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Student working at a computer.

Student working at a computer.


Students learned to prepare food, take orders and make deliveries this summer.


TSBVI students singing and playing guitar during the TSBVI School of Rock.


Students learn the importance of knowing braille and reading often.


TSBVI has some of the best teachers in the world! In this photo, a teacher smiles with a student as they practice hand signing.


Photo collage of TSBVI, happy students on a bus and our all-abilities playground.

Photo collage of TSBVI, happy students on a bus and our all-abilities playground.


Young student reading a braille book.

Young student reading a braille book.


Smiling students riding on a school bus.

Smiling students riding on a school bus.


An Orientation & Mobility Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairments, 3rd Edition

Order Form/Pricelist in DOC

Order Form/Pricelist in PDF

see TAPS - Supplemental Flash Drive - This flash drive contains evaluation tools, a report template, and other supplementary materials to be used when evaluating and providing instruction to individual students.

by Rona Pogrund, Debra Sewell, Heidi Anderson, Lisa Calaci, Mary Faith Cowart, Carolina Gonzalez, Ruth Ann Marsh, & Burnsteen Roberson-Smith. Major contributors include Ryan Conlin, Carol Dancey and Christopher Tabb. Authors of Part 4 Supplement are Linda Myers and Wendy Scheffers.
© TSBVI 2012

Table of Contents for this book.

For orientation and mobility specialists who serve students ages 3 to 21 who may also have other impairments. This curriculum includes goals, objectives, and teaching strategies as well as functional mobility tasks, for the following environments: home/living, campus, residential, commercial and public transportation, as well as an ambulatory devices section. The four-part set also includes extensive appendices containing a wide range of O&M related topics and a supplement that details street crossing strategies.

The four-part curriculum set includes:

Part 1: The Curriculum with Goals, Objectives and Teaching Strategies

Part 2: Comprehensive Initial and Ongoing Evaluation

Part 3: Appendices

Part 4: Supplement: Street Crossings for Travelers Who Are Visually Impaired

The evaluation booklet can also be purchased separately. This booklet is intended for use with an individual student throughout his or her school years.

The curriculum is spiral-bound.

$90.00, Order # 59448 TAPS 
or textfile - Order # 59448 TAPS text

TAPS, 3rd Edition, Supplemental Flash Drive

$30.00, Order # 59450TAPSFD

TAPS – Comprehensive Initial and Ongoing Evaluation

The spiral bound evaluation booklet (118 pp.) is intended for use with an individual student throughout his or her school years and features:

  • Instructions to the examiner
  • A student information form
  • Interview questions for the student
  • Interview questions for the parent, or guardian
  • Interview questions for school personnel familiar with the student
  • Score-sheets for functional mobility tasks
  • Evaluation pages for the goals and skills from the curriculum organized by their domains: home/living environment, campus environment, residential environment, commercial environment, public transportation and ambulatory devices
  • Plenty of spaces for comments

$20.00, Order # 59449 TAPS-Eval


Table of Contents (four-part set)

