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Tests Specific To Visually Impaired

Test Name

Age Range

Content Areas

Strengths

Weaknesses

Type

Oregon Project for Visually Impaired & Blind Preschool Children (Anderson, Boigon, & Davis, Revised 1986)

0 - 6 years

  • Cognitive
  • Language
  • Self-help
  • Social
  • Fine Motor
  • Vision
  • Compensatory-(Skills that totally blind don’t learn without specific instruction)
  • Yield domain & subdomain scores
  • Designed for children with visual impairments
  • Includes teaching activities
  • Initially developed for visually impaired children who had no additional physical or mental disabilities
  • No criteria for individual items
  • Within yearly grouping, items may be out of sequence
  • Some items do not necessarily have relevance

Criterion-Referenced and Curriculum based

Maxfield-Bucholz Scale of Social Maturity for Preschool Blind Children (Maxfield & Bucholz, 1957)

0 - 6 years

Social Maturity

  • Standardized on children with visual impairments
  • Easily administered
  • Based on Vineland Social Maturity Scale
  • Standardized over 30 years ago
  • Not designed for use with children with other needs

Standardized Interview

Reynell-Zinkin Scales: Developmental Scales for Young Visually Handicapped

(Reynell, 1979)

2 months -4 - 5 years

  • Social Adaptation
  • Sensori-Motor Understanding
  • Exploration of Environment
  • Responses to Sound & Verbal Comprehension
  • Vocalization & Expressive
  • Language (Structure)
  • Expressive Langage,
  • Vocabulary & Content

Includes domains unique to visually impaired (i.e., Exploration of Environment and Orientation and Mobility Skills)

Poor standardized:

  • only 109 VI children
  • questionable criteria for “blind” and “visually impaired”
  • includes 21 children with multiple impairments

  • Low ceilings resulting in inflated scores
  • British terminology unfamiliar

Standardized on Visually Impaired and Partially Sighted

Simmons-Davidson Developmental Profile (SDDP) (Simmons & Davidson, 1992)

No specific ages given

  • Context of Health Care
  • Context of Care giving
  • Context of Intervention
  • Developmental Profile:
    • Self-help
    • Motor development
    • Orientation and Mobility
    • Exploration/play
    • Perception
    • Cognition
    • Language
  • Created to meet the unique developmental and assessment needs of young blind children recognizes that visually impaired children do not constitute a standardized group
  • Equal emphasis is given to the child and context “child as explorer” and “environment as mediator”
  • A supplement book is provided that describes the development of blind children.
  • Effective if only given by clinician well versed in typical and atypical child development and in the unique development of young blind children
  • Must be used with other scales since there are no scores provided

“Investigative”

Cullier-Azuza

(Stiffman, 1982)

0 - 9 years

  • Motor
  • Perceptual
  • Daily living 18 Sub-scales
  • Language
  • Socialization
  • Assesses deaf-blind & multihandicapped
  • Useful for targeting instructional objectives
  • Based on observations over time
  • Designed for use with children in center-based program
  • More useful after age 2 years

Curriculum-based

Tests Not Specific To Visually Impaired

Test Name

Age Range

Content Areas

Strengths

Weaknesses

Type

Battelle Developmental Inventory (Newrorg, Stock, Wnck, Guidubalkdi & Suinick, 1984)

0 - 8 years

  • Personal Social
  • Adaptive
  • Motor
  • Communication
  • Cognitive
  • Standardized with good reliability and validity
  • Permits credit for emerging skills
  • Adaptations are compensatory
  • Adaptations for handicapped are post-
  • Inappropriate for totally blind or severe visually impaired
  • Lengthy administration time
  • No credit adjustments for severely handicapped

Standardized

Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP)

(Lemay, Griffin & Stanford, 1981)

0 - 6 years

  • Fine & Gross Motor
  • Language
  • Cognitive
  • Self-help
  • Social
  • Easy format
  • Items are age-normed
  • Items are developmentally sequenced
  • No adaptations for visually impaired or physically handicapped
  • Assessment fairly lengthy
  • Score sheet profile is tedious

Criterion-referenced

Early-Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP)

Standford, 1982)

0 - 3 years

  • Fine & Gross Motor
  • Language
  • Cognitive
  • Self-help
  • Social
  • Emotional
  • Easy format
  • Items are age-normed
  • Items are developmentally sequenced
  • No adaptations for visually impaired or physically handicapped
  • Assessment fairly lengthy
  • Score sheet profile is tedious

Criterion-referenced

Carolina Curriculum for handicapped Infants (Johnson-Martin, Jens, & Attermeier, 1986)

Carolina Curriculum for Preschoolers with Special Needs (Johnson-Martin, Attermeier, Hacker, 1990)

0 - 2 years

3 - 5 years

  • Cognitive
  • Language
  • Social
  • Self-help
  • Fine motor
  • Gross motor
  • Cognition
  • Communication 25 Sub-scales
  • Social Adaptation
  • Fine Motor
  • Gross Motor
   

Criterion-based and

Curriculum-based

Hawaii Early Profile

Et al,1979)

0 - 3 years

  • Cognitive
  • Language
  • Gross motor
  • Fine motor
  • Social
  • Self-help
  • Good visual representation over time
  • Assists in translating findings into goal
  • Scoring criteria unclear
  • Not standardized
  • No adaptations for visually impaired or physically handicapped

Curriculum-based

Carla Brown/Anne Taylor
Governor Morchend Preschool
301 Ashe Avenue
Raleigh, NC 27606
(919)733-0533
7/15/94

This document is a Resource for the Expanded Core Curriculum. Please visit the RECC.