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A Paraprofessionals Handbook for Working with Students who are Visually Imapaired

by Cyral Miller and Nancy Levack (Editors)
© TSBVI 1997 - 188 pages Order # 59431PHP (15 oz.)
Also available on disk - MAC or DOS (textfile-no forms) Order # 59431PHD

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Go to Table of Contents for this book.

Assistance for the paraprofessional's unique role in providing educational programming

  • Brief descriptions of social skills, daily living skills, and orientation and mobility skills and their importance
  • Specific points related to the paraprofessional's role
  • Suggestions and tips that may be helpful when working with your students
  • Resources and references enhancing know-how
  • Information about technology and its applications
  • Information about adapting material, equipment, and environment
  • Special considerations for students who have visual and multiple impairments
  • Plan and implement programming by using these guidelines and suggestions for assessing and enhancing your student's visual functioning

 

Contents of A Paraprofessional's Handbook for Working with Students
Who Are Visually Impaired

by Cyral Miller and Nancy Levack (Eds.)

Overview by Nancy Levack and Cyral Miller

  • What Is The Role Of The Paraprofessional?
    • Definition of Role
    • Roles and Responsibilities of Other Related Service Personnel
  • What Is a Visual Impairment?
    • Use of Senses
    • Language Development
    • Prompting
    • What is Deafblindness?
  • General Suggestions
  • Additional Reading
    • References

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Social Skills by Kitty Ramsey

  • What Are Social Skills?
  • Why Are They Important?
  • Why Teach Social Skills?
  • The Paraprofessional's Role
  • Suggestions
    • Body Language
    • Classroom Skills
    • Cooperative Skills
  • Additional Reading
  • Go to top

Daily Living Skills by Nancy Levack and Cyral Miller

  • What Are Daily Living Skills?
  • Why Are They Important?
  • Why Teach Daily Living Skills?
  • The Paraprofessional's Role
  • Suggestions
    • Organizational Skills
    • Self-Advocacy
    • Personal Hygiene
    • Personal Appearance
    • Eating and Drinking
    • Food Preparation
    • Dressing and Clothing Care
    • Health and Safety
  • Additional Reading

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Orientation and Mobility Skills by Sharon Trusty and Olga Uriegas

  • What Are Orientation and Mobility Skills?
  • Why are Orientation and Mobility Skills Important?
  • Why Teach Orientation and Mobility Skills?
  • The Paraprofessional's Role
  • Suggestions
    • Concepts
    • Body Image
    • Sensory Training
    • Motor Development
    • Specific Travel Techniques
    • Activities
  • Additional Reading

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Technology by Debra Leff, Barbara Perdichi, Cecilia Robinson, and Debra Sewell

  • What Is Technology?
  • Why Is It Important?
  • Why Teach Technology?
  • Changes in Technology
  • The Paraprofessional's Role
  • Suggestions
    • Posture and Positioning
    • Placement of Device
    • Using Technology Tools
  • Information About Different Kinds of Technology
    • Switches
    • Augmentative Communication Devices
    • Alternative Keyboards
    • Enlarging Systems and Devices
    • Tactual Graphics
    • Notetaking Devices
    • Reference Systems
    • Math Devices
    • Computer Systems
  • Additional Reading

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Adaptation by Chrissy Cowan

  • What Materials Need Adaptation?
    • Preschool Programs
    • Kindergarten
    • Grades 1-5
    • Grades 6-12
    • Textbooks
  • Why Is Adaptation Important?
  • The Paraprofessional's Role
    • Communication
    • Organization
    • Information About Equipment Used for Adapting Material
  • Suggestions
    • Modifying Print
    • Preparing Tactual Graphics
  • Additional Reading

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Students With Multiple Impairments by Debra Sewell, Millie Smith, Frankie Swift, and Joyce West

  • Who Are Students with Multiple Impairments?
  • What Are Important Goals for These Students?
  • The Paraprofessional's Role
  • Suggestions
    • Teaming
    • Assessment
    • Vision
    • Use of Touch
    • Movement
    • Communication
    • Behavior
  • Additional Reading

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Appendix

  • Addresses for Ordering Adapted Material and Equipment
  • Printed Resources
  • Video Training Material
  • Index


Information for Occupational and Physical Therapists Working with Students with Visual Impairments

By Chris Strickling, OTR
© TSBVI 1998 - 42 pages Order # 59420VMP (4 oz.)

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As the title states, occupational and physical therapists will welcome this informative booklet when working with children who are visually impaired. Ms. Strickling offers insightful information on:

  • Vision and early development, and how incidental learning needs to be compensated
  • Movement and how it influences primitive reflexes and postural tone
  • Sensation and how it impacts proprioceptive and vestibular input
  • Common postural characteristics of children with visual impairments and intervention techniques
  • Whole body stimulation and awareness
  • Visual diagnoses
  • The importance of teaming orientation and mobility instructors, adaptive physical education teachers, teachers of the visually impaired, physical and occupational therapists, and parents
  • Educational impacts of low vision in regards to tactual and incidental learning, special positioning needs, environmental considerations, and social relationships

Table of Contents

  • Vision and Early Development
  • Movement
  • Sensation
  • Common Postural Characteristics
  • Common Problems with Hand Function
  • Understanding Visual Diagnoses
  • The Importance of Teaming
  • Educational Impacts of Low Vision
  • Resources

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By Virginia E. Bishop, Ph.D.
©TSBVI 2006 270 pp Order # 59400 BISH
also available as a text file

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The present is a product of the past. You have to know where you've been to understand where you are, and where you should be going. To help us understand where we've been, Dr. Virginia Bishop has compiled a history of services to blind and visually impaired infants and preschoolers. This book provides solid informational background of how we arrived where we are today, and serves as a reminder to all of us that we have a rich heritage of serving children, birth to five. This history chronicles the evolution of services and depicts the legacy of the leaders in our field.

Contents

  • Introduction
  • Beginnings
  • The RLF Era
  • Changing Times (1950s and 1960s)
  • The Government Steps In (1970s)
  • The Expansion Years (1980s and 1990s)
  • Into the Twenty-First Century
  • Appendices

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Making Evaluation Meaningful: Determining additional eligibilities and appropriate instructional strategies for blind and visually impaired students
Determining additional eligibilities and appropriate instructional strategies for blind and visually impaired students

By Marnee Loftin
© TSBVI 2006 430 pp Order # 59443MEM also available as a textfile

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Table of Contents

Meaningful evaluation of students with a visual impairment is an especially complicated task. The population of students with visual impairment is diverse. Often these students have additional impairments that impact their growth and progress. The combined effects must be closely examined to determine effective instructional strategies. Meaningful evaluation will depend on the knowledge and ability of staff to administer tests and interpret results. Good evaluation and assessment results are essential to provide a foundation for the educational planning process.

