Main content

Alert message

Teacher and student communicating through tactile signing.

Session References

Anderson, S., Boigon, S., & Davis, K. (1991). The Oregon project for visually impaired and blind preschool children (5th ed.). Medford, OR: Jackson Education Service District.

Anthony, T.L. (1993). Orientation and mobility skill development. In Blind Childrens Center (Ed.), First steps: A handbook for teaching young children who are visually impaired (pp. 115–138). Los Angeles: Editor.

Anthony, T.L. (1998). Sensory learning: A framework of early O&M skill development. In E. Siffermann, M. Williams, & B. Blasch (Eds.), Conference proceedings: The Ninth International Mobility Conference (pp. 279-280). Atlanta, GA: Rehabilitation Research and Development Center.

Anthony, T.L. (2004a). Individual sensory learning profile interview (ISLPI). In I. Topor, L.P. Rosenblum, & D.D. Hatton, Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues (participant packet, pp. 238-245). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Anthony, T.L. (2004b). Inventory of purposeful movement behaviors. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Anthony, T.L. (2004c). Observational assessment of sensory preferences of infants and toddlers with visual impairments (OASP). In I. Topor, L.P. Rosenblum, & D.D. Hatton, Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues (participant packet, pp. 246-247). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Anthony, T.L. (2004d). O&M assessment: Early years of birth through three. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Bagnato, S.J., Neisworth, J.T., & Munson, S.M. (1997). LINKing assessment and early intervention: An authentic curriculum-based approach. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Barraga, N.C., & Erin, J.N. (2001). Visual impairments and learning (4th ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Bernheimer, L.P., & Keogh, B.K. (1995). Weaving interventions into the fabric of everyday life: An approach to family assessment. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 15, 414-433.

Brown, C. (2004). Environmental checklist for developing independence. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Chen, D., Friedman, C.T., & Calvello, G. (1990a). Parent assessment of needs. In Parents and visually impaired infants. Louisville, KY: PAVII Project and American Printing House for the Blind.

Chen, D., Friedman, C.T., & Calvello, G. (1990b). Parents and visually impaired infants. Louisville, KY: PAVII Project and American Printing House for the Blind.

Colorado Team for Evaluation and Assessment Planning. (2001). The status of early childhood evaluation and assessment in Colorado: A working paper. Denver, CO: Author.

Croft, N.B., & Robinson, L.W. (1984). Growing up: A developmental curriculum. Austin, TX: Parent Consultants.

Davies, J. (1989-90). Assessing infants who are visually impaired or deaf-blind for functional vision and orientation and mobility. San Diego, CA: San Diego City Schools.

Dodson-Burk, B., & Hill, E.W. (1989). Preschool orientation and mobility screening. Alexandria, VA: Division IX of the Association for the Education of the Blind and Visually Impaired.

EIVI Training Center. (2003). Preassessment planning guidelines. In D.D. Hatton, R.A. McWilliam, & P.J. Winton, Family-centered practices for infants and toddlers with visual impairments (participant packet, pp. 119-120). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Ferrell, K.A. (1985). Reach out and teach: Meeting the training needs of parents of visually and multihandicapped children. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Ferrell, K.A. (1998). Project PRISM: A longitudinal study of developmental patterns of children who are visually impaired (Final Report). Greeley, CO: University of Northern Colorado, Division of Special Education.

Geruschat, D., & Smith, A.J. (1997). Low vision and mobility. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Weiner, & R.L. Welch (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed, pp. 60-103). New York: AFB Press.

Harley, R.K., Long, R.G., Merbler, J.B., & Wood, T.A. (1980). Peabody mobility kit for infants and toddlers. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting.

Harley, R.K., Truan, M.B., & Sanford L.D. (1987). Communication skills for visually impaired learners. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Hatton, D.D., McWilliam, R., & Winton, P. (2003). Eligibility and routines-based assessment. In D.D. Hatton, R. McWilliam, & P. Winton, Family-centered practices for infants and toddlers with visual impairments (pp. 252-310). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Heydt, K., Allon, M., Edwards, S., Clark, M.J., & Cushman, C. (2004).  Perkins activity and resource guide:  A handbook for teachers and parents of students with visual and multiple disabilities.  Watertown, MA:  Perkins School for the Blind. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Pub. L. No. 105-17, (1997).

Johnson-Martin, N.M., Jens, K.G., Attermeier, S.M., & Hacker, B.J. (1999). The Carolina curriculum for infants and toddlers with special needs (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Koenig, A.J., & Holbrook, M.C. (1995). Learning media assessment of students with visual impairments (2nd ed.). Austin: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Langley, M.B. (1998). ISAVE: Individualized systematic assessment of visual efficiency. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Linder, T. (1993). Transdisciplinary play-based assessment (TPBA): A functional approach to working with young children (Rev. ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Lowry, S.S. (2004a). O&M assessment for infants and developmentally young children: What to look for. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004b). O&M assessment for toddlers and developmentally young children: What to look for. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004c). Ways to facilitate ease of movement. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

McWilliam, R.A. (2003). Routines-based assessment. In D.D. Hatton, R.A. McWilliam, & P.J. Winton, Family-centered practices for infants and toddlers with visual impairments (participant packet, pp. 91-94). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Mindes, G., Ireton, H., & Mardell-Czudnowksi, C. (1996). Assessing young children. New York: Delmar Publications.

Parks, S. (1997). Inside HELP, Hawaii early learning profile: Administration and reference manual. Palo Alto, CA: VORT Corporation.

Parks, S., Furuno, S., O’Reilly, K., Inatsuka, T., Hosaka, C., & Zeisloft-Falbey, B. (1994). HELP at home. Palo Alto, CA: VORT Corporation.

Pogrund, R., Healy, G., Jones, K, Levack, N., Martin-Curry, S., Martinez, C., et al. (1993). Teaching age-appropriate purposeful skills: An orientation and mobility curriculum for students with visual impairments. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Weber, C., Behl, D., & Summers, M. (1994). Watch them play: Watch them learn. Teaching Exceptional Children, 27(1), 30-35.

Webster, R. (1980). The road to freedom: A parent’s guide to prepare the blind child to travel independently. Jackson, IL: Katan Publications.

Zimmerman, G.J., & Roman, C.A. (1997). Services for children and adults: Standard program design. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Weiner, & R.L. Welch (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed, pp. 383-406). New York: AFB Press.

Session References

Adelson, E., & Fraiberg, S. (1974). Gross motor development in infants blind from birth. Child Development, 45(1), 114 -126.

Adelson, E., & Fraiberg, S. (1976). Sensory deficit and motor development in infants blind from birth. In Z.S. Jastnzembska (Ed.), The effects of blindness and other impairments on early development. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Alexander, R., Boehme, R., & Cupps, B. (1993). Normal development of functional motor skills: The first year of life. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

Allen, E.K., & Marotz, L. (1994). Developmental profiles: Pre-birth through eight (2nd ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.

Anthony, T. (1993). Orientation and mobility skill development. In Blind Childrens Center (Ed.), First steps: A handbook for teaching young children who are visually impaired (pp. 115-138). Los Angeles: Editor.

Anthony, T.L. (2000). The young child with visual impairment: Intervention strategies for therapeutic handling, positioning, and fostering gross motor development. In E.C. Dennison (Ed.), Participant home study manual for course # 1, Unit 5: Motor/Orientation and Mobility. Logan: Utah State University, SKI-HI Institute, Project VIISA.

Anthony, T.L., & Murphy, J.L. (2004). Early reflexes. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Bigelow, A.E. (1992). Locomotion and search behavior in blind infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 15(2), 179-189.

Bly, S. (1994). Multivariate data mappings. In G. Kramer (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display 1992. Auditory display: Sonification, audification, and auditory interfaces (pp. 405-416). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Boehme, R. (1990). The hypotonic child: Treatment for postural control, endurance, strength, and sensory organization. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

Brown, C., & Bour, B. (1986). Volume V-K: Movement analysis and curriculum for visually impaired preschoolers. Tallahassee: State of Florida Department of Education Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

Brown, C., & Lowry, S.S. (2004). Facilitating movement and exploration. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Celeste, M. (2002). A survey of motor development for infants and young children with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 96(3), 169-174.

Colangelo, C.A. (1999). Biomechanical frame of reference. In P.K. Kramer & J. Hinojosa (Eds.), Frames of reference for pediatric occupational therapy (2nd ed., pp. 257-322). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Cook, J.L., & Cook, G. (2004). Child development: Principles and perspectives. Boston: Pearson.

Dote-Kwan, J. (1995). Instructional strategies. In D. Chen & J. Dote-Kwan (Eds.), Starting points: Instructional practices for young children whose multiple disabilities include visual impairments (pp. 43-56). Los Angeles: Blind Children’s Center.

Faber, S.D. (1982). Neurorehabilitation. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Ferrell, K.A. (1985). Reach out and teach: Meeting the training needs of parents of visually and multiply handicapped young children. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Ferrell, K.A. (1998). Project PRISM: A longitudinal study of the developmental patterns of children who are visually impaired: Executive summary. Greeley: University of Northern Colorado.

Ferrell, K.A., Trief, E., Dietz, S.J., Bonner, M.A., Cruz, D., Ford, E., & Stratton, J.M. (1990). Visually impaired infants research consortium (VIIRC): First-year results. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 85(8), 404-410.

Fraiberg, S. (1968). Parallel and divergent patterns in blind and sighted infants. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 23, 264-300.

Fraiberg, S. (1977). Insights from the blind: Comparative studies of blind and sighted infants. New York: Basic Books.

Fraiberg, S., & Freedman, D.A. (1964). Studies in the ego development of the congenitally blind child. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 19, 113-169.

