Software (1)
  • Termite Torpedo Software (1)
  • Toodle Tiles (1)
  • Web Chase (1)
  • Game Kit (1)
  • Wooden Constructo Sets (1)
  • Independent Living Series (3)
  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • Art Beyond Sight: A Resource Guide (2)
  • Creative Recreation for Blind and Visually Impaired Adults (2)
  • How to Thrive, Not Just Survive (2)
  • Reaching Out: A Creative Access Guide for Designing Exhibits & Cultural Services for Persons who are Blind or Visually Impaired (2)

 

Self-Determination
  • EVALS (3)
  • PATTER (1)
  • Oregon Project4

 

  • PATTER (1)
  • Web Chase (1)
  • Empowered (3)
  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • College Bound (2)
  • Skills for Success (2)
  • Teaching Social Skills to Students with Visual Impairments (2)
  • A Parent’s Guide to Special Education for Children with Visual Impairements (2)
  • Loving You (1)

 

Sensory Efficiency - Auditory
  • EVALS (3)
  • Sensory Learning Kit (1)
  • INSITE (7)
  • Growing Up (8)
  • Oregon Project (4)

 

  • Listen & Think (1)
  • Sensory Learning Kit (1)
  • SAM (1)
  • Guided Art Stories (1)
  • Portable Sound Source (1)
  • Foundations of Education (2)

 

 

Sensory Efficiency - Tactual
  • EVALS (3)
  • Tactile Treasures (1)
  • INSITE (7)

 

  • Setting the Stage (1)
  • Sensory Learning Kit
  • SAM (1)
  • Tactile Treasures (1)
  • Twist, Turn, Learn (1)
  • Tangle Toy (1)
  • Rolling into Place (1)
  • StackUps (1)
  • Basic Science Tactile Graphics (1)
  • Basic Tactile Anatomy1 Atlas
  • World at your Fingers (1)
  • Address Earth (1)
  • Maps Represent Real Places (1)
  • Time for Art (1)
  • Tactile Connections (1)
  • Touch and Tell (1)
  • Teaching Touch (1)
  • Draftsman Tactile Drawing Board (1)
  • Graphic Art Tape (1)
  • O&M Tactile Graphics (1)
  • Picture Maker: Wheatley Board (1)
  • Students who are Deafblind using APH Products (1)
  • Scattered Crowns (1)
  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • Tactile Leaning Strategies (2)
  • Hand in Hand (2)
  • Independence without Sight or Sound (2)
  • Tactile Graphics (2)
  • Tactile Leaning Strategies (2)

 

 

Sensory Efficiency - Visual
  • EVALS (3)
  • FVALMA (1)
  • ISAVE (1)
  • Sensory Learning Kit (1)
  • TOAD1
  • Vision Tests for Infants (2)
  • INSITE (7)
  • Growing Up (8)
  • Oregon Project (4)

 

  • Envision (I & II) (1)
  • Program to Develop Efficiency in Visual Functioning (1)
  • Sensory Learning Kit (1)
  • SAM (1)
  • Sense of Science Series (1)
  • Let’s See (1)
  • Light Box Activity Guide (1)
  • INSITE (7)
  • Growing Up (8)
  • Oregon Project (4)

 

  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • What Can Baby See? (2)
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders and Visual Impairments (2)
  • Cortical Visual Impairment (2)
  • Early Focus: Working with Young Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired and Their Families (2)
  • Essential Elements in Early Intervention (2)
  • Foundations of Low Vision (2)
  • Functional Vision: A Practitioner’s Guide (2)
  • Independence without Sight of Sound (2)
  • Looking to Learn (2)
  • Preschool Vision Stimulation (2)
  • InFocus with Low Vision Kit (6)
  • Ben and Buzzy's Busy Days (6)

 

Social Interaction
  • INSITE (7)
  • Oregon Project (4)
  • Growing Up (8)
  • Sensory Learning Kit (1)
  • EVALS (3)
  • PATTER (1)
  • PATTER (1)
  • Independent Living Series (3)
  • Getting to Know You---Social Skills/Ability Awareness Curriculum (1)
  • Sensory Learning Kit (1)
  • INSITE (7)
  • Oregon Project (4)
  • Growing Up (8)