This book, Making Evaluation Meaningful, is intended to provide guidance to evaluation personnel, teachers of the visually impaired, and families in making the best possible decisions regarding student evaluation. The beginning chapters include basic information about the characteristics of students with visual impairment, as well as information about preparing for evaluation, including helpful observation and interview protocols.

The individual chapters of this guide include pertinent information on types of testing such as Intelligence Testing, Adaptive Behavior Testing, Emotional Behavior Testing, and Educational Evaluations. Specifically addressed are many of the additional impairments seen in our student population, such as Mental Retardation, Learning Disabilities, Autism/Pervasive Development Disorders (PDD), Traumatic Brain Injury, and Significant Multiple Impairment. Extensive Case Studies are included for each of these chapters to allow readers to understand how the concepts are applied in an evaluation situation.


Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • Glossary of Educational Terminology Used in this Book

Chapter I

  • Introduction
  • Evaluation of Students with Visual Impairments
  • Characteristics of Students with Visual Impairments
  • Issues That May Impact Learning and Development
  • Visual Impairment is Not a Single Condition

Chapter II

  • Preparing for Evaluation
  • Determining the Need for Evaluation
  • Beginning an Evaluation
  • Information for Parents About Evaluation
  • Consultation Between TVI and Evaluation Staff
  • Functional Vision Evaluation and Learning Media Assessment: Impact on Evaluation 33
  • Cautions in Identification of Other Eligibilities
  • General Guidelines for Testing Students with Visual Impairments
  • Evaluation Checklist
  • Diagnostic Do's
  • Diagnostic Don'ts
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Functional Vision Evaluation/Learning Media Assessment Report 1
  • Functional Vision Evaluation/Learning Media Assessment Report 2

Chapter III

  • Observations and Interviews
  • Observation During the Evaluation Process
  • Interviews as a Source of Information
  • Observation and Interview Forms

Chapter IV

  • Intelligence
  • General Information
  • Possible Impact of Visual Impairment on Specific Subtests of the WISC/WAIS
  • Frequently Asked Questions

Chapter V

  • Adaptive Behavior
  • General Information
  • Frequently Asked Questions

Chapter VI

  • Emotional Behavior
  • General Information
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Case Study  

Chapter VII

  • Educational Evaluations
  • General Information
  • Gifted and Talented
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Educational Report 1 - Informal Reading Inventory (Print)
  • Educational Report 2 - Informal Reading Inventory (Braille)
  • Educational Report 3 - Key Math Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics

Chapter VIII

  • Mental Retardation
  • General Information
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Case Study

Chapter IX

  • Learning Disabilities
  • General Information
  • Summary of Suggested Procedure for Determination of Learning Disabilities in a Student
  • with Visual Impairment
  • Suggested Summary Statement
  • Other Characteristics of Specific Learning Disabilities
  • Auditory Processing Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Case Study 1

Chapter X

  • Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • General Information for Autism/PPD
  • Autistic Disorders in Students with Visual Impairments
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Case Study
  • Asperger's Disorder
  • Significant Differences
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Case Study

Chapter XI

  • Traumatic Brain Injury and Other Neurological Insults
  • General Information
  • Federal Educational Guidelines Information
  • Eventual Prognosis for Recovery
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Case Study

Chapter XII

  • Significant Multiple Impairments
  • General Information
  • General Guidelines
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Case Study

Chapter XIII

  • Instructional Strategies
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Auditory Processing Problems
  • Autism/PDD
  • Asperger's Disorder
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Mental Retardation
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • Traumatic Brain Injury

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A " VI Eligibility Criteria
  • Appendix B " Additional Facts about Specific Visual Conditions
  • Appendix C " References
  • Appendix D " Sources for Evaluation Materials

by Alan J. Koenig and M. Cay Holbrook
© TSBVI 1995 - 220 pages Order # 59423LMP (22 oz.)
Also available on disk - MAC or DOS (textfile-no forms) Order # 59423LMD

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A limited quantity of paper braille books are available. Please indicate on the order form when you want to order a braille edition.

Go to Table of Contents of this book.

A how-to resource guide for assessing and evaluating appropriate learning and literacy media for your student including reproducible forms

  • Designed for teachers and diagnosticians working with visually impaired students of all ages:
    • Infants and preschoolers
    • Students in academic programs
    • Students with additional disabilities
  • Featured topics:
    • Use of sensory channels
    • Determining types of general learning media
    • Selecting literacy media
    • Making decisions about functional learning and literacy media

Contents of Learning Media Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments:
A Resource Guide

by Alan J. Koenig and M. Cay Holbrook

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • Learning Media and Literacy
  • What is Learning Media Assessment?
  • Braille Legislation
    • Typical Requirements
    • Using this Guide
  • Overview of the Learning Media Assessment
    • Sensory Channels
    • General Learning Media
    • Literacy Media
    • Conventional and Functional Literacy Programs
    • Best Practices
  • Diagnostic Teaching
    • An Illustration
    • Holistic Assessment
    • Initial Decision
    • Continuous Assessment
  • Assessing When English is a Second Language
  • Summary

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Chapter 2: Use of Sensory Channels

  • Overview
  • Applicable Populations
  • Materials
  • Procedures
    • Using Form 2: Use of Sensory Channels
    • Interpretation of Data
  • Case Studies
  • Summary

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Chapter 3: Determining Types of General Learning Media

  • Overview
  • Applicable Populations
  • Materials
  • Procedures
    • Using Form 3: General Learning Media Checklist
    • Interpretation of Data
  • Case Studies
  • Summary

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Chapter 4: Selecting Literacy Media: Initial Decision

  • Overview
  • Applicable Populations
  • When to Make a Decision
    • Using Form 4: Indicators of Readiness for a Conventional Literacy Program
    • Interpretation of Data
  • Materials
  • Procedures
    • Using Form 5: Initial Selection of Literacy Medium
    • Additional Observations
    • Interpretation of Data
    • Making a Decision
  • Case Studies
  • Decision-Making Guide
    • Use of Sensory Information
    • Working Distances and Size Preferences
    • Information on Visual Impairment
    • Information on Additional Disabilities
  • Summary