Fraiberg, S., Siegel, B., & Gibson, R. (1966). The role of sound in the search behavior of a blind infant. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 21, 327-357.

Freedman, D.A. (1971). Congenital and perinatal sensory deprivation: some studies in early development. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127(11), 1539-1545.

Geruschat, D., & Smith, A.J. (1997). Low vision and mobility. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed., pp. 60-104). New York: AFB Press.

Gesell, A. (1928). Infancy and human growth. New York: Macmillan.

Gilfoyle, E.M., Grady, A.P., & Moore, J.C. (1981). Children adapt. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Hamilton, D. (1982, May). A physical therapist's comparison of the VIFT Project children. Paper presented to the VIFTY Advisory Committee, West Pennsylvania School for Blind Children, Pittsburgh, PA.

Hart, V. (1984). Research as a basis for assessment and curriculum development for visually impaired infants. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 78(9), 314-318.

Hatton, D.D., Bailey, D.B., Burchinal, M.R., & Ferrell, K.A. (1997). Developmental growth curves of preschool children with vision impairments. Child Development, 68, 788-806.

Hatton, D.D., & Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment Collaborative Group. (2001). Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment: First year results. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(7), 418-433.

Hudson, L.J., & Kosior, P.R. (2004). Increasing awareness of steps and stairs for young children with visual impairments. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Jan, J., Robinson, G., Scott, E., & Kinnis, C. (1975). Hypotonia in the blind child. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 17, 35-40.

Johnson, B.C. (2004). Illustrations of early reflexes. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004a). Defined spaces. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004b). Four steps to goal-directed reaching. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S., & Hatton, D.D. (2002). Facilitating walking by young children with visual impairments. RE:view 34(9), 125-133.

Maida, S., & McCune, L. (1996). A dynamic systems approach to the development of crawling by blind and sighted infants. RE:view, 28, 119-134.

Martin, C. (2002). Functional movement development across the life span (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

McGraw, M.B. (1966). The neuromuscular maturation of the human infant. New York: Hafner.

Nielsen, L. (1992). Space and self: Active learning by means of the Little Room. Lake City, FL: Vision Associates.

Norris, M., Spaulding, P., & Brodie, F. (1957). Blindness in children. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Prechtl, H.F., Cioni, G., Einspieler, C., Bos, A.F., & Ferrari, F. (2001). Role of vision on early motor development: Lessons from the blind. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 43, 198-201.

Roley, S. (1995). Visual impairments: Issues reflected through four children and their families. Sensory Integration Special Interest Section Newsletter, 18.

Ross, S., & Tobin, M.J. (1997). Object permanence, reaching, and locomotion in infants who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91(1), 25-32.

Sapp, W. (2004). Hypertonia. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Schoen, S.A., & Anderson, J. (1999). Neurodevelopmental treatment frame of reference. In P.K. Kramer & J. Hinojosa (Eds.), Frames of reference for pediatric occupational therapy (2nd ed., pp. 83-118). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Shumway-Cook, A., & Woollacott, M.H. (2001). Motor control (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Snow, C., & McGaha, C. (2003). Infant development (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Sonksen, P.M., Levitt, S., & Kitsinger, M. (1984). Identification of constraints acting on motor development in young visually disabled children and principles of remediation. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 10, 273-286.

Tröster, H., & Brambring, M. (1993). Early motor development in blind infants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14(1), 83-106.

Tröster, H., Hecker, W., & Brambring, M. (1994). Longitudinal study of gross-motor development in blind infants and preschoolers. Early Childhood Development and Care, 104, 61-78.

Ulrich, B.D. (1997). Dynamic systems theory and skill development in infants and children. In K.J. Connolly & H. Forssberg (Eds.), Neurophysiology and neuropsychology of motor development (pp. 319-345). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Warren, D.H. (1994). Blindness and children: An individual differences approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Warren, D., & Hatton, D. (2003). Cognitive development of children with visual impairments. In I. Rapin & S. Segalowitz (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 7, Part II. Child neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 439-458). New York: Elsevier.

Wilbarger, P. (1984). Planning an adequate “sensory diet”: Application of sensory processing theory during the first year of life. Zero to Three, 5(1), 7-12.

Wolery, M., Bailey, D.B., & Sugai, G.M. (1988). Effective teaching: Principles and procedures of applied behavior analysis with exceptional students. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Session References

Anthony, T.L. (2002). Concepts learned in the early years: Birth to 24 Months. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 341-343). New York: AFB Press.

Anthony, T.L. (2004). Sequence of object permanence for sighted infants. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Anthony, T.L., Bleier, H., Fazzi, D.L., Kish, D., & Pogrund, R.L. (2002). Mobility focus: Developing early skills for orientation and mobility. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 326-355). New York: AFB Press.

Bigelow, A. (1986). The development of reaching in blind children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4, 355-366.

Bigelow, A. (1990). Relationship between the development of language and thought in young blind children. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 84(8), 414-419.

Bigelow, A.E. (1992). Locomotion and search behavior in blind infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 15, 179-189.

Cratty, B.J., & Sams, T.A. (1968). The body-image of blind children. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Eliot, L. (1999). What’s going on in there? How the brain and mind develop in the first five years of life. New York: Bantam.

Ferrell, K. (1998). Project PRISM: A longitudinal study of developmental patterns of children who are visually impaired (final report). Greeley: Division of Special Education, University of Northern Colorado.

Fraiberg, S. (1977). Insights from the blind: Comparative studies of blind and sighted infants. New York: Plenum.

Hatton, D.D., Bailey, D.B., Burchinal, M.R., & Ferrell, K.A. (1997). Developmental growth curves of preschool children with vision impairments. Child Development, 68, 788-806.

Hatton, D.D., & Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment Collaborative Group. (2001). Model Registry of Early Childhood Visual Impairment: First-year results. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(7), 418-433. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Pub. L. No. 105-17, (1997).

Long, R.G., & Hill, E.W. (1997). Establishing and maintaining orientation for mobility. In

B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed., pp. 39-59). New York: AFB Press.

Lowry, S.S. (2004). Natural learning opportunities for infants and toddlers that build environmental concepts. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lueck, A.H., Chen, D., & Kekelis, L.S. (1997). Developmental guidelines for infants with visual impairment: A manual for early intervention. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Nielsen, L. (1992). Space and self: Active learning by means of the Little Room. Lake City, FL: Vision Associates.

Prickett, J.G., & Welch, T.R. (1995). Deaf-blindness: Implications for learning. In K.M. Huebner, J.G. Prickett, T.R. Welch, & E. Joffee (Eds.), Hand in hand: Essentials of communication and orientation and mobility for your students who are deaf-blind (pp. 25-60), AFB Press: New York.

Rogers, S., & Puchalski, C. (1988). Development of object permanence in visually impaired infants. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 82(4), 137-142.

Skellenger, A.C., & Hill, E.W. (1997). The preschool learner. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd Ed.). New York: AFB Press.

Snow, C.W., & McGaha, C.G. (2003). Infant development (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Tröster, H., & Brambring, M. (1993). Early motor development in blind infants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 83-106.

Warren, D.H. (1994). Blindness and children: An individual differences approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Warren, D., & Hatton, D. (2003). Cognitive development of children with visual impairments. In I. Rapin & S. Segalowitz (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 7, Part II. Child neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 439-458). New York: Elsevier.

Wolery, M. (1994). Instructional strategies for teaching young children with special needs. In M. Wolery & J.S. Wilbers (Eds.), Including children with special needs in early childhood programs (pp. 119-140). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Session References

Adelson, E., & Fraiberg, S. (1974). Gross motor development in infants blind from birth. Child Development, 45(1), 114 -126.

Alsop, L. (Ed.). (2002). Understanding deafblindness: Issues, perspectives, and strategies. Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute.

Anthony, T.L. (1993). Orientation and mobility skill development. In Blind Childrens Center (Ed.), First steps: A handbook for teaching young children who are visually impaired (pp.115–138). Los Angeles: Editor.

Anthony, T.L. (2000). Performing a functional vision assessment. In F.M. D’Andrea & C. Farrenkopf (Eds.), Looking to learn: Promoting literacy for students with low vision (pp. 32-83). New York: AFB Press.

Anthony, T.L. (2002a). Completing a sensory profile. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.). Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (p. 333). New York: AFB Press.

Anthony, T.L. (2002b). The inclusion of vision-development guidelines in the transdisciplinary play-based assessment: A study of reliability and validity. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(12).

Anthony, T.L., Bleier, H., Fazzi, D.L, Kish, D., & Pogrund, R.L. (2002). Mobility focus: Developing early skills for orientation and mobility. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 326-355). New York: AFB Press.

Ashmead, D., Hill, E., & Talor, C. (1989). Obstacle perception by congenitally blind children. Perception and Psychophysics, 46(5), 425-433.

Aslin, R.N., Pisoni, D.B., & Jusczyk, P.W. (1983). Auditory development and speech perception in infancy. In P.H. Mussen (Series Ed.), M.M. Haith, & J.J. Campos (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 2. Infancy and developmental psychobiology (4th ed., pp. 573-687). New York: Wiley.

Atkinson, J. (1996). Issues in infant vision screening and assessment. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 135-152). New York: Oxford University Press.

Atkinson, J. (2000). The developing visual brain. New York: Oxford University Press.

Atkinson, J., & van Hof-van Duin, J. (1993). Visual assessment during the first years of life. In A.R. Fielder, A.B. Best, & M.C.O. Bax (Eds.), The management of visual impairment in childhood. Clinics in developmental medicine (Vol. 128, pp. 9-29). London, U.K.: Mac Keith Press.

Ayres, A.J. (1979). Sensory integration and the child. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Bailey, I.L. (1994). Optometric care for the multi-handicapped child. Practical Optometry, 5, 158-166.

