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- developed by Diane Bames, O&M, ESC 13

The following are some sample activities which VI Teachers can use to screen a student In determining the need for a formal evaluation by a certified O&M Instructor. The activities address the areas of vision efficiency, body language, verbal skills, knowledge of eye condition, environmental awareness, negotiation and organizational skills as they relate to orientation and mobility. Use a rating system of 1 through 5, with 5 being most frequently observed and 1 being least frequently observed. Anything 3 and above indicates the need for a referral.

Activity:

In the cafeteria, stand at entrance and ask student to scan and point to locations of the serving line entrance, soda machine, cash register, and where trays are placed after use; describe the location of a specific object and ask student to Identify It; have student to walk to a specific table that you Identify by row and table.

___ student used minimum head movement

___ student needed additional verbal prompts and cues

___ student points in general direction, but not directly at objects

___ student appeared to shuffle feet when walking

___ student failed to maintain eye contact With VI Teacher

___ student failed to stand at appropriate body space from Vi Teacher

___ student fails to position body in attempt to visually locate object

Activity:

Walk with student out to the parking lot, and have him/her locate your vehicle (provide description of vehicle if necessary); have student read license plate number; unlock car, and have student walk to the opposite side, open door, and retrieve instructed Item; have student lead the way back.

___ student tended to cautiously or shyly walk behind VI Teacher

___ student hesitated or shuffled feet to locate curb or down ramp

___ student required further instructions student struggled to read license plate

___ student appeared insecure when walking around car

___ student fumbled or groped for door handle

___ student was awkward in retrieving item(s) from car

___ student required assistance (verbal or sighted guide) to reverse or walk alternate route back to specific area of building

Activity:

While walking to the playground, ask student to verbally identify which equipment s/he enjoys; have student point to (from a stationary position) and walk (solo) to at least three specified pieces of equipment in the order designated by the VI Teacher.

___ student slides feet when walking on uneven terrain

___ student inaccurately pointed to equipment

___ student appeared hesitant in manipulating equipment

___ student bumped into obstacles

___ student appeared hesitant at shadowy areas

___ student had difficulty talking and walking simultaneously (while walking to the playground)

All students in the below categories should be referred:

  • student's primary reading media is braille or tape
  • student was receiving O&M from parent request
  • cane user
  • 3- year comprehensive assessment
  • student has had a vision decrease within a 1 year span
  • student's vision fluctuates under different lighting conditions

Additional areas to consider in determining need for 0&M referral:

  • student needs extra time to travel between classes
  • student hesitates to walk the middle of hallways
  • student hesitates to use alternate routes
  • student's programming includes community activities
  • student walks with a cautious or timid gait .
  • student requires verbal feedback regarding walking terrain
  • student walks with an adult to classes, cafeteria, playground.
  • student is not able to verbalize directions to his/her house
  • student required assistance in orienting himself to school campus
  • student is unwilling to use cane
  • student demonstrates inappropriate sighted guide techniques
  • student looks away when reaching for object