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Chapter 5: Selecting Literacy Media: Continuing As:essment

  • Overview
  • Applicable Populations
  • Materials
  • Procedures
    • Using Form 6: Continuing Assessment of Literacy Media
    • Additional Information on Visual Functioning
    • Reading Efficiency
    • Academic Achievement
    • Handwriting
    • Literacy Tools
    • Using Form 7: Literacy Tools Inventory
    • Interpretation of Data
  • Case Study
  • Decision-Making Guide
    • Additional Information on Visual Functioning
    • Reading Efficiency
    • Academic Achievement
    • Handwriting
    • Literacy Tools
  • Summary

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Chapter 6: Selecting Learning and Literacy Media for Students with Additional Disabilities

  • Overview
    • Diagnostic Teaching
  • Applicable Populations
  • Materials
  • Procedures
    • Using Form 2: Use of Sensory Channels
    • Interpretation of Data
    • Using Form 8: Functional Learning Media Checklist
    • Interpretation of Data
    • Using Form 9: Indicators of Readiness for a Functional Literacy Program
    • Interpretation of Data
    • Using Form 10: Initial Selection of Functional Literacy Medium
    • Interpretation of Data
    • Using Form 11: Continuing Assessment of Functional Literacy Media
    • Interpretation of Data
  • Case Study
  • Decision-Making Guide
  • Summary

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Appendices

  • Appendix A: Texas Braille Bill and Regulations
  • Appendix B: Benefits of Braille
  • Appendix C: Continuing Assessment: Selection of Appropriate Print Media for Students with Low Vision
    • Overview
    • Applicable Populations
    • Materials
    • Screening Version
    • Comprehensive Version
    • Data Collection
    • Data Analysis
    • Interpretation
  • Appendix D: Qualitative Analysis System: Guidelines for Use
  • Appendix E: Reading Strategy Lessons
  • Appendix F: Selected Informal Reading Inventories
  • Appendix G: Blank Assessment Forms
  • Appendix H: Quick Reference Guide

References

Glossary

Index

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A Guide for Speech-Language Pathologists

by Maria L. Muñoz, M.A., CCC-SLP
© TSBVI 1998 - 42 pages Order # 59420LAI (4 oz.)

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This booklet hopes to give Speech and Language Pathologists (SLPs) some guidelines for providing appropriate assessment and intervention services to children with visual impairments by addressing issues such as:

  • Understanding visual impairment
  • Developmental differences between children with vision and those who are visually impaired
  • Assessment and intervention strategies and adaptations
  • Considerations for infants and culturally and linguistically diverse students

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Visual Impairments - What SLPs should know
  • Language Development
    • The Importance of Experience
    • Developmental Differences
    • First Words
    • Pre-Linguistic Communication
    • Expressive and Receptive Language
    • Developmental Red Flags
  • Assessment
    • The Importance of Teamwork
    • Standardized Tests
    • Informal Assessment Procedures
    • Assessment Administration Considerations
  • Intervention
    • The Importance of Team Work
    • Effective Intervention Strategies
    • Calendar Systems
    • Tactual Symbols
    • Experience Stories
    • Video-, Story-, and Song-Based Activities
    • Classroom-Based Intervention
    • Conversation Groups
  • Special Considerations for Children Birth to Three
  • Multicultural Issues
    • Limited English Proficient Children
    • Attitudes and Expectations
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography

Infants and Toddlers with Visual Impairments

by
Virginia E. Bishop, Ph.D.
1998

PREFACE

In 1991, Region XIII Education Service Center asked me to put together a little handbook for their early childhood teachers, to help them understand the possible effects of visual impairments on early learning. Apparently, the handbook met a need, for requests have come for it from all over Texas, from other locations in the United States, and from early childhood programs in other countries.

In 1996, the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired asked me to update the handbook, for inclusion in a vision screening packet. Materials were intended to help early childhood personnel identify young children who might be visually impaired, so that appropriate referrals could be made for medical follow-up and the inclusion of a VI professional educator on the early intervention team.

The title of the original manual - Preschool Children with Visual Impairments - suggests that it is most useful with the 3-5 age group, and many of the ideas for programming are appropriate for that age range. Since there was no specific emphasis on the birth-to-3 age group, this accompanying handbook has been written to fill that gap. It is intended that the two handbooks be used together, since many basic philosophies and ideas expressed in the original handbook will not be repeated in this manual. Moreover, the first handbook may be used as a reference for the second. (See Table of Contents for the original manual, in the Appendix of this handbook.) The two manuals together should provide a continuum of information and ideas for young children with visual impairments. It is hoped that the reader will refer to both guides as needed.

VB

Dr. Virginia Bishop; 4312 Duval St. #206; Austin, TX 78751

INTRODUCTION

P.L. 99-457 extended access to special services for children with disabilities down to birth. Part of this mandate, however, allowed each state's governor to decide which state agency would oversee the provision of services for the Birth-to-3 age group. Some states' education departments were given this responsibility, simply extending their already mandated preschool services down to include the B-3 age group. In the state of Texas (as in some other states), the Department of Health was appointed as the "lead agency," so it is the early childhood specialists working under the Department of Health umbrella of services, who locate, evaluate, and provide leadership in coordinating services for disabled children from birth to age 3.

A "Memorandum of Agreement" between the Interagency Council on Early Childhood Intervention and the Texas Education Agency establishes a "statewide system of services which ensures that all children, birth to two, with auditory and/or visual impairments, receive services as outlined in Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and subsequent amendments." (from the Memorandum). It is this agreement that creates the cooperative arrangement between early childhood interventionists (ECI), school districts, and VI teachers. It places responsibility for screening and identifying young children with possible visual impairments on the ECI personnel; referral is made to the local school district who will add the VI teacher to the IFSP team when the child has a visual impairment. Not only will VI teachers perform the state mandated Functional Vision Evaluation (which ECI personnel are not certified to do), but they can also do a Learning Media Assessment and contribute valuable information to the program planning process. They can also make suggestions for early intervention activities which can help to alleviate or eliminate delays in development caused by visual impairments. The VI teacher can provide direct and/or consultative services to families & their VI children.

This handbook is intended to help ECI personnel understand the importance of early identification, and how visual impairments may impede development if appropriate intervention is not provided. The cooperative efforts of both ECI staff and VI teachers is essential if infants and toddlers with visual impairments are to have the opportunities to develop, learn, and realize their potential.

(especially when teaching social and recreational skills)

by Valerie Perwein & Nancy Levack
© TSBVI 1996 - 48 pages Order # 59421ILS (7 oz.)
Note: This curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder.