Baker, R.C. (1991). Pitfalls in diagnosing acute otitis media. Pediatric Annals, 20, 591-598.

Bayley, N. (1993). The Bayley scales of infant development (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Test Corporation.

Birch, E.E., Shimojo, S., & Held, R. (1985). Preferential-looking assessment of fusion and stereopsis in infants aged 1-6 months. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 26, 366-370.

Bishop, V.E. (1988). Making choices in functional vision evaluations: “Noodles, needles, and haystacks.” Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 82(3), 94-99.

Boothroyd, A. (1982). Hearing impairments in young children. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Brambring, M., & Tröster, H. (1992). On the stability of stereotyped behaviors in blind infants and preschoolers. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 86(2), 105-110.

Brown, A.M., & Teller, D.Y. (1989). Chromatic opponency in 3-month-old human infants. Vision Research, 29, 37-45.

Brown, C., & Bour, B. (1987). Volume V-K: Movement analysis and curriculum for visually impaired preschoolers. Tallahassee: State of Florida Department of Education Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

Brown, D. (2004). Utilizing the sense of smell in children and youth with deaf-blindness. reSources, 11(2), 5-6.

Buquet, C., & Charlier, J.R. (1996). Evaluation of sensory visual-development based on measures of oculomotor responses. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 291-306). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bushnell, E.W., & Boudreau, J.P. (1991). The development of haptic perception during infancy. In M.A. Heller & W. Schiff (Eds.), The psychology of touch (pp.139-161). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bushnell, E.W., & Boudreau, J.P. (1993). Motor development and mind. Child Development, 64(4), 1005-1021.

Bushnell, I.W.R. (1982). Discrimination of faces by young infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 33(2), 211-229.

Catalano, R.A., & Nelson, L.B. (1994). Pediatric ophthalmology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Appleton and Lange.

Colby Trott, M., Laurel, M.K., & Windeck, S.L. (1993). SenseAbilities: Understanding sensory integration. San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders.

Davis, H., & Silverman, S.R. (1978). Hearing and deafness (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Daw, N.W. (1995). Visual development. New York: Plenum Press.

Dayton, L. (1970). Oculomotor and visual problems in deaf children. American Orthoptic Journal, 20, 75-80.

DeConde Johnson, C., Benson, P.V., & Seaton, J.B. (1997). Educational audiology handbook. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.

Ehret, C. (1988). Language change and the material correlates of language and ethnic shift. Antiquity, 62.

Einhorn, Lois, J. (1998). Helen Keller, public speaker: Sightless but seen, deaf but heard. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Eliot, L. (1999). What’s going on in there? How the brain and mind develop in the first five years of life. New York: Bantam.

Farber, S. (1982). A multisensory approach to neurorehabilitation. In S. Farber (Ed.), A multisensory approach (pp. 115-176). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Fewell, R.R., & Vadasy, P.F. (1983). Learning through play: A resource manual for teachers and parents. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.

Flexer, C. (1999). Facilitating hearing and listening in young children (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.

Fox, D. (2003). Development of visual behaviors and skills. In I. Topor, L.P. Rosenblum, & D.D. Hatton, Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues (participant packet, pp. 81-84). Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Fraiberg, S. (1968). Parallel and divergent patterns in blind and sighted infants. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 23, 264-301.

Gilfoyle, E.M., Grady, A.P., & Moore, J.D. (1990). Children adapt (2nd ed.). Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack.

Glass, P. (1993). Development of visual function in preterm infants: Implications for early intervention. Infants and Young Children, 6, 11-20.

Gleason, D. (2004). Developmental sequence of auditory localization. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Gleason, D., & Murphy, J. (2004). How to understand audiograms. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Goren, C.C., Sarty, M., & Wu, P.Y.K. (1975). Visual following and pattern discrimination of face-like stimuli by newborn infants. Pediatrics, 56, 544-549.

Greeley, J.C. (1997). Developmentally supportive care: Hospital to home for the infant with deafblindness. Workshop Proceedings of the 1997 National Conference on Deafblindness: The Individual in a Changing Society, 2, 292-301.

Greeley, J.C., & Gearhardt, C. (1995, September). Hearing testing in children with visual impairments. The National Newspatch.

Groenendaal, F., & van Hof-van Duin, J. (1992). Visual deficits and improvements in children after perinatal hypoxia. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 86(5), 215-218.

Hainline, L., & Riddell, P.M. (1996). Eye alignment and convergence in young children. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 221-247). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hansen, R.M., & Fulton, A.B. (1986). Pupillary changes during dark adaptation in human infants. Investigational Ophthalmological Visual Science, 27, 1726-1729.

Harris, C.M., Jacobs, M., Shawkat, F., & Taylor, D. (1993). The development of saccadic accuracy in the first 7 months. Clinical Vision Science, 8, 85-96.

Hayes, D., & Northern, J.L. (1996). Infants and hearing. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.

Hussey, B. (1988). Signals of premature infants. Intensive Caring Unlimited, 6, 1-5.

Hyvärinen, L. (1994). Assessment of visually impaired infants. Low Vision and Vision Rehabilitation, 7(2), 219-225.

Jan, J., Robinson, G., Scott, E., & Kinnis, C. (1975). Hypotonia in the blind child. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 17, 35-40.

Johnson, C.D., Benson, P.V., & Seaton, J. (1997). Educational audiology handbook, Sentence and Phrase List, Appendix Section 15 (pp. 477-489). San Deigo, CA: Singular Publishing Group.

Johnson-Martin, N.M., Jens, K.G., Attermeier, S.M., & Hacker, B.J. (1991). The Carolina curriculum for infants and toddlers with special needs (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Kimball, J. (1999). Sensory integration frame of reference: Theoretical base, function/dysfunction continua, and guide to evaluation. In P. Kramer & J. Hinojosa (Eds.), Frames of reference for pediatric occupational therapy (2nd ed., pp. 119-159). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Knoblauch, K., Bieber, M., & Werner, J.S. (1996). Assessing dimensionality in infant colour vision. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 51-61). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kukla, D., & Thomas, T. (1978). Assessment of auditory functioning of deaf-blind/multihandicapped children. Dallas, TX: South Central Regional Center for Services to Deaf-Blind Children.

Langley, M.B. (1998a). Preparation for conducting ISAVE. In Individualized systematic assessment of visual efficiency for the developmentally young and individuals with multihandicapping conditions (Vol. 1, pp. 1-45). Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Langley, M.B. (1998b). Visual fields. In Individualized systematic assessment of visual efficiency for the developmentally young and individuals with multihandicapping conditions (Vol. 1, pp. 1-45). Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.

Lowry, S.S. (2004a). Activities to facilitate tactile awareness. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004b). Environmental adaptations for facilitating visual skills. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004c). Strategies for facilitating auditory development. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Maida, S., & McCune, L. (1996). A dynamic systems approach to the development of crawling by blind and sighted infants. RE:view, 28, 119-134.

Mamer, L. (1995). Tactile defensiveness. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness            NewsService, 89(3), 9-10.

Mayer, D.L., Fulton, A.B., & Cummings, M.F. (1988). Visual fields of infants assessed with a new perimetric technique. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 29, 452-459.

McHugh, E., & Pyfer, J. (1999). The development of rocking among children who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 93(2), 82-95.

Meltzoff, A.N., & Moore, M.K. (1994). Imitation, memory, and the representation of persons. Infant Behavior and Development, 17(1), 83-99.

Menacker, S.J., & Batshaw, M.L. (1997). Vision: Our windows to the world. In M.L. Batshaw (Ed.), Children with disabilities (4th ed., pp. 211-239). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Miles, B. (1999). Talking the language of the hands to the hands: The importance of hands to the person who is deafblind. Monmouth, OR: DB-LINK, The National Information Clearinghouse on Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. Retrieved July 15, 2003, from http://www.tr.wou.edu/dblink/hands2.htm

Mohn, G., & van Hof-van Duin, J. (1986). Rapid assessment of visual acuity in infants and children in a clinical setting, using acuity cards. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 45, 363-372.

Morgan, E. (Ed.). (1995). Resources for family centered intervention for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers who are visually impaired VIISA (2nd ed., Vol. 1-2). Logan: Utah State University, Ski-Hi Institute, Project VIISA.

Morrongiello, B.A., & Gotowiec, A. (1990). Recent advances in the behavioral study of infant audition: The development of sound localization skills. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 14, 51-63.

Morse, M. (1991). Visual gaze behavior: Considerations in working with visually impaired multiply handicapped children. RE:view, 23, 5-15.

Muir, D.W. (1985). The development of infants’ auditory spatial sensitivity. In S.E. Tregun & B.A. Schneider (Eds.), Auditory development in infancy. New York: Plenum.

Nielsen, L. (1996). Guiding hands: Help or hindrance. Future Reflections, 14(3). Retrieved June 30, 2004, from http://nfb.org/fr/fr1/frfall95.htm 

Parham, L.D., & Mailloux, Z. (1996). Sensory integration. In J. Case-Smith, A.S. Allen, & P.N. Pratt (Eds.), Occupational therapy for children (pp. 307-356). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Parks, S., Furono, S., O’Reilly, T., Inatsuka, C.M., Hosaka, C.M., & Zeisloft-Falbey, B. (1994). Hawaii early learning profile (HELP): Birth to three. Palo Alto, CA: VORT Corporation.

Pike, M.G., Holstrom, G., DeVries, L.S., Pennock, J.M., Drew, K.J., & Sonksen, P.M.  (1994). Patterns of visual impairment associated with lesions of the preterm infant brain. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 36, 849-862.

Pogrund, R.L, & Rosen, S.J. (1989). The preschool blind child can be a cane user. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 83(9), 431-438.

