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The funds which supported the development of this web site emanated from a grant from the U.S. Department of Education (grant no. HH325N010017). Any opinions, judgments, or assertions included in the content of this site do not reflect those of the U.S,. Department of Education. They are solely those of the authors of the content and should not be construed as being endorsed by the U.S. Department of Education or any of its staff.

The developers of the site are Gaylen Kapperman and Jodi Sticken of Research and Development Institute of Sycamore, Illinois.

Research and Development Institute
P. O. Box 351
Sycamore, IL 60178
Gaylen Kapperman (
Jodi Sticken (

In addition to many original pieces developed for this site, a portion of the content was taken from a book which was written by Kapperman and Sticken and their colleague, Toni Heinze, entitled, Strategies for Developing Mathematics Skills in Students Who Use Braille, published in 1997. The content was updated and adapted for display in this website and made accessible to those persons who use assistive technology.

We are indebted to Jeff Williams who devoted many hours in the development of the website. Without his invaluable assistance, this work could not have been completed. He was the sole individual who designed the site, as well as several innovations including the methods for handling alt tags included in the Spoken Math portion of the site.

Dr. Lawrence “Larry” Chang wrote the original content of the spoken math portion of the site. Dr. Chang was a blind physicist who lost his vision while working at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. He passed away in mid-career in 1984. We were originally granted permission to reprint his work, Handbook for Spoken Mathematics: Larry’s Speakeasy (1983) in our original book. We adapted the content to display it on our site. The reader should note that the section dealing with the description of complex graphs was not included here. For that information, we would refer the reader to the original printed work in our book.

We also wish to express our appreciation for the willingness of Heldref Publications, the publisher of the journal, Re:View, in granting us permission to reprint our article, The Braillewriter as a Calculation Tool, which originally appeared in the summer 1998 issue of that journal. We adapted the content here in order to make it completely accessible for individuals who use assistive technology.

Likewise, we wish to express our appreciation to the American Foundation for the Blind for granting us permission to reprint our article, Using the Braille Lite to Produce Mathematical Expressions in Print, which appeared in the November 2003 issue of the Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness.

We wish to express our sincere appreciation to several other important individuals whose generous contributions greatly enhanced the contents of this site.

In the writing of the original work, Dr. Abraham Nemeth, the developer of the Nemeth Code of Braille Mathematics, generously communicated with the authors and contributed his knowledge and perspective in the form of personal writings; a conference paper which he presented; and Math Speak, a guide for consistent reading of mathematical symbols by persons reading such material to blind consumers. We adapted those contributions and included them in this work.

Mr. Mario Cortesi of the Chicago Public Schools has contributed numerous creative ideas for involving students in higher mathematical experiences.