This booklet can serve as a basis for inservice, especially when using the Independent Living Curriculum to teach from.

  • Information about teaching social and recreational skills
  • How to choose the right objectives and teaching strategies
  • Examples of teaching strategies
  • Question and strategy forms

Independent Living: Activity Routines

©TSBVI Revised 2009 - 258 pp. - Order # 59421IAP or textfile (22 oz.)

A collection of routines for the following goals from the Independent Living curriculum:

  • Personal Hygiene and Grooming
  • Eating
  • Food Management
  • Housekeeping
  • Money

Each routine refers to target skills from the curriculum and points out the specific challenges related to visual impairment a student may encounter. Suggested materials, methods, and adaptations will help in instruction. Sequenced steps outline the basic routine. Special considerations for students who have multiple disabilities are included also. The routines are sold unbound printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for ring binders. (258 pp.)

Assessment & Ongoing Evaluation booklet

© TSBVI 1993 - 148 pages Order # 59421ILE (18 oz.), or database Order # 59421AED

 

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Contents for Independent Living: A Curriculum with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments

by Robin Loumiet and Nancy Levack

Description and Use

  • Philosophy
  • Description and Use of the Curriculum
    • Curriculum Design
    • Intended Population
    • Who Can Use the Curriculum
    • Where to Use the Curriculum
    • How to Use the Curriculum
  • Description of the Goal and Skills Section
    • General Considerations for Teaching
    • Skills and Teaching Suggestions
    • What the Icons Mean
  • Descriptions of the Appendices and Supplementary Packe
  • Assessment
    • Initial Assessment
    • On-Going Evaluation
  • Instructional Planning
    • Selecting Skills from the Curriculum
    • Rewording Skills in the Curriculum
    • Adding New Skills
    • Planning Lessons
    • IEP Planning
    • Transferring Skills from the Curriculum to a Student's IEP
  • Teaching Students with Visual Impairments
    • Effective Instruction
    • Hand-Over-Hand Assistance
    • Task Analysis
    • Mediation
    • Modelling
    • Role Play
    • Identifying Adaptations to Use and When to Use Them
    • Adaptations for Increasing Visual Efficiency
    • Visual Adaptations
    • Tactual Adaptations
    • Using Audio and Audio-Visual Materials
    • Using Models

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Volume I: Social Competence

  • Social Competence Goals
  • Introduction
    • Why Teach Social Skills
    • Reasons for Delays in the Development of Social Competence
    • Effective Strategies for Teaching Social Skills
    • Resources for Teaching Social Skills
  • Interaction with Family, Peers, and Other
  • Self-Concept
  • Recognition and Expression of Emotions
  • Nonverbal Communication
  • Values Clarification
  • Personal and Social Aspects of Sexuality
  • Physical Aspects of Sexuality
  • Courteous Behavior
  • Problem Solving, Decision Making, and Planning
  • Scholastic Success
  • Personal and Civic Responsibility
  • Appendices
  • Sample Lessons on Conversations
  • Social Skills Curricula
  • Student Books Related to Social Competence
  • Audio and Audio-Visual Materials
  • Catalogs for Speciality Items
  • Glossary
  • Evaluation Forms
  • References
  • Index

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Volume II: Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment

  • Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment Goals
  • Introduction
    • Why Teach Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment
    • Instructional Setting
    • Task Analyses
    • Initiative and Problem Solving
  • Dressing
  • Clothing Management
  • Personal Hygiene and Grooming
  • Toileting and Feminine Hygiene
  • Eating
  • Eating in Different Settings
  • Food Management
  • Housekeeping and Home Maintenance
  • Housing
  • Telephone Use
  • Time Concepts
  • Obtaining and Using Money
  • Health and Safety
  • Self-Advocacy
  • Appendices
  • Sample Lesson on Unbuttoning
  • Sample Lesson on Shopping
  • Audio and Audio-Visual Materials
  • Resources for Task Analyses of Self-Care
  • Resources for Adapted Cookbooks
  • Catalogs for Speciality Items
  • Glossary
  • Evaluation Forms
  • References
  • Index

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Volume III: Play and Leisure

  • Play and Leisure Goals
  • Introduction
    • Why Teach Play and Leisure
    • Play
    • Leisure
    • Resources
  • Management of Leisure Time
  • Solitary Play and Leisure Activities
  • Social Play and Leisure Activities
  • Physical Games and Sports
  • Enjoyment of Pets and Nature
  • Music and Dance
  • Arts and Crafts
  • Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Drama
  • Science and Technology
  • Appendices
  • Sample Lesson on on Playing a Board Game
  • Catalogs for Speciality Items
  • Glossary
  • Evaluation Forms
  • References
  • Index

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by Robin Loumiet and Nancy Levack
© TSBVI 1993 - 3 Volumes . Order # 59421ILP (106 oz.) sold only in sets
Also available on disk - MAC or DOS (textfiles-no forms) Order # 59421ILD

Order Form/Pricelist in DOC

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Table of Contents for these books.
Companion Books

Vol. I: Social Competence (248 pp.)
Vol. II: Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment (296 pp.)
Vol. III: Play and Leisure (148 pp.)

This bestseller will help you in assessing, teaching, and evaluating students from school age to adulthood who will live independently or with minimal assistance in social, self-care, and leisure skills.

This three volume curriculum is accompanied by reproducible Assessment and Ongoing Evaluation forms. A booklet of these forms can also be purchased separately.

  • Designed for teaching in public schools, residential schools, and rehabilitation centers, it features:
    • age-appropriate skills
    • adaptations
    • professional resources
    • student resources
    • examples of competence
    • evaluation forms
    • examples for lesson planning
  • A tool for educating students to:
    • improve social competence
    • take care of themselves and maintain their personal environments
    • improve their quality of life and find fulfillment from leisure pursuits
    • apply knowledge and skills acquired from language arts, mathematics, and other academic courses as well as skills from orientation and mobility instruction and perceptual training in real life situations

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Independent Living: From IEP to Teaching Strategies...How Do We Get There? (especially when teaching social and recreational skills)

by Valerie Perwein & Nancy Levack
© TSBVI 1996 - 48 pages Order # 59421ILS (7 oz.)
Note: This curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder.

This booklet can serve as a basis for inservice, especially when using the Independent Living Curriculum to teach from.