Prechtl, H.F., Cioni, G., Einspieler, C., Bos, A.F., & Ferrari, F. (2001). Role of vision on early motor development: Lessons from the blind. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 43, 198-201.

Rodriquez-Gill, G. (2004). The sense of smell: A powerful sense. reSources, 11(2), 1-3.

Roley, S.S. (1995). Occupational therapy for young children with multiple disabilities. In D. Chen & J. Dote-Kwan, Starting points: Instructional practices for young children whose multiple disabilities include visual impairment (pp. 98-106). Los Angeles: Blind Childrens Center.

Rosen, S. (1997). Kinesiology and sensorimotor function. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh, (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed., pp. 170-199). New York: AFB Press.

Ross, M., & Calvert, D.R. (1984). Semantics of deafness revisited: Total communication and the use and misuse of residual hearing. Audiology, 9, 127-145.

Schoem, S.R., & Grundfast, K.M. (1998). Oculoauditory syndromes. In A.K. Lalwani & K.M. Grundfast (Eds.), Pediatric otology and neurology (pp. 365-374). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

Schwartz, T.L., Dobson, V., Sandstrom, D.J., & van Hof-van Duin, J. (1987). Kinetic perimetry assessment of binocular visual field shape and size in your infants. Vision Research, 27, 2163-2175.

Sireteanu, R. (1996). Development of the visual field: Results from human and animal studies. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 17-31). New York: Oxford University Press.

Slater, A.M. (1996). The organization of visual perception in early infancy. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 309-325). New York: Oxford University Press.

Sonksen, P.M. (1982). The assessment of “vision for development” in severely visually handicapped babies. Acta Ophthalmologica: Supplement, 157, 82-90.

Sonksen, P.M. (1984). Identification of constraints acting on motor development in young disabled children and principles of remediation. Child: Care, Health & Development, 10, 273-286.

Sonksen, P.M. (1993). Effect of severe visual impairment on development. In A.R. Fielder, A.B. Best, & M.C.O. Bax (Eds.), The management of visual impairment in childhood: Clinics in developmental medicine (Vol. 128, pp. 78-90). London: Mac Keith Press.

Stirnweis, S. (2004a). Proprioceptive activities. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Stirnweis, S. (2004b). Vestibular activities. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Talay-Ongan, A. (1988). Typical and atypical development in early childhood: The fundamentals. New York: Teachers College Press.

Teller, D.Y., McDonald, M.A., Preston, K., Sebris, S.L., & Dobson, V. (1986). Assessment of visual acuity in infants and children: the acuity card procedure. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 779-789.

Teplin, S. (1995). Visual impairment in infants and young children. Infants and Young Children, 8(1), 18-51.

Topor, I, Rosenblum, P.L., & Hatton, D.D. (2004). Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Trehub, S.E., Schneider, B.A., Morrongiello, B.A., & Thorpe, L.A. (1989). Development changes in high-frequency sensitivity. Audiology, 28, 241-249.

Tröster, H., & Brambring, M. (1993). Early motor development in blind infants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14(1), 83-106.

van Hof-van Duin, J., & Mohn, G. (1984). Vision in the preterm infant. In H.F.R. Prechtl (Ed.), Continuity of neural functions from prenatal to postnatal life: Clinics in developmental medicine (Vol. 94, pp. 93-114). Oxford, U.K.: Spastics International Medical Publications.

Vital-Durand, F., Ayzac, L., & Pinsaru, G. (1996). Acuity cards and the search for risk factors in infant visual-development. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 185-200). New York: Oxford University Press.

Vaughan, D., Asbury, T., & Tabbara, K.F. (1989). General ophthalmology (12th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Appleton and Lange.

Watkins, S., & Clark, T.C. (1993). The SKI-HI model: A resource manual for family-centered, home-based programming for infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children with hearing impairments. Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute.

Webster, R. (1977). The road to freedom: A parent’s guide to prepare the blind child to travel independently. Jackson, IL: Katan Publications.

Werner, L.A., & VandenBos, G.R. (1993). Developmental psychoacoustics: What infants and children hear. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44(7), 624-626.

Wiener, W.R., & Lawson, G.L. (1997). Audition for the traveler who is visually impaired. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed., pp. 104-169). New York: AFB Press.

Wilbarger, P. (1995). The sensory diet: Activity programs based on sensory processing theory. Sensory Integration Special Interest Section Newsletter, 18, 1–4.

Wilbarger, P., & Wilbarger, J. (1991). Sensory defensiveness in children 2-12. Santa Barbara, CA: Avanti Education Programs.

Yonas, A., & Granrud, C.E. (1985). The development of sensitivity to kinetic, binocular and pictorial depth information in human infants. In D. Ingle, D. Lee, & R.N. Jeannerod (Eds.), Brain mechanisms and spatial vision (pp. 113-146). The Hague, Netherlands: Nijhoff.

Zeitlin, S., & Williamson, G.G. (1994). Coping in young children: Early intervention practices to enhance adaptive behavior and resilience. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Session References

Aitken, K., & Trevarthen, C. (1997). Self/other organization in human psychological development Development and Psychopathology, 9(4), 653-677.

Als, H., Tronick, E., & Brazelton, T.B. (1980). Stages of early behavioral organization: The study of a sighted infant and a blind infant in interaction with their mothers. in T.M. Field, S. Goldberg,  D. Stern, & A.M. Sostek *Eds.), High risk infants and children: Adult and peer interaction. New York: Academic Press, Inc.

American Foundation for the Blind (Producer). (2000). What do you do when you see a blind person [Video]. (Available from the American Foundation for the Blind, 11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300, New York, NY 10001)

Anthony, T.L. (1993). Orientation and mobility skill development. In Blind Childrens Center (Ed.), First steps: A handbook for teaching young children who are visually impaired (pp. 115-138). Los Angeles: Editor.

Anthony, T.L. (2004) Historical timeline of events and publications related to O&M for children ages 0-5 years with visual impairments. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH

Anthony, T.L. (2004) The role of the OMS with infants and toddlers. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH

Anthony, T.L., Bleier, H., Fazzi, D.L., Kish, D., & Pogrund, R.L. (2002) Mobility focus: Developing early skills for orientation and mobility. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 326-355). New York: AFB Press.

Berry, J.O., & Hardman, M.L. (1998). Families and the early childhood years. In Lifespan perspectives on the family and disability (p. 168). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bigelow, A. (1995). The effect of blindness on the early development of the self. In P. Rochat (Ed.),  The self in infancy: Theory and research (Vol. 112, pp. 327-347). Amsterdam: North-Holland/Elsevier Science Publishers.

Blind Childrens Center. (1986). Move with me: A parents' guide to movement development for visually impaired babies. Los Angeles: Author.

Brambring, M. (1996). Early intervention with blind children: Main findings of the Beilefeld Longitudinal Study. In M. Brambring, H. Rauh, & A. Beelmann (Eds.), Early childhood intervention: Theory, evaluation, and practice. New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Bredekamp, S., & Copple, C. (Eds.). (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs (Rev. ed.). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Brown, C.J. (2004). A guide for teachers and therapists working with my child. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Brown, C.J., & Bour, B. (1987). Volume V-K: Movement analysis and curriculum for visually impaired preschoolers. Tallahassee: State of Florida Department of Education Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

Chen, D. (1999). Interactions between infants and caregivers: The context for early intervention. In D. Chen (Ed.), Essential elements in early intervention: Visual impairment and multiple disabilities (pp. 22-54). New York: AFB Press.

Clarke, K.L. (1988). Barriers or enablers? Mobility devices for visually impaired and multihandicapped infants and preschoolers. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 20(3), 115-132.

Clarke, K.L., Sainato, D.M., & Ward, M.E. (1994). Travel performance of preschoolers: The effects of mobility training with a long cane versus a precane. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 88(1), 19-30.

Dodson-Burk, B., & Hill, E.W. (1989). An orientation and mobility primer for families and young children. New York: AFB Press.

Farmer, L.W., & Smith, D.L. (1997). Adaptive technology. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed., pp. 231-259). New York: AFB Press.

Fazzi, D. (1995). Orientation & mobility for young children with multiple disabilities. In Blind Childrens Center (Ed.), Starting points: Instructional practices for young children whose multiple disabilities include visual impairment (pp. 89-98). Los Angeles: Editor.

Fazzi, D.L., & Klein, M.D. (2002). Cognitive focus: Developing cognition, concepts, and language. In R.L. Pogrund & D.L. Fazzi (Eds.), Early focus: Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families (2nd ed., pp. 107-153). New York: AFB Press.

Ferrell, K.A. (1985). Reach out and teach: Meeting the training needs of parents of visually and multiply handicapped young children. New York: AFB Press.

Ferrell, K.A. (1998). Project PRISM: A longitudinal study of the developmental patterns of children who are visually impaired (Final report). Greeley: University of Northern Colorado.

Foy, C.J., Kirchner, D., & Waple, L. (1991). The Connecticut precane. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 85(2), 85-86.

Fraiberg, S. (1977). Insights from the blind. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Hatton, D.D. (2004). Empowering families of young children with visual impairments. Division of Visual Impairment Quarterly, 49(3), 15-20.

Hatton, D.D., Bailey, D.B., Burchinal, M.R., & Ferrell, K.A. (1997). Developmental growth curves of preschool children with visual impairments. Child Development, 68(5), 788-806.

Hatton, D.D., McWilliam, R.A., & Winton, P.J. (2002). Infants and toddlers with visual impairments: Suggestions for early interventionists. (Report No. EDO-EC-02-14).  Arlington, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. E636)

Hatton, D.D., McWilliam, R.A., & Winton, P.J. (2003). Family-centered practices for infants and toddlers with visual impairments. Chapel Hill, NC: FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Hill, E.W., Rosen, S., Correa, V.I., & Langley, M.B. (1984). Preschool O&M: An expanded definition. Education of the Visually Handicapped, 16(2), 58-71.