 

  • Foundations of Education (2)
  • Development of Social Skills by Blind and Visually Impaired Students (2)
  • Web Chase (1)

 

 

The items cited above are available from the following:

  1. American Printing House for the Blind .  www.aph.org   
  2. American Foundation for the Blind Press  www.afb.org
  3. Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired Curriculum Department. http://www.tsbvi.edu/curriculum-a-publications
  4. The Oregon Project for Preschool Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired. South Oregon Education Service District, http://www.soesd.k12.or.us/sectionindex.asp?sectionid=132
  5. Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School.  Available through Educational Service Center- Region 4  http://www.region4store.com/Catalog.aspx?catid=347927&itmid=348557
  6. Education Service Center – Region 4. http://www.region4store.com/Catalog.aspx?catid=347927&itmid=669829
  7. SKI-HI Institute, Utah State University.  http://skihi.org/INSITE.html
  8. Growing Up.  Reference to be added

Winter 2010 Table of Contents
Versión Español de este artículo (Spanish Version)

by Elizabeth Eagan, CTVI, Houston Independent School District

Abstract: Expanded Core Curriculum instruction can be integrated into standard academic instruction and routine daily tasks, with planning and support including the itinerant vision teacher, classroom teacher, and parents.

Keywords: blind, visually impaired, education, expanded core curriculum.

 

“The grass is always greener on the other side” son on the other side knows what fertilizer to buy, I often heard growing up. But is it? Is the grass when to water their grass, when to mow, what only greener on the other side because the per-weed killer to use, etc? Why not learn from the expert on the other side so that my grass will be just as green? In order for students with visual impairments to learn from the expert on greener grass, they must first be given the tools to do so. These students need to have in their tool box an arsenal of strategies and competencies to aid them on their road of green grass discovery.

Having a tool box is vital to students with visual impairments because they need to be taught the skills that normally sighted individuals learn through the power of observation. What is learned through observation, imitation, and feedback from the adult will go unnoticed by students with visual impairments. The Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) gives these students a list of competencies and strategies for fulfilling them.

Students with visual impairments need to be able to communicate effectively; being able to hear what has been said is equally as important as relaying one’s thoughts to others. If others don’t hear what has been said, then the message has been lost. Knowing where and how to get to the stores to buy the fertilizer, how to comparison price shop, how to read the directions on the fertilizer, what equipment is needed to use the fertilizer, and then enjoying the grass once it is greener with friends and family are all vitally important.

The ECC includes skills that are not part of the core curriculum of reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies. Without this expanded core, a student with a visual impairment is not able to actively participate in the world. Without learning banking skills, for example a student may think money just magically appears to anyone out of a machine on a wall. These students must learn the process that leads up to the ATM giving you money.

For every subject taught in school there is a way to tie it into the ECC. For example, when looking at the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) objectives for 4th grade:

§110.6. English Language Arts and Reading

(4.15) Writing/purposes: The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes, and in a variety of forms. (F) The student is expected to choose the appropriate form for his/her own purpose for writing, including journals, letters, reviews, poems, narratives, and instructions (4-5).

The objective is clearly defined. Educators simply need to review the nine ECC areas individually and consider how one might incorporate them. Following is an example of how I have incorporated the nine ECC areas in this TEKS objective.