Part 1: The Curriculum

  • Description and Use 1
    • Definitions 2
    • Philosophy 3
    • Evidence-Based Practices 4
    • Models of O&M Instruction 5
    • Curriculum Design 7
      • Intended Population 7
      • Components of the Curriculum 8
        • Comprehensive Initial and Ongoing Evaluation 8
        • Functional Mobility Tasks 9
        • Educational Goals and Objectives 10
        • Teaching Strategies 11
        • Appendices and Supplement 11
    • Using the Curriculum for Program Development 12
      • Building Rapport 12
      • Evaluating the Student 14
        • Using the Comprehensive Initial and Ongoing Evaluation Booklet 14
        • Gathering Additional Information 15
          • Sample Evaluation 16
        • Writing the Evaluation Report 17
          • Excerpt from Sample Evaluation Report 17
      • Planning Instruction 18
        • Choosing an Approach 18
        • IEP Goals and Objectives 19
          • Individualized Education Program IEP Example 21
      • Planning the Lesson 22
        • Lesson Plan Example 23
      • Instructing the Student 24
          • Creativity 24
          • Criteria 24
          • Age-Appropriateness 24
          • Teaching Environment 25
        • Individual Progress 25
        • Monitoring Progress/Data Collection 26
          • Data Sheet Example 26
          • Blank Data Sheet 27
        • Effective Teaching Strategies 28
        • Sensitivity Towards Students 30
      • Reinforcement 31
      • Ongoing Evaluation 31
  • Working with Students Who Have Multiple Impairments 32
    • Purposeful Movement 35
    • Active Learning: Orientation and Mobility Implications for Students with Severe Multiple Impairments 36
    • Cortical (Cerebral) Visual Impairment (CVI) 45
  • Educational Goals and Objectives with Teaching Strategies 55
    • Home/Living Environment 56
      • Functional Mobility Tasks 57
      • Attending Behaviors 58
      • Auditory Abilities 63
      • Receptive Language 67
      • Expressive Language 69
      • Posture and Gait 72
      • Body Image 77
      • Laterality 82
      • Turns 86
      • Directionality 88
      • Quantitative Concepts 90
      • Directional/Positional Concepts 92
      • Time-Distance Concepts 94
      • Ordinal Sequencing 95
      • Colors 96
      • Geometric Shapes 97
      • Basic Skills 98
        • Guide Technique 98
        • Hand Trailing 104
        • Upper Body/Forearm Protective Technique 106
        • Lower Body Protective Technique 107
        • Upper and Lower Body Protective Techniques 107
        • Protective Techniques and Trailing 108
        • Squaring Off 108
        • Parallel Alignment 109
        • Dropped Objects 109
      • Landmarks and Clues 110
      • Basic Spatial Awareness 112
    • Campus Environment 114
      • Functional Mobility Tasks 115
      • Attitude and Behavior 116
      • Adaptive Mobility Devices 118
      • Cane Techniques 127
      • On-Campus Orientation and Mobility 140
      • Cardinal Directions 145
      • Distance Low Vision Devices 151
    • Residential Environment 162
      • Functional Mobility Tasks 163
      • Modified Forearm Protective Technique 164
      • Vehicle Familiarization 167
      • Residential Area Travel 169
      • Residential Street Crossings 184
      • Address Systems 200
      • Rural Travel 202
      • Night Travel 207
      • Adverse Weather Conditions 210
    • Commercial Environment 214
      • Functional Mobility Tasks 215
      • Commercial Area Travel 216
      • Commercial Area Street Crossings 230
      • Community Experiences 242
    • Public Transportation 252
      • Functional Mobility Tasks 253
      • Public Transportation Systems 254
    • Ambulatory Devices 266
      • Introduction 267
      • Wheelchair Skills Checklist 272
      • Use of a Wheelchair 277
      • Use of a Walker 294
      • Use of Crutches 301
      • Use of One-Handed Support Device 308
  • References 315
  • Additional Professional References 321
  • Resources 333
  • Glossary 345
  • Index 365

Part 2: Comprehensive Initial and Ongoing Evaluation

  • Instructions to the Examiner 2
  • Student Information 5
    • Interview Questions for the Student 6
  • Interview Questions for the Parent or Guardian 10
  • Interview Questions for School Personnel 14
  • Areas of Evaluation 18
    • Home/Living 18
    • Campus 44
    • Residential 60
    • Commercial 80
    • Public Transportation 94
    • Ambulatory Devices 103

Part 3: Appendices

  1. Resources for Explaining the Benefits of O&M 1
  2. Legal Issues in Orientation and Mobility 3
  3. Research Studies in O&M Supporting Evidence-Based Practices 5
  4. Early O&M Evaluations 49
    • Purposeful Movement Behaviors 50
    • O&M Assessment: Early Years of Birth through Three Years 57
  5. Effective Questioning 83
  6. Problem Solving 89
  7. Adaptive Mobility Devices 95
  8. Cane Selection 119
  9. O&M Instruction with Students Using Dog Guides 125
  10. O&M Strategies for Working with Students with Deafblindness and Other Communication Challenges 129
  11. Promoting Movement 147
    • Exercises 148
    • Movement Activities 175
    • Yoga 179
  12. Using Tactile Maps as an Orientation Aid 189
  13. Assistive Technology Used in O&M 211
  14. Personal Safety in the Community 225
  15. Alternative Indoor Activities 229
  16. Music Motivation 237
  17. O&M Terms in Spanish 241
  18. Evaluation and Training of Visual Efficiency Skills 251
  19. O&M Evaluation Report Template and Sample Reports 277
  • Glossary 317
  • Index 337

Part 4: Supplement: Street Crossings for Travelers Who Are Visually Impaired

  • Introduction 3
  1. Intersection Analysis 7
  2. Street Crossings 117
  3. Scanning to Monitor Traffic 205
  4. Additional Tools 231
  5. References 255
  6. Glossary 257

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