Hill, E.W., Smith, B., Dodson-Burk, B., & Rosen, S. (1987). O&M for preschool visually impaired children. In AER Yearbook (pp. 8-12). Washington, DC: Association for the Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Hill, E.W., & Ponder, P. (1976). Orientation and mobility techniques: A guide for the practitioner. New York: AFB Press.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Pub. L. No. 105-17, (1997).

Joffee, E., & Ehresman, P. (1997). Learners with visual and cognitive impairments. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed., pp. 483-499), New York: AFB Press.

Johnson, M.H. (1999). Cortical plasticity in normal and abnormal cognitive development: Evidence and working hypotheses. Development and Psychopathology, 11(3), 419-437.

Johnson, M.H., Dziurawiec, S., Ellis, H., & Morton, J. (1991). Newborns’ preferential tracking of face-like stimuli and its subsequent decline. Cognition, 40(1-2), 1-19.

LaPrelle, L.L. (1996). Standing on my own two feet: A step-by-step guide to designing and constructing simple, individually tailored adaptive mobility devices for preschool-aged children who are visually impaired. Los Angeles: Blind Childrens Center.

Lowry, S.S. (2004a). Advantages and disadvantages of adaptive mobility devices versus long canes. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004b). Determining when a mobility device is appropriate. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004c). Strategies that facilitate independent movement in daily routines. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S. (2004d). Ways to facilitate ease of movement. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Lowry, S.S., & Hatton, D.D. (2002). Facilitating walking by young children with visual impairments. RE:view 34(9), 125-133.

Mundy, P., & Willoughby, J. (1996). Nonverbal communication, joint attention, and early socioemotional development. In M. Lewis & M. Sullivan (Eds.), Emotional development in atypical children (pp. 65-87). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Noonan, M.J., & McCormick, L. (1993). Early intervention in natural environments: Methods and procedures. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Norris, M., Spaulding, P., & Brodie, F. (1957). Blindness in children. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Pogrund, R.L., Fazzi, D.L., & Schreier, E.M. (1993). Development of a preschool “Kiddy Cane.” Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 87(2), 52-54.

Pogrund, R.L. & Rosen, S.J. (1989). The preschool blind child can be a cane user. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 83(9), 431-439.

Preisler, G.M. (1991). Early patterns of interaction between blind infants and their sighted mothers. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 17(2), 65-90.

Preisler, G.M. (1995). The development of communication in blind and deaf infants similarities and differences. Child: Care, Health and Development, 21(2), 79-110.

Preisler, G.M. (1997). Social and emotional development of blind children: A longitudinal study. In V. Lewis & G. Collis (Eds.), Blindness and psychological development in young children. Leicester, U.K.: British Psychological Society.

Rogers, S., & Puchalski, C. (1984). Social characteristics of visually impaired infants’ play. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 3(4), 52-56.

Rowland, C. (1984). Preverbal communication of blind infants and their mothers. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 78(7), 297-302.

Sapp W. (2004a). Adaptive mobility devices and canes for toddlers: Suggestions for O&M specialists. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp W. (2004b). Guide techniques for toddlers. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp W. (2004c). Hand searching in infants and toddlers: Suggestions for parents and caregivers. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp W. (2004d). Hand trailing for toddlers. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Sapp W. (2004e). Upper body protection for toddlers. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Simmons, J.N., & Davidson, I.F.W.K. (1992). Determinants of development: Conceptualizing young blind children. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Heron Press.

Simmons, S.S., & Maida, S.O. (1992). Reaching, crawling, walking … let’s get moving: Orientation and mobility for preschool children. Los Angeles: Blind Childrens Center.

Skellenger, A.C., & Hill, E.W. (1991). Current practices and considerations regarding long cane instruction with preschool children. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 85(3), 101-104.

Tröster, H., Hecker, W., & Brambring, M. (1994). Longitudinal study of gross-motor development in blind infants and preschoolers. Early Child Development and Care, 104, 61-78.

Turnbull, A.P., & Turnbull, H.R. (2001). Families, professionals, and exceptionality (4th ed.) Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Umansky, W., & Hooper, S. R. (1998). Young children with special needs (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Warren, D.H., & Hatton, D.D. (2003). Cognitive development in visually impaired children. In I. Rapin & S. Segalowitz (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 7, Part II. Child neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 439-458). New York: Elsevier.

Wiener, W.R., & Sifferman, E. (1997). The development of the profession of orientation and mobility. In B.B. Blasch, W.R. Wiener, & R.L. Welsh (Eds.), Foundations of orientation and mobility (2nd ed., pp. 553-579), New York: AFB Press.

Module Overview

Visual impairment can have an immediate impact on the motor development of young children with visual impairments, as well as on other developmental domains that form the foundation for orientation and mobility (O&M). In this module, we describe and promote a developmental approach to intervention that will provide the basis for future orientation and mobility. Our approach is based on the premise that the foundation for O&M skills is built during infancy and early childhood. Therefore, the first 3 years of life are the optimal time to facilitate and promote the sensory, conceptual, and motor framework needed for independent travel.

The Developmentally Appropriate Orientation and Mobility module was designed to acknowledge and respect the variety of learning styles represented by potential participants. Therefore a variety of instructional strategies were used to convey content and build skills. The strategies include the presentation of current theoretical information and research findings, individual and group activities, vignettes, study questions for recommended readings, and practitioner-oriented handouts. Video CDs with video clips that emphasize the module content is available through the Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With visual Impairments.

Information from the fields of orientation and mobility, visual impairments, early intervention, early childhood special education, and child development has been synthesized in the five sessions of this module that are listed below. The objectives for each of the five sessions are then provided as a framework for understanding the organization of this entire module, Developmentally Appropriate Orientation and Mobility.

Session 1: Foundations of Developmentally Appropriate Orientation and Mobility

Session 2: Sensory Development

Session 3: Cognitive Development

Session 4: Motor Development and Movement

Session 5: Assessment

Handout M: Sample Transdisciplinary Orientation and Mobility Assessment Report

Lowry, S.S., & Murphy, J.L. (2004). Sample transdisciplinary orientation and mobility assessment report. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Child’s name: Kaj Christensen                          O&M Specialist: Ola Oliver, M.Ed.

Child’s date of birth: February 28                     TVI: Elsa Elmwood, M.A.

Assessment date: August 22

Chronological age: 18 months

Adjusted age: 15 months

 

Background Information

Kaj, 15 months of age, is an active toddler who loves to spend time with his family. He particularly enjoys movement and roughhousing with his sister and dad. His favorite activity is playing horse.

Kaj was delivered by cesarean section at 28 weeks of gestation following an uncomplicated pregnancy. Kaj’s mother, Linda, reported that she enjoyed her pregnancy. Kaj developed stage 4 retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) following his early birth. Kaj’s TVI and primary early interventionist, Elsa, makes weekly visits to the home. Kaj’s transdisciplinary team also includes an orientation and mobility specialist (OMS), a service coordinator, a physical therapist, and a pediatric ophthalmologist. In a recent report, the ophthalmologist noted that Kaj’s retina of the right eye is completely detached (stage 5 ROP). However, the ROP in his left eye remains at stage 4. The ophthalmologist observed light perception of the left eye.

The routines-based interview describing the family’s concerns and priorities, as well as a description of Kaj’s developmental functioning, completed by Elsa in June, are reviewed and summarized in this report. Kaj and his family were observed during daily routines and play-based interactions by the transdisciplinary team.

Sensory

Kaj enjoys a variety of sensory input. Kaj crawls on a variety of floor surfaces and uses his hands to explore a variety of furniture textures during cruising. When Kaj drops an object, he searches for it using his hands. Kaj’s father, Jose, reports that Kaj loves movement and roughhousing with him and his sisters. They often play a game in which Jose is a wild horse, and the children take turns staying on Jose back as he makes sudden moves. Kaj seems to prefer playing with real objects such as kitchen tools or bathroom items. Often, Kaj carries different natural objects, such as a river stone or a piece of bark, in his hand.

Jose reports that Kaj does not establish eye contact or look at the objects that he explores. When there is bright sunshine outside, Kaj will tilt his head backward and slightly toward the right and look toward a window or an open door. When brought within a few feet of an open door leading outdoors, he was observed crawling toward the opening.

He is able to locate sounds coming from right, left, in front of, and behind him by moving toward the sound or reaching. He attempts to locate quiet objects with occasional success.

No significant sensory aversions were observed during the assessments. However, Jose and Linda report that Kaj seems picky about foods with different textures. He fusses and turns away from some solid foods such as meat and certain vegetables. In order to ensure that Kaj eats enough, Linda reports that she often spoon feeds him. Elsa notes that she has seen significant improvement in the variety of foods that Kaj accepts. Some children with visual impairments are sensitive to textured foods because they lack experience in exploring foods. They will often accept foods of different textures after experiences with finger feeding. Once their fingers get to know the foods, they are better able to tolerate the foods.

Cognitive

Kaj enjoys moving his body to music. He imitates clapping and replicates tapping sounds when prompted by his sisters. Kaj enjoys exploring new objects and has a great variety of objects in his play area. He returns to objects previously explored in his play space. When he drops an object, he searches for it with his hands and moves to retrieve the object. He enjoys banging objects together and pulling them apart. Kaj recently started placing objects inside containers. He was observed to put three jar lids in a container before dumping them out.  Linda reports that he has begun to open and close cabinets and touches his head when asked.

Motor development and goal-directed movement

Kaj quickly and efficiently retrieves objects in his play area by crawling. He sits with a straight back and transitions well from sitting to all fours and to standing. He pulls to standing appropriately by moving through the half-kneel position, and rises to standing from the floor without support. Kaj stands independently for brief periods while playing and has taken independent steps to Jose. When doing so, he used a wide base with considerable balancing and frequent plops into sitting.