  • Information about teaching social and recreational skills
  • How to choose the right objectives and teaching strategies
  • Examples of teaching strategies
  • Question and strategy forms

Independent Living: Activity Routines

©TSBVI Revised 2009 - 258 pp. - Order # 59421IAP or textfile (22 oz.)

A collection of routines for the following goals from the Independent Living curriculum:

  • Personal Hygiene and Grooming
  • Eating
  • Food Management
  • Housekeeping
  • Money

Each routine refers to target skills from the curriculum and points out the specific challenges related to visual impairment a student may encounter. Suggested materials, methods, and adaptations will help in instruction. Sequenced steps outline the basic routine. Special considerations for students who have multiple disabilities are included also. The routines are sold unbound printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for ring binders. (258 pp.)

Assessment & Ongoing Evaluation booklet

© TSBVI 1993 - 148 pages Order # 59421ILE (18 oz.), or database Order # 59421AED

 

Go to top


Contents for Independent Living: A Curriculum with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments

by Robin Loumiet and Nancy Levack

Description and Use

  • Philosophy
  • Description and Use of the Curriculum
    • Curriculum Design
    • Intended Population
    • Who Can Use the Curriculum
    • Where to Use the Curriculum
    • How to Use the Curriculum
  • Description of the Goal and Skills Section
    • General Considerations for Teaching
    • Skills and Teaching Suggestions
    • What the Icons Mean
  • Descriptions of the Appendices and Supplementary Packe
  • Assessment
    • Initial Assessment
    • On-Going Evaluation
  • Instructional Planning
    • Selecting Skills from the Curriculum
    • Rewording Skills in the Curriculum
    • Adding New Skills
    • Planning Lessons
    • IEP Planning
    • Transferring Skills from the Curriculum to a Student's IEP
  • Teaching Students with Visual Impairments
    • Effective Instruction
    • Hand-Over-Hand Assistance
    • Task Analysis
    • Mediation
    • Modelling
    • Role Play
    • Identifying Adaptations to Use and When to Use Them
    • Adaptations for Increasing Visual Efficiency
    • Visual Adaptations
    • Tactual Adaptations
    • Using Audio and Audio-Visual Materials
    • Using Models

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Volume I: Social Competence

  • Social Competence Goals
  • Introduction
    • Why Teach Social Skills
    • Reasons for Delays in the Development of Social Competence
    • Effective Strategies for Teaching Social Skills
    • Resources for Teaching Social Skills
  • Interaction with Family, Peers, and Other
  • Self-Concept
  • Recognition and Expression of Emotions
  • Nonverbal Communication
  • Values Clarification
  • Personal and Social Aspects of Sexuality
  • Physical Aspects of Sexuality
  • Courteous Behavior
  • Problem Solving, Decision Making, and Planning
  • Scholastic Success
  • Personal and Civic Responsibility
  • Appendices
    • Sample Lessons on Conversations
    • Social Skills Curricula
    • Student Books Related to Social Competence
    • Audio and Audio-Visual Materials
    • Catalogs for Specialty Items
    • Glossary
    • Evaluation Forms
    • References
    • Index

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Volume II: Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment

  • Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment Goals
  • Introduction
    • Why Teach Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment
    • Instructional Setting
    • Task Analyses
    • Initiative and Problem Solving
  • Dressing
  • Clothing Management
  • Personal Hygiene and Grooming
  • Toileting and Feminine Hygiene
  • Eating
  • Eating in Different Settings
  • Food Management
  • Housekeeping and Home Maintenance
  • Housing
  • Telephone Use
  • Time Concepts
  • Obtaining and Using Money
  • Health and Safety
  • Self-Advocacy
  • Appendices
    • Sample Lesson on Unbuttoning
    • Sample Lesson on Shopping
    • Audio and Audio-Visual Materials
    • Resources for Task Analyses of Self-Care
    • Resources for Adapted Cookbooks
    • Catalogs for Specialty Items
    • Glossary
    • Evaluation Forms
    • References
    • Index

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Volume III: Play and Leisure

  • Play and Leisure Goals
  • Introduction
    • Why Teach Play and Leisure
    • Play
    • Leisure
    • Resources
  • Management of Leisure Time
  • Solitary Play and Leisure Activities
  • Social Play and Leisure Activities
  • Physical Games and Sports
  • Enjoyment of Pets and Nature
  • Music and Dance
  • Arts and Crafts
  • Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Drama
  • Science and Technology
  • Appendices
    • Sample Lesson on on Playing a Board Game
    • Catalogs for Specialty Items
    • Glossary
    • Evaluation Forms
    • References
    • Index

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By Dr. Natalie Carter Barraga
© TSBVI 2007 357 pp Order # 59400BARR or textfile - Order # 59400BARR

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This is Dr. Natalie Barraga's story, from her beginnings in Troy, Texas to her travels across the globe. Dr. Barraga is probably best known for her writings on low vision and visual efficiency. Dr. Barraga has received over 20 national and international honors and awards, and has earned the respect of students and colleagues around the world.

She began her career in education by teaching home economics in the public schools. She also taught kindergarten for two and a half years at the New York Institute for the Blind. After returning to Texas, she taught home economics at Texas School for the Blind and accepted an appointment to the special education faculty at the University of Texas. After retiring from The UT, she has remained very active by teaching, researching, and advising at the University; by consulting nationally and internationally; and by advocating for continued improvements in services for blind children and their parents. She currently lives in Austin, Texas.

by Susan Hauser, Nancy Levack, & Lauren Newton (Eds.)
© TSBVI 1999 - 708 pages Order # 59434FAP
Note: This curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder.

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Table of Contents of this book

The Functional Academics Curriculum is designed for teachers and instructors who work with a very special group of adolescents, age 12 years and older, for whom the developmental or academic approach is no longer effective, and have basic academic skills at a kindergarten through second grade level.
This guide addresses the major components of instruction. It addresses what to teach by describing curriculum content and assess, as well as how to teach by discussing strategies, adaptations, and procedures for planning, teaching, and documenting progress. The areas addressed include:

  • Communication Skills
  • Social Skills
  • Cognitive and Thinking Skills
  • Orientation and Mobility Skills
  • English/Language Arts
  • Math
  • Career Education
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Home Economics/Management
  • Recreation and Leisure

This curriculum is primarily an activity-based program. The students' learning day is structured around daily life activities that are age-appropriate and that prepare students for productive adult lives, blending traditional academic work with real life tasks. Instructors may choose from assessment forms and sample units included.
The curriculum is sold unbound and printed on 3-hole punched 8 1/2 x 11 paper ready for a ring binder. Forms included are permitted to copy.

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Contents of Functional Academics: A Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairments

by Susan Hauser, Nancy Levack, & Lauren Newton (Eds.)

Part 1 Establishing a Framework for Instruction

Overview

  • Intended Population
  • Philosophy
  • Student Outcomes
  • Curriculum Content
  • The Continuum of Programming at TSBVI
  • The Exit Program

Assessing and Program Planning

  • Forms:
    • Teacher's Report of Present Competencies
    • Residential Report of Present Competencies
    • Parent IEP Considerations
    • Individual Transition Plan Summary
  • Why and When to Assess
  • How to Use the Curriculum Assessments
  • Functional Academics Assessments Included in this Curriculum
  • Who Assesses
  • Assessment and Program Planning Process
  • Individual Education Plans
  • Planning for Graduation
  • Individual Transition Planning
  • ARD Meetings
  • Documenting and Reporting Progress

General Teaching Strategies

  • Forms:
    • Daily Schedule (Quarter Hours)
    • Daily Schedule (Bell Schedule)
    • Activity Plan " Community
    • Activity Plan " Cooking
    • Unit (Planning)
  • Scheduling and Self-Contained Classes
  • Layering
  • Weekly Schedule of Classes or Activities
  • The Team Approach to Programming
  • The Role of Community-Based Instruction
  • Planning Instruction Based on Individualized Transition Plans
  • Lesson/Activity Plans
  • Incidental Learning
  • Planning Useful Activities
  • Teaching Through Units of Study

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Part 2 The Curriculum Content: Infused Skills

Communication Skills

  • Forms:
    • Oral Communication Assessment
    • Functional Literacy Assessment
    • Telephone Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Social Skills

  • Forms:
    • Knowledge of Personal Information Assessment
    • Knowledge of Visual and Other Impairments Assessment
    • Self-Advocacy Assessment
    • Knowledge of Human Sexuality Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Cognitive/Thinking Skills

  • What to Teach
  • Teaching Strategies

Orientation and Mobility Skills

  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

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Part 3 The Curriculum Content: Subject Areas

English / Language Arts

  • Forms:
    • Braille Assessment
    • Operating a Braillewriter Assessment
    • Functional Word Attack Assessment
    • Vocabulary and Reading Assessment
    • Self-Advocacy for Large Print Readers Assessment
    • Composition Writing Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies

Math

  • Forms:
    • Basic Math Assessment
    • Calculator Assessment
    • Abacus and Fingermath Assessment
    • Money Assessment
    • Time Assessment
    • Measurement Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Career Education

  • Forms:
    • Parent Survey on Student Preferences for Work
    • Work Related Activities Assessment
    • Student Interview
    • Career Portfolio (Large Print)
    • Career Portfolio (Regular Print)
    • Resume of Work Training Experience
  • What to Teach
  • Work Awareness
  • Self-Awareness
  • Advocacy
  • Work Concepts
  • Job Seeking
  • Job Maintenance
  • Work Skills, Behaviors, and Attitudes
  • Employment
  • Strategies for Prompt Reduction
  • Assessment
  • Documentation
  • About the Units and Their Lessons

Social Studies

  • What to Teach
  • Teaching Strategies

Science

  • What to Teach
  • Teaching Strategies

Home Economics and Management

  • Forms:
    • Dressing Assessment
    • Eating Assessment
    • Food Preparation Assessment
    • Grocery Store Assessment
    • Clothing Care Assessment
    • Household Management Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Personal Fitness & Use of Free Time

  • Forms:
    • Recreation/Leisure Assessment
    • Leisure Survey for Parents
    • Leisure Survey for Staff
    • Leisure Time Activities Plan
    • Restaurant Assessment
  • What to Teach
  • Assessment
  • Documentation
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Resources

