The history of braille:
Braille was developed around 1829 by Louis Braille. At the time of the development of the Braille code, there were several methods of reading for people who were blind, but none were very efficient. One of the codes that was used employed a system of tying knots in a string to represent different letters. Louis Braille based his system on an existing system of raised dots for reading.
About the braille codes:
Braille is a system for reading and writing English. It is a code, not a language. A unit in print is a letter, in braille the unit is called a cell. A cell consists of six dots. The dots are numbered making it easy during instruction to communicate about the formation of a particular cell. Since writing a braille cell on a page takes more space than writing a print letter the braille system also uses cells to present a combination of letters. These combinations of letters are called contractions. There are 189 contractions including contractions that represent whole words, parts of words, and shorter forms of words.
Learning to read with Braille
It is important to remember that learning to read braille includes many different skills. Surely a student who learns to read braille must develop efficient tactual skills but just as important to remember that young children who are beginning to learn to read braille need basic reading skills (reading from left to right, turning pages, phonics, sight words, etc.). They are learning READING through braille. Older students, on the other hand, who already have reading skills are learning braille as a code.