Kaj also displays two-handed cruising along walls and furniture. Jose and Linda report that Kaj can pull up on walls as well as on furniture. Because there are no stairs in the house, Kaj has not had significant experiences crawling up and down steps yet.

When Kaj was younger, Jose and Linda organized a small area of the living room with Kaj’s favorite objects and toys in predictable locations to help him locate them more readily. They used a quilt and the corner of the living room to create boundaries for the space. Kaj was observed to use the edges of the quilt as reference points. He also returns to specific toys in the play area. Kaj appears comfortable, active, and intentional within the play area.

Linda and Jose are concerned that Kaj will not develop like his sisters because he tends to explore in the same area continuously. Kaj has become so comfortable in this space that he prefers to remain there even when his sisters are playing elsewhere in the house. Jose reports that Kaj will call their names repeatedly but will not attempt to go to them.

Kaj enjoys pushing a small lawnmower back and forth in his play area. However, this seems to cause him to lean forward and widen his base of support (feet apart). Foremost, Kaj needs hands-on experiences in his natural environment through crawling and cruising in order to build a comprehensive spatial map as well as environmental concepts. The use of an adaptive mobility device or tool may increase his independent mobility. When introduced to an aluminum-frame push-all grocery cart with extra weight added to the grocery basket, Kaj assumed a more erect posture and a narrower base of support.

Social-emotional

Kaj enjoys the company of his older sisters and being the center of attention. Kaj strives to be independent and recently started saying “no” and wanting to do things on his own. However, he still likes to be in close proximity to his sisters and parents. Jose and Linda report that he is becoming increasingly upset when they leave him alone in his play space. However, he does not attempt to go to them.

Communication

Kaj vocalizes and gestures to communicate his needs. Linda reports that he says “Mama” and “Dada” and is starting to approximate the names of his sisters, Viola (“Ola”) and Freja (“Vava”). He communicates familiar words such as milk, mama, and dada by vocalizing, changing his facial expressions or demeanor, moving, etc. He touches his shoe when asked, “Where is your shoe?”  Linda reports that Kaj responds to simple verbal imperatives such as “Give Mommy a kiss.” 

Environment

The living room is dimly lit due to several layers of window treatments. A fan runs adjacent to Kaj’s playspace. The living room has multiple pieces of furniture of various sizes, but they are arranged to form clear travel paths. The fireplace opposite the play space has a brick hearth that is 1 foot tall.

Summary

Jose and Linda provide an individualized learning environment for Kaj and his sisters. Kaj has developed goal-directed movement in his play space. He is starting to take a few steps independently. However, Kaj remains in his play space unless he is moved to another area by his parents. He calls out and cries for his parents and siblings but does not attempt to locate them independently. Kaj is able to use the light perception in his left eye to locate landmarks such as doors and windows. Although Kaj enjoys eating, he fusses when presented with many solid foods.

Recommendations

  1. Play space. Continue the use of his current play space, with modifications that correspond to his current fine motor, cognitive, and play goals. Include objects and containers that prompt categorizing, sorting, container play, opening, closing, and probing with isolated fingers. Let Kaj participate in routines that involve putting in and taking out, such as a brief clean-up time each day. Learning to re-place toys and personal items will be an important life strategy for Kaj. Use prepositions such as in, out, behind, in front, , to help him locate the objects within his play space. Encourage Kaj to crawl or cruise out of his play space to other parts of the house whenever he seems motivated. To increase his comfort away from his place space, remind him where it is by producing a sound familiar to him from the play space or simply take him there.
  2. Cruising. Encourage Kaj to cruise the furniture and walls in order to build a mental map of his home and prepare his hands for trailing and searching later. As Kaj cruises, provide a simple description of what he is touching. Choose distinct names for all toys, furniture, and landmarks that he encounters often and use these names consistently (e.g., carpet, kitchen floor, wood floor, corner, seam, wood chair, soft chair, rough table, dining table, living-room couch, family-room couch, hearth, bedroom door, bathroom door). Encourage Kaj to cruise unfamiliar areas of the house, such as around the dining table (place a coat on the chair where he starts so he can tell when he’s completed the circuit), along the dining room wall with the console, or around the perimeter of the bathroom. Show him how to transition between furniture gaps and encourage him to continue cruising. Allow him to choose a different activity when he becomes bored with this. Over time, expose him to cruising along the perimeters and central landmarks in all rooms the family uses often.
  3. Independent stepping and walking. Continue encouraging Kaj to walk toward your voice from 3 to 4 feet away; preferably have him start with his back against a familiar landmark (wall or furniture that remains in a permanent position) so he will have a spatial point of reference. Also, encourage Kaj to take steps between landmarks paired with your voice, e.g., between the console and the dining table, or between the family room coffee table and the couch. Keep the distances short and the destination meaningful. Once Kaj walks independently, remind him to put his hands out in front of him as he moves into open space. When possible, tell him when he is getting close to objects, what the object is, its location (in front, beside, or behind), and what to do, e.g., “Reach out in front.” Avoid more vague expressions such as “Watch out” or “Be careful” without further explanation. As with all toddlers, he will acquire his share of bruises and bumps. Make him aware of head-high tables, shelves, and other obstacles that he could walk up under, and add padding if
  4. Push cart. The push-all grocery cart was left at the home. It should be weighted by least 10 pounds of canned food, sugar, or four, to increase stability over smooth floor surfaces. As he uses it, tell him the names of the landmarks, furniture, and people he contacts and their locations (in front, beside). Show him how to steer the cart away from obstacles and to back up when necessary. Continue the emphasis on crawling, cruising, learning about furniture and landmarks, and developing his overall orientation to his house.
  5. Miniroutes. Decrease the number of times you have to carry Kaj to daily household locations such as his highchair, the bathtub, or the front door to get in the car. Instead, carry him to a predictable point 3 to 4 feet from the destination and ask him to cruise or crawl the rest of the way. Be sure to tell him more than once what activity is coming up. At first, to increase his motivation, choose activities that you know he enjoys. Use a sound cue such as the sound of water running into the bathtub or a tapping on his cup or bowl on the table, in addition to calling his name. Later, you can decrease the use of your voice, to encourage him to use environmental sounds to navigate.
  6. Steps and stairs. In order to become comfortable with walking up and down stairs, children with visual impairments can benefit from extensive experiences crawling up and down first. These experiences provide children with tactile and kinesthetic feedback that can help them negotiate depth changes. Practicing climbing steps and stairs will build upper-body strength, hand strength, and tactile discrimination. As Kaj descends, encourage him to locate the edge of the first step with his fingers or toes, sit down on the edge, turn to his stomach, and go down feet first. At first, try two or three steps at a time. Supervise closely.
  7. Concepts. Kaj is missing many learning opportunities that his sisters and other children with sight gain incidentally during the course of each day. These are critical for establishing a meaningful language base in preparation for more structured learning and social interaction. When appropriate, involve Kaj in very simple routines that are motivating to him—getting a cup out of the refrigerator, closing the microwave door, feeling the water running at the sink, or shutting the dryer door. As always, tell him what he is doing and what items he is touching, hearing, and smelling.
  8. Environmental considerations. Kaj seems to use light to navigate. Thus, it is important to use the light from windows and doors as landmarks. Environmental noises should be minimized so that Kaj can use the salient sounds in his home to orient himself. Add a bumper to the edge around the hearth and other low-lying obstacles.
  9. Resources. Environmental Checklist for Developing Independence, Natural Learning Opportunities for Infants and Toddlers That Build Environmental Concepts, Facilitating Movement and Exploration, and Defined Spaces (handouts).
  10. Orientation and mobility: The orientation and mobility specialist will collaborate with other team members to increase Kaj’s goal-directed movement throughout the house.
  11. Speech and language pathologist: The service coordinator will arrange a jointed visit with a speech and language pathologist to further assess Kaj’s eating.

We enjoyed meeting Kaj and your family. We looked forward to collaborating with you in increasing Kaj’s development and learning. Please feel free to contact any of us with questions or comments at 999-888-7777 or .

Ola Oliver, M.Ed., COMS

Elsa Elmwood, M.A., TVI

Phyllis Philgood, Ph.D., PT

Tally Williams, M.S.W.

Handout L: O&M Assessment for Toddlers and Developmentally Young Children: What to Look For

Lowry, S.S. (2004). O&M assessment for toddlers and developmentally young children: What to look for. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Assessment AreaWhat to look for
Functional vision Use of vision in various common tasks with special attention to distance and locomotion, as well as general and specific orientation.
Motor and postural abilities Special attention to modulation of movement from floor to standing and reverse, climbing, use of steps, and maneuvering in relation to furniture and landmarks (motor planning). How these are affecting goal-directed movement in specific settings.
Goal-directed movement Evidence of broadly applied object permanence. Existence of purposeful movement toward a goal in common household and classroom routines and within free choice play: crawling, cruising, trailing, and free walking.
Range of exploration Opportunities for free exploration. Territory typically preferred at home and in the classroom. Any areas neglected or underused.
Sensory systems Tolerance of reasonable input to all modalities including movement and weight-bearing. Demonstrated recognition of variety of objects and associated sensations in all modalities. Understanding of basic sensory terms. Beginning receptive understanding of named body parts; later, expressive understanding.
Environmental experiences Opportunities for expanded exposure to common household and classroom events; degree of independence used and fostered; exposure to variety of community experiences, natural outdoor objects and events, animals, and vehicles.
Safety Observed and reported safety issues as the child moves about the home, classroom, and community.
Play skills Demonstrated use of objects in combination, containers, variety of actions on toys, variety of materials, toys, and textures, and beginning understanding of prepositions (in, out, under, on top, behind, beside).
Orientation Evidence of goal-directed movement or the recognition of landmarks and/or clues within specific rooms, the home, or classroom.
Independence in self-care and other daily routes Opportunities for independent movement during common self-care, household, and classroom routes. Potential for improved independence.
Hand search Use of one or both hands to find objects dropped, objects on floor, objects in defined area on table, and objects on an easily accessible shelf. Ability to persist for several seconds.
Depth perception After walking with good stability, ability to see and safely negotiate scattered small toys, cots and mats, equipment with low-lying foundations (prone standers), steps, curbs, sidewalk edges, ramps, inclines, declines, holes, and other uneven or changing surfaces. Consider impact of overall cognitive level and attention on this. Evidence of “false steps” (e.g., taking unnecessary step at change in contrast versus change in depth).
Mobility devices Evidence of difficulty visually detecting obstacles and/or depth changes. Interest in propelling cart or other object in front while walking. Evidence of child readiness, appropriate setting, and a supporting adult. Response to trials with push cart, adaptive mobility devices, or long cane.

Handout K: O&M Assessment for Infants and Developmentally Young Children: What to Look For

Lowry, S.S. (2004). O&M assessment for infants and developmentally young children: What to look for. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

Assessment AreaWhat to look for
 Functional vision Use of vision in various tasks with special attention to distance, including variety of positions and adaptive seating.
 Motor and postural abilities Special attention to floor mobility, postural transitions and how these are affecting overall exploration and goal-directed movement.
 Reaching to sound and sight Use of purposeful reaching to objects in a variety of routines; how changes in positioning may improve reaching skills.
 Goal-directed movement Existence of purposeful movement toward a goal in various routines: reaching, rolling, scooting, crawling, cruising, etc. Ability and opportunities to locate own toys.
 Range of exploration Territory typically covered in free exploration, and the time it takes: corner of room, whole room, room to room, entire house.
 Sensory systems Tolerance of reasonable input to all modalities including vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste, movement, and weight bearing. Demonstrated awareness, exploration, and recognition in all modalities. Ability to process multiple types of input at once.
 Environmental experiences  Developmentally appropriate exposure to common household events, and opportunities to use current reaching and moving skills within them.
 Safety Observed and reported safety issues as the child moves about the daily settings.
 Play skills Tolerance for and interest in a variety of objects and materials. Repertoire of actions on toys. Ability to combine objects in play. Use of variety of containers including those found in household. Use of toys as tools.

 

Handout J: O&M Assessment: Early Years of Birth Through Three

Anthony, T.L. (2004). O&M assessment: Early years of birth through three. Chapel Hill, NC: Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers With Visual Impairments, FPG Child Development Institute, UNC-CH.

O&M Assessment: Early Years of Birth Through Three

Compiled by Tanni L. Anthony, Ph.D., COMS

Developed 8/88; Revised 5/93 and 1/04

Name of Child:                                                                               DOB:                                    

Evaluator(s):                                                                                  Date(s):                                

This tool should be completed by an O&M specialist with the assistance of the child’s caregivers and educational team. Team members should be familiar with the referenced assessment tools to best use this assessment. Indicators should be interpreted for their role in O&M-related concept and skill development.

Instrument legend

Range: Indicates the age range (in months) when the concept/skill is typically observed

Status score (+) = concept or skill observed

                                    (-)  = not observed

Special note: Some skills are not applicable (NA) to children who are blind. Age ranges (in months) are provided as a general guideline, but care should be taken not to assign sighted age norms to the rate and sequence of the following concepts and skills.

Visual development: Visual attending, oculomotor behaviors, functional visual acuity, and visual field. Note: Visual-cognitive and eye-hand coordination behaviors can be found in the cognitive and fine motor sections. This section should not be completed for children who are blind or whose vision is significantly impaired.

 

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Inspects surroundings visually.

0-1

BSID

 

 

Maintains fixation on objects or people of interest.

0-3

BSID

 

 

Displays visual regard of 1- to 3-inch object.

1-3

BSID

 

 

Recognizes caregiver visually.

2

BSID

 

 

Follows a horizontal excursion (180°) with a moving object visually.

2

BSID*

 

 

Follows a vertical excursion with a moving object visually.

2

 BSID

 

 

Follows a moving object in a circular fashion visually.

2

BSID

 

 

Makes eye contact from 1-foot distance (or less).

2-3

HELP

 

 

Maintains focus on object moving slowly toward face (convergence).

2-3

Atkinson

 

 

Glances from one object to another (at near range).

3

BSID

 

 

Fixates on object for 3 seconds.

3

BSID

 

 

Attends to novel visual pattern.

 

3

BSID

 

 

Maintains focus on an object moving slowly away from face.

4

Atkinson

 

 

Sees 10-inch or large object from 5 feet or greater.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Regards small pellet, cereal piece, or other very small item.

6

BSID

 

 

Follows trajectory of a fast moving object.

6-8

HELP

 

 

Recognizes face from seven feet or greater distance.

6-8

HELP*

 

 

Shifts gaze from near object to one located farther away.

6-12

Atkinson

 

 

Shows awareness of objects in right and left peripheral fields.

6-12

CCIT*

 

 

Shows awareness of objects in upper and lower visual fields.

6-12

CCIT*

 

 

Shows visual awareness of steps, drop offs (slows/stops movement).

18-30

CCP

 

 

Visual skills are also documented in medical research by Atkinson (2000), Glass (1993), and Sireteanu (1996).

Auditory development. Auditory attending, localization (search for sound), and listening behaviors.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Responds to sound.

0-1

HELP

 

 

Responds to voice.

0-1

BSID.

 

 

Startles to or awakes from a sudden or loud noise.

0-3

H & D

 

 

Habituates to sound of rattle.

1

BSID

 

 

Searches with eyes for sound. (NA)

1

BSID.

 

 

Listens to voice for 30 seconds.

1-3

HELP

 

 

Changes behavior in response to sounds in environments.

1-6

DOCS

 

 

Smiles when someone speaks.

2

BSID

 

 

Quiets when noise is presented.

3

CCIT

 

 

Vocalizes when adults speak.

3

BSID

 

 

Awakens or quiets to caregiver’s voice.

3-6

HELP

 

 

Turns eyes and/or head to source of hidden voice.

3-7

HELP

 

 

Turns head and searches for ear-level sound (in supine).

3

CCIT

 

 

Turns eyes and head to search for sound location.

3-6

H & D

 

 

Responds to caregiver’s voice.

3-6

H & D

 

 

Enjoys sound making toys (e.g., rattles).

3-6

H & D

 

 

Turns head to sound of bell or rattle.

4

BSID

 

 

Distinguishes between friendly and angry voices.

5.5-6.5

HELP

 

 

Shows interest in sounds of objects.

5.5-8

HELP

 

 

Turns head or reaches to ear-level sound (while in sitting).

6

CCIT

 

 

Turns head or reaches directly to noisemaker at shoulder level.

6

CCIT

 

 

Turns and attempts to find sounds outside visual field.

6-10

H & D

 

 

Responds to telephone ringing and soft voices.

6-10

H & D

 

 

Turns head and shoulders to find hidden sounds.

7-10

HELP

 

 

 

Listens selectively to familiar words.

8-12

HELP

 

 

Looks at, or reaches for, sound toy held at side/waist level.

9

CCIT

 

 

Turns head or looks back and forth to two sounds.

9

CCIT

 

 

Listens to speech without being distracted by other sources.

9-11

HELP

 

 

Listens to simple verbal request without gestures.

9-14

HELP

 

 

Turns to find sound behind self. 

10-15

H & D

 

 

Responds to sounds at significant distances.

10-15

H & D

 

 

Listens selectively to two familiar words.

11

BSID

 

 

Responds to spoken request.

13

BSID

 

 

Reaches for object after it no longer makes a noise.

15

CCIT

 

 

Hears and responds when called from another room.

15-18

H & D

 

 

Follows simple spoken directions.

15-18

H & D

 

 

Finds now-quiet object at all levels where it had sounded.

18

CCIT

 

 

Identifies an outside sound (e.g., car) without seeing it.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Follows specific directions with doll items.

20-23

BSID

 

 

Finds now-quiet object that has made noise in several places.

21

CCIT

 

 

Tactile development. Awareness and responsiveness to being touched and touching objects.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Resists rough, textured, or cold surfaces.

Birth

C-A

 

 

Shows pleasure when touched and handled.

0-6

CCIT

 

 

Enjoys warm baths.

1

C-A

 

 

Explores objects with mouth.

 

3

CCIT

 

 

Responds differently to warm/cold.

3

CCIT

 

 

Responds differently to rough/smooth.

3

CCIT

 

 

Localizes tactile stimulation on body or object touching body.

4-5

CCIT

 

 

Permits soft, smooth textures to be rubbed on body parts.

6

C-A

 

 

Responds to a “different” object in a group of similar objects.

9-12

CCIT

 

 

Permits hands, feet, or body to be moved over unfamiliar surfaces.

10

C-A

 

 

Plays in water.

13

C-A

 

 

Uses play dough and paints.

18-24

CCIT

 

 

Plays with water and sand.

24-36

CCIT

 

 

Given proper “set-up” of knowing what is coming and wait time, does the child explore new objects and/or textures?

Yes __________

No __________

Body image/awareness of own body. Understanding the spatial dimensions and parts/planes of own body and understanding of own self as separate from others.

Concept/Skill

Range

Status

Comments

Alerts to visual/auditory/tactile/ movement stimulation.

0-1

OR

 

 

Shows pleasure when handled and touched.

0-6

OR

 

 

Brings hands together at midline while on back.

1-3.5

HELP

 

 

Watches hands. (NA)

 

2-3

HELP

 

 

Attempts to bring hand to mouth.

3

BSMD

 

 

Explores objects with mouth.

 

3

CCIT

 

 

Brings hands together at midline of body.

3

CCIT

 

 

Plays with hands, feet, fingers, and toes of own body.

3-5

HELP

 

 

Clasps hands together.

3.5-5

HELP

 

 

Touches spot on body where a toy or object is touching.

4-6

HELP

 

 

Brings feet to mouth.

 

5-6

HELP

 

 

Transfers object from hand to hand.

5.5-7

HELP

 

 

Tries to get attention by crying and kicking feet.

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Smiles at own mirror image. (NA)

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Removes socks from feet.

12

CCIT

 

 

Partially pulls shirt over head.

 

12

CCIT

 

 

Points to a few features on face (e.g., eyes, nose).

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Identifies self in mirror. (NA)

15-16

HELP

 

 

Names one body part.

 

15-19

HELP

 

 

Points or says name when sees photograph of self. (NA)

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Uses own name to refer to self.

18-24

HELP

 

 

Names three body parts.

 

19-22

HELP

 

 

Puts hat on head.

 

21

CCIT

 

 

Names six body parts.

 

22-22

HELP

 

 

Uses the words “mine” and “my” correctly.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Points to body parts: tongue, teeth, hands.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Points to body parts: hair, ears, head, legs, arms.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Identifies body parts with their functions.

28-34

HELP

 

 

Points to body parts: fingers, thumbs, toes, neck.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Points to six body parts on a picture of a person. (NA)

30-36

HELP

 

 

Moves individual body parts to music (tapping foot).

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Points to body parts: back, chin, chest, tummy, knee, fingernails.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Understands what front/back means.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

 

Body image/awareness of others’ bodies. Understanding of the spatial dimensions and parts of other person’s bodies, and others as separate from self.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Copies parent’s facial expressions. (NA)

1-6

DOCS

 

 

Watches speaker’s eyes and mouth. (NA)

2-3

HELP

 

 

Touches an adult’s hand to restart an activity.

5-9

HELP

 

 

Responds to facial expressions. (NA)

6-7

HELP

 

 

Smiles at parents without parents smiling first.

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Reaches for and touches parent’s talking face.

6-12

DOC

 

 

Looks for family members or pets when named. (NA)

6-8

HELP

 

 

Recognizes several people in addition to immediate family.

12-18

HELP

 

 

Hands a person a toy if she/he puts hand out to child.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Calls family members by name (e.g., mommy, daddy).

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Identifies own reflection in a mirror by saying name. (NA)

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Refers to self by name.

 

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Points or says name when look at self in photographs. (NA)

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Dramatizes using a doll or stuffed toy.

24-30

HELP

 

 

Knows own sex or sex of other people.

26-33

HELP

 

 

Points to six body parts on a picture of a person.

30-36

HELP

 

 

 

Object permanence. Search for and memory of where objects are located and/or stored. Note the object permanence related indicators (auditory search items) in auditory skills chart.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Visually fixates for at least three seconds on face/object. (NA)

0-3

CCIT

 

 

Quiets when noise is presented.

 

0-3

CCIT

 

 

Visually tracks object. (NA)

 

0-3

CCIT

 

 

Gaze lingers where object or person disappears. (NA)

0-3

CCIT

 

 

Shows interest in people and toys (for one minute).

1-6

HELP

 

 

Shows anticipation of regularly occurring daily care events.

3

CCIT

 

 

Finds partially covered object.

 

4-6

HELP

 

 

Anticipates frequently occurring events in familiar games.

6

CCIT

 

 

Looks for family members and pets when named. (NA)

6-8

HELP

 

 

Looks for or reaches to objects that fall quietly from view.

6-9

CCIT

 

 

Plays peek-a-boo.

 

6-10

HELP

 

 

Looks for an object/person that has briefly disappeared. (NA)

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Responds to the disappearance of an adult’s face.

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Repeats own actions to get a particular action with object.

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Looks at cover where object has disappeared.

9

CCIT

 

 

Uncovers fully hidden toy.

 

9

CCIT

 

 

Looks or moves to objects that fall and roll/bounce to new place.

9

CCIT

 

 

Throws objects.

 

9-12

HELP

 

 

Drops objects systematically.

 

9-12

HELP

 

 

Unwraps a toy.

 

10.5-12

HELP

 

 

Finds totally hidden object.

 

11-13

HELP

 

 

Looks to correct spot where item is hidden in one of two places. (NA)

12

CCIT

 

 

Remembers location of toys that are put down for a few minutes.

12

CCIT

 

 

Searches for items moved out of visual field. (NA)

12

CCIT

 

 

Looks around corners for something that is lost. (NA)

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Remembers familiar place where objects are kept.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Recognizes familiar people, toys, and places.

15

CCIT

 

 

Reaches for object out of sight after it no longer makes noise.

18

CCIT

 

 

Looks to correct spot where item is hidden in one of three places. (NA)

15

CCIT

 

 

Reaches in correct direction of object that has made noise.

15

CCIT

 

 

Brings toys from a familiar location.

18-21

CCIT

 

 

Looks for hidden or lost objects in their familiar places.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Searches for hidden or missing object after just seeing it.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Reaches in direction of item that made noise in many areas.

21

CCIT

 

 

Recognizes own and other’s clothing, toys, and belongings.

21

CCIT

 

 

Brings household objects from usual locations upon request.

21-24

CCIT

 

 

Remembers where objects belong.

21-24

HELP

 

 

Puts objects away in correct place.

21-24

CCIT

 

 

 

Spatial relationships. Understanding of spatial relationships within the context of one’s own body, from own body to objects in environment, and from object to object. Note: See the body image section for spatially mapping indicators of own body.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Shifts attention/body orientation from one object to another.

0-3

CCIT

 

 

Takes object in hand to mouth for sucking.

0-4

BR

 

 

Plays with own hands, feet, fingers, and toes.

0-4

BR

 

 

Visually inspects surroundings. (NA)

1-2

HELP

 

 

Searches for sound visually. (NA)

2-3.5

HELP

 

 

Looks for, or reaches to, objects in sight that touch body. (NA)

3

CCIT

 

 

Looks for, or reaches to, objects out of sight that touch body.

3

CCIT

 

 

Brings hands together at midline.

 

3

CCIT

 

 

Clasps hands (hands brought to midline).

3.5-5

HELP

 

 

Brings feet to mouth.

 

5-6

HELP

 

 

Works for an out of reach, but still in sight, object. (NA)

5-9

HELP

 

 

Transfers objects from hand to hand.

6

CCIT

 

 

Drops objects systematically.

 

9-12

HELP

 

 

Takes stacking ring apart.

 

10-11

HELP

 

 

Stacks rings on pole (though not in correct order).

11-12

HELP

 

 

Nests two, then three cans or other nesting objects.

12-19

HELP

 

 

Places pegs (cylinder) in pegboard holes.

11-12

HELP

 

 

Places round piece into form board.

12-15

HELP

 

 

Places square piece into form board.

15-21

HELP

 

 

Points to distant objects outside. (NA)

17.5-18.5

HELP

 

 

Places triangular piece into form board.

21-24

HELP

 

 

Points to larger or smaller of two familiar objects.

30-36

HELP

 

 

Explores cabinets and drawers.

 

18-24

HELP

 

 

 

Cause and effect and means end: Understanding of how to activate an object (problem solving) or use one’s own body or an object as a tool.

Concept/Skill

Range

Status

Comments

Shows anticipatory excitement to familiar event (e.g., bottle).

1.5-4

HELP

 

 

Watches hands. (NA)

 

2-3

HELP

 

 

Shakes rattle.

 

2.5-4

HELP

 

 

Repeats activity that produces an interesting result.

3

CCIT

 

 

Uses hands and mouth for sensory exploration of objects.

3-6

HELP

 

 

Performs four or more actions with objects with regularity.

3-6

CCIT

 

 

Continues familiar activity by initiated movements involved.

4-5

HELP

 

 

Plays with paper.

4.5-7

HELP

 

 

Touches toy or another’s hand to restart an activity.

5-9

HELP

 

 

Bangs object or toy on surface.

5.5-7

HELP

 

 

Shows interest in sounds of objects.

5.5-8

HELP

 

 

Explores objects and responds to their difference.

6

CCIT

 

 

Plays appropriately with toys that have different properties.

6

CCIT

 

 

Repeats action that elicits a reaction from others.

6

CCIT

 

 

Plays 2 to 3 minutes with one toy.

6-9

HELP

 

 

Slides object or toy on hard surface.

6-11

HELP

 

 

Overcomes obstacle to retrieve an object.

8-11

HELP

 

 

Combines two objects in a functional manner.

9

CCIT

 

 

Activates features of toys (e.g., pushes buttons, pulls lever).

9-12

HELP

 

 

Drops objects systematically.

9-12

HELP

 

 

Hands toy back to adult to restart (e.g., wind-up toy).

12-15

HELP

 

 

Squeezes dolls or toys to make them squeak.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Likes to open and close boxes.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Plays with two toys at one time.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Walks while holding onto furniture or objects.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Plays with objects imitating usage (e.g., phone, fork).

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Pulls string to get object from behind barrier.

15

CCIT

 

 

Solves simple problems with tools (e.g., pulls chair to counter).

17-24

HELP

 

 

Moves self around barrier to get an object.

18

CCIT

 

 

Activates a mechanical toy (e.g., small wind-up toy).

18-22

HELP

 

 

Gives adult a toy that needs to be turned on or fixed.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Pulls on string or tablecloth to bring object closer.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Uses an object to get another object that is out of reach.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Uses a container to carry objects.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Pulls on knobs or handles to open drawers.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Opens containers to get something inside.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Uses tools to solve