Part 4 Teaching in a Residential School

Part 5 Units

More information about Braille FUNdamentals Braille Curriculum

Games for identifying either letters, contractions or words

Braille Jeopardy
Create a set of 4 or 5 categories (e.g. words that star with a, t, m, b, g, I). As the students progress categories can change (e.g., alphabet, whole words, dots e.g., teacher gives the dot numbers and students tell the word, dot 5 words, short form words, punctuation, which does not belong in the pattern. Make a chart with boxes for $200, $400, $600, $800, and $1,000 going across and each of the categories going down. You will need a total of 25 questions ranging from easiest to hardest in each category. Ask the students to pick the category and the dollar amount. The teacher or another student keeps track of the questions left. The teacher or students keep score. An optional activity would be a final jeopardy question where the teacher picks the category that proves most difficult and the students bet a portion of their score on answering it. The teacher can decide whether the students will answer in the form of a question or just answer the questions directly, depending on the ability of the students.
Oddball:
Make a set of cards that have four words on them three of which start with a specific letter or have a specific contraction (e.g., apple, apron tire, animal or under some not work). Student picks a card from the pile reads the words, chooses the one that doesn't fit the pattern. The one with the most cards wins the game. Students can go back through their cards and earn an extra point or prize by naming one more word that fits the pattern on the card.
Cinderella's Closet:
Give students a set of cards that are shaped like shoes with words that are matched pairs, - one word on each card (e.g., same words, same initial letters, rhyming words, same braille contractions). Ask the student to help Cinderella organize her closet by matching her shoes into pairs that are the same word, or start with the same letter or rhyme or are the same kind of contraction
Riddlers:
Make up riddles for the letters or words in the cluster (e.g., "What begins ball and ends rib, if you say I'm an f, you'd be telling a fib?" Choose form b,g,i. "If I'm pizza you want me, If I'm liver you don't." Choose from but, go, more. Students read a card with the letters or words form the cluster and give the correct answer.
Balloon Burst:
This is a game for students who are not afraid of balloons or loud sounds. Insert letters, contractions or words in balloons. Inflate & knot. Ask the students to sit on the balloon, pop it and read the word.
Clothespin Clip:
Letters, contractions or words are placed around a cardboard circle. A set of clothespins has the same letters, contractions or words. Students match the clothespins to the letters, contractions or words on the card. Variations: Students hang the letters, contractions or words on a clothesline with the matching clothespin.
Rope Race:
Attach the rope in two different spots on a classroom and affix letters, contractions or words along the rope. Student travels along the rope and reads the words. Students can race each other or race against the clock.
Go to the Well:
Each student goes to the well and pulls out a card and reads it, If he reads it correctly, he keeps the card and can pull another card to read. Students can continue until three cards are read correctly. If he cannot read the word he passes it to the player to the right (this gives that player a chance for an extra card), and his turn is over. The player to the right then continues his turn. At the end of the game the students count up their cards.
Capital Cones:
Make ice cream cones with lower case letters and make scoops of ice cream with the capital letters. Put Velcro on scoops and cones so they can stick together. Ask the students to match.
Concentration:
Use two sets of 6 alphabet cards with Velcro attached to the front of the card. Place them face down on carpet or felt. Ask the students to turn over two at a time and read the letters out loud. If they match the student can keep them. If they do not match they should be returned to their original positions. Move to the next player. Continue until all cards are removed and the one with the most cards wins. This can be played with 1,2 or 3 players.
Graph It!:
Use tactual graph paper with a letter in each box. Teacher gives direction (e.g. south 2 spaces, or up, down, left right) Student reads the letter & gets a point for each correct answer). Variation: Teacher plots a shape on the graph. After reading the letter, student puts a pushpin in. When all the letters are identified the student has made a shape.
Blocktoss:
Put a braille letter on each side of a block. The student tosses the block & reads the letter/configuration. If correct, they earn a point. A student needs all 6 points to win.
Spinaletter:
Make a spinner containing one free spin, one loses a turn, and the desired braille letters or configurations. Students spin and read the letter. The first student to correctly read all the letters wins. Variation: Spinning Wheel: (Teacher's Gold Mine 207)
Mother May I:
Students are given a set of 5 cards. The student reads the card. If read correctly, the teacher tells the student how many "baby steps", "giant steps", etc. he can take. Students must ask, "Mother, may I?" before they move or they must go back to the beginning.
Treasure Hunt:
Place flash cards at various locations in the room (e.g. next to the computer, by a child's desk). Students are given clues to help them find each card. When they find a card, they must read it before being given the next clue. The last clue leads to a treasure.
Baseball:
Set up a baseball diamond in the room with chairs or desks. Give the student cards to read. They can take a base each time they read a card correctly.
Rollin', Rollin', Rollin':
Make a game board with the letters b, i, g, m, a, t. . (Letters may be repeated along the board and other letters may be substituted for b, i, g, m, a, t.) The student rolls the die and moves that number of spaces along the board. He must read the letter on that space and name a word that begins with that letter in order to stay in that spot. If he cannot do one of these things he must move back to his original position. The first person to reach the end of the board wins the game
Outburst and Outburst, Jr.:
This game is adaptable and fun to play with older groups of students.
Go Fish:
Use multiple sets of flashcards. Follow rules of regular Go Fish game.
Fish Fry:
Put letters, words, or configurations on fish shaped cards. Put the cards in an old frying pan. Using a spatula, students take turns flipping fish out of the pan and reading the flopped out fish. If they read the fish correctly, they may keep it. The student with the most fish at the end of the game wins.
Bingo (Braillo):
Use a commercial Bingo game and braille the letters, or make your own Bingo cards with the words or contractions you want to focus on.
Loony spoons:
Place a set of letters, contractions or words on paper cups and the same set on wooden ice cream spoons.) Each student takes a cup from the top of the stack. The first student draws a spoon from the pack of spoons and reads the word and checks to see if it matches his cup. If it matches she keeps it, if not she passes it to the person to her left. That person also checks it for a match. If the spoon doesn't match any of the players it is returned to a bone pile. If the spoon and cup match, the player keeps the cup and spoon and draws another cup from the stack before taking another spoon. At the end of the game the players count their matched cups and spoons.
Jigsaw puzzle match:
Make four interlocking pairs out of heavy duty material like foam board or mat board. Each piece should have male Velcro on the underneath side so it can attach to a carpeted surface. Each piece will need an additional piece of Velcro on the top side. Velcro matching pairs of the desired letters, words or configurations to each pair of puzzle pieces. Attach the left half of each pair to the carpeted surface. Give the student the right halves and ask him to match the letters words or configurations to the same one on the left. Alternatives: Put the contracted word on the left and the spelled out word on the right, or the number sign on the left and the number word on the right.
Secret code games:
Make up a silly sentence or riddle substituting numbers for letters. Write a code for assigning a letter to each number. The student rewrites the sentence substituting the letters for the numbers on the key and then reads the complete phrase. Alternative: write out the name of a treat. The student will earn the treat after solving the code.
Flip board:
Attach stacks of letters or contractions together in 2, 3, or 4 sets. The students flip through the stacks of letters to combine them into words.
Parachutes:
Spread a pile of Flashcards or Rhyming words on the floor. The student drops a clothespin with a parachute on to the cards and reads the card where the parachute lands. If the student can read the card she keeps it, if not it is returned to the floor.
Madlibs:
This commercial game can be adapted for braille practice by providing the students lists of words to read and choose from. Arrange lists in categories to fit the categories in the stories (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives).
Rhyming time:
The students draw a card, read the word, name as many words as they can that rhyme with the initial word within a specific time. Students get a point for each rhyming word. Variation: Students have to give a specific number or rhyming words to earn a point.
Tic Tac Toe:
Use a tactual Tic-Tac-Toe game. Before the student makes a move, he must read a letter, word, or sentence.
Tri-Bond:
This commercially available game can be adapted. Put one answer and three clues on each card. Each student gets a stack of cards (or draws one a t a time out of the box). They take turns reading the three clues to the other players and the players try to guess the connection (e.g., elm, oak, and cedar = trees) The player who reads the card correctly gets a point and the player who answers correctly gets a point.
Taboo:
This commercially available game can be adapted. Make two sets of cards. Divide the players into two teams. Each card has a word that you want the players to guess and a list of words that you cannot say to make them guess it. The player says anything else to get the team to guess the word. A monitor from the other team also reads the card to be sure that the player does not say any of the Taboo words. Score a point for every correct guess without the taboo words being said.

Games for reading sentences:

Scrambled sentences:
Put a sentence with the words out of order on a flash card. Ask the students to unscramble the sentence and write it correctly. Make this more fun by giving the sentences a theme or making them tell a short story when they are all put together.
Sail Away:
Write sentences with one or more missing words on the base of sailboats. Put the missing words on the sails. Ask the students to put the sails on the boats to make complete sentences. (Use Velcro, magnets, or paper clips to fasten the sails.
Madgab:
This commercial game asks players to read a nonsense sentence aloud and the other players tell what common phrase it is supposed to represent. (e.g. ape herd hen Dee and = a bird in the hand). Braille out the cards for the students to read.
Spit it Out:
This commercial game can be easily adapted by brailling the sentence cards. Students are given three tongue twister sentences and the student picks which one would be easiest to say. They then say it as many times as they can in a given time limit.
Clever endeavor:
This commercial game can be adapted by Brailling the clue cards. Each card has a mystery answer. And a series of clues that range for easiest to hardest. The player reads the clues to the group choosing the ones that the other players might not get.

Games for reading & writing practice:

Two down & two to go:
Give students a list of four letter words with the two middle letters missing. Give them a set of cards with the missing middle letters for each word. Students match the middle letter combos with the list to make the words and then write the words.
Patchwork Quilt:
Make 20 patchwork squares with different textured fabrics glued to cardboard squares. Velcro q words onto the squares. Pass out the squares to the students. Ask the following questions and the student who has the correct answer puts his patch on the board or carpet to make the patchwork quilt. When all the card are laid down the quilt is complete.
  • Who is the lady who is married to the king?
  • What sound does a duck make?
  • What sea animal looks like an octopus?
  • What is the name of a vegetable that also means to crush?
  • What measurement takes four to make a gallon?
  • What shape has four equal sides?
  • What is the answer to a division problem?
  • What bushy tailed animal gathers nuts for the winter?
  • What is another word for being silent?
  • What do you ask someone?
  • What is the sound that a mouse makes?
  • What is another word for a short test?
  • What is the name of a French egg and cheese pie?
  • What is the name of the color that is a combination of green and blue?
  • What is a word that means you are sick to your stomach?
  • What can you sink into that feels wet and muddy?
  • What means that two things are the same?
  • What kind or bird looks like a partridge?
  • What kind of rock is shiny and clear?
  • What tool has a rubber edge and us used to clean mirrors?
Word Workout:
Give the students a small word (e.g., rat). Students write as many words as they can think of that have this word in it.
Every other:
Give students a group of words with every other letter missing. Give the category (e.g., foods, games, famous men, state capitals). Students figure out the word and write it.
Up & Down Words:
List a word in vertical order. In the next column list the word backwards in vertical order. Student add letters to make a new word using the two letters
  • b t
  • a a
  • t b
Variations: Choose any word on the student's level. The reversed letters do not have to make a word. The students can choose their own word to write up and down. The student earns a point for each word made.
Scategories:
this is a commercial game that is easily adaptable. Here is one way to adapt it. List five categories (e.g., cold things, boy's names, things at the beach, foods). Tell students to come up with one item for each category. Have someone pick a letter at random (e.g., rolling dice, spinning a wheel, picking a card). Tell students that adjectives don't count to fulfill the letter requirement (e.g. red popsicle) but two points can be awarded if the there are two words with the same letter that meet the category (e.g. Tim Taylor), Name each category and give each student a limited time to write the answer (e.g. 10 -15 seconds). When all the categories have been answered, go through and ask the student to read the answer for the first category. Score points if students have given an original answer. Answers cannot be repeated in different categories. Play the same 5 categories three times with a different letter, then change categories.
Construction crew:
Make short word list for nouns, verbs and adjectives from the cluster words that the students are learning. Ask the students to use these words to write a sentence. After a specific amount of time the students read their sentences, and earn a point for each word in their sentence. Continue each round of writing sentences keeping cumulative score for all the words used.
Wheel of Fortune:
Make a spinner with five hundred-dollar amounts (e.g., $200, $500) and Lose a Turn. Make a list of words or phrases containing the braille configurations that you want the students to practice. Students use a braillewriter to keep track of the letters in the word and letters that have been called but ate not ion the word. When the student knows how many letters the word has, it helps to write out the number of full cells on the page. The teacher picks the first word, gives the student a clue (e.g., category, person, place or thing and tells how many words or letters. The student spins and for a dollar amount he chooses a letter. If the letter is in the word, tell the student where the letter appears in the letter or phrase and have them record it on the page below the full cells. If the letter does not appear, Vowels can be bought for $100. If students are capable of keeping their scores on an abacus, encourage them to do so.

Games for number recognition:

Braille Uno:
This is a commercially available game. Also regular Uno cards can be adapted.
Battle:
This is also called War. Using braille playing cards each student draws from a pile, reads the number and determine who has the highest number. The student with the highest number gets to keep all the drawn cards. If the same number is drawn, they each draw another card. The student with the most cards wins.
Twenty-One:
Use brailled playing cards. Each student is dealt two cards. Students look at their cards and decide if they want more cards or not. The student who comes closest to 21 without going over wins the hand.
Number Bingo:
Adapt a commercial game or make your own.
Crazy 8s:
Use brailled playing cards. Each player gets seven cards. Turn over the top card of the draw pile. Each player has to match the number or the suit of the card that is face up. 8s are wild and are used to change the suit. If you cannot play a card in your hand, draw from the pile. Draw until you get something that you can play. The object is to play all the cards in your hand and "go out."

Additional Activities:

Bookmarks:
Make a list of the letters, words or contractions being learned. Allow the students to decorate them with string, beans, stickers, torn paper, glitter, etc. Variation: Have student use a specified letter or configuration in combination with spaces, or not, to cover the bookmark with a textured pattern.
Phonics Quizzers:
Ask the student thought questions that reinforce phonics patterns (e.g., what did you see on the way to school that starts the same as cat?)
Greeting Cards:
give the students a list of occasion specific phrases to choose from when creating greeting cards.
Sequencing sentences:
Braille sentences or use sentences from the Literature section. Cut the sentences apart and give the students the sentences out of order. Ask the students to sequence and rewrite the sentences.
Opposite Outlook:
Put reading words in a can. The students pick out a word, read it and write its opposite. Variations: Students can be timed and count how many words they can come up with in a given amount of time.
Category Capers:
Give students a list of vocabulary words. Have students braille two or three category headings (e.g., starts with the letter __, related to nature, things people do, rhymes with hat, parts of our body) at the top of another paper. Students then read the words and write them under the designated categories.
Racy Riddlers:
Write a riddle or rhyme in grade 1. Students have to put it in Grade 2.
Rhyming Wheel:
Braille a rhyming pattern (e.g., op, at alt) on rectangular piece of paper. Attach it to a wheel with a brad making sure that the pattern shows past the wheel. Divide the wheel into quadrants with an initial letter(s) in each quadrant. The student moves the rhyming pattern around the wheel and combines the initial letter and the rhyming pattern to read the words (e.g., bop, drop, mop, stop). The students can then write these words on a separate sheet of paper.
Braille fortune cookies