  • Assistive Technology
    The student will utilize a computer or note taking device to write reviews after reading books. The student writes the reviews as a newspaper critic, a book jacket review, an Amazon website review, etc.
  • Compensatory
    The student will write poetry utilizing the different parts of speech and punctuation correctly. Students will utilize free verse, diamante poems, etc.
  • Career Education/Transition
    Invite a journalist from the local paper to talk with the student about writing as a career path. Get with classroom teacher to arrange this activity for entire class or as a pull out activity.
  • Independent Living Skills
    The student will be assigned a pen pal with a similar visual disability at another campus or in another town. Letters will be exchanged via email or US mail.
  • Orientation and Mobility
    The student will keep a travel journal of different routes, contacts, and businesses visited through out the school year. Collaborate with O &M instructor.
  • Recreation and Leisure
    The student will start a diary of thoughts, poetry, or what ever the student wishes as a means to put ones thoughts to paper. The student will be assured that only the pages the student wishes to share will be viewed.
  • Self-determination
    The student will write a letter to a city councilman, state representative, senator, etc. of their choice vocalizing a personal of any type, ranging from accessibility to crime.
  • Social Interaction Skills
    The student will create an address book or use a commercial one (APH’s EZ Track Address Book) gathering phone numbers of friends, family, local business, and other persons of interest. Business cards should be included for future reference.
  • Visual Efficiency Skills
    The student will edit a selected written passage for misspellings and punctuation errors. I have given the student a passage I have created, or one from another student, as well as working on editing his or her own work.

Begin work from the student’s comfort level and gradually increase the complexity. Include the parents and classroom teachers as much as possible. One of my favorite activities is to have my students interview their parents on how they do a task. This gives the students an opportunity to see their parents as the expert and to learn from them.

Teaching the ECC is a joint effort by all on the educational team. Collaboration with the classroom teacher is vital in assisting the student to be a well-rounded individual on the road to independence. Learning what TEKS objectives, units, and activities are upcoming in academic classes is an excellent way to brain storm with the teacher on ways to incorporate the ECC into the curriculum. Recruiting parents and other family members to assist with activities where they feel comfortable is icing on the cake. This provides the family a chance to be the experts as well as continuing their role as a life-long support system.

The grass on the other side of the fence isn’t just greener; the owner’s of the grass is merely more knowledgeable due to their vast number of experiences. Once the student with a visual impairment gains knowledge due to numerous experiences, his or her grass will be greener, and become the envy of the neighborhood.

 

Do:

  1. Encourage independence.
  2. Encourage leisure skills (both personal and group types).
  3. Learn survival skills (handling money, traveling, etc.)
  4. Practice reciprocal conversation.
  5. Learn acceptable manners.
  6. Learn to manage temper. (A sense of humor helps a lot!)
  7. Learn the difference between assertiveness and aggression.
  8. Learn the basics of good grooming.
  9. Develop a knowledge of the world of work.
  10. Develop helping skills.
  11. Learn coping strategies ("What do I do if .........
  12. Learn to show appreciation and reciprocal behaviors.
  13. Learn the vernacular.
  14. Conform to group mores until comfortable with the group. (Individualism is good, but not until it is appropriate.)
  15. During the learning period, keep anxiety at a minimum by making social situations brief.

Don't:

  1. Teach skills in isolation; they must be transferable.
  2. Expect to be like someone else; each person is unique.
  3. Over schedule activities; hurrying creates confusion.
  4. Monopolize conversations; listening is part of the game.
  5. Expect special privileges; "belonging" means fitting in.
  6. Expect others to solve your problems; learn to problem solve independently.
  7. Confuse aggressive and assertive; one feels angry, while the other is calm.
  8. Expect perfection; Rome wasn't built in a day!
  9. Accept withdrawal; social means interaction.
  10. Try to joke too early; humor is a useful tool, but can be embarrassing if used inappropriately.

Tips For Parents:

  1. Teach acceptable manners, in various situations.
  2. Teach practical skills.
  3. Encourage problem‑solving.
  4. Encourage independence.
  5. Encourage the development of interests/talents/capabilities.
  6. Discuss social situations, before and after...
  7. Provide structured activities that practice social skills.
  8. Encourage group participation.
  9. Help your child dress as his/her peers do.
  10. Explain visual cues/body language.
  11. Don't accept inappropriate behavior - EVER!
  12. Give family responsibilities, and expect performance.

The visually handicapped child has only others to teach appropriate social skills; silence does not teach these skills.

Adapted from a presentation about social skills at the CEC Conference in San Francisco, April 3-7, 1989.

Presentor was Olivia Schoenberger, Vision Consultant, ESC Region 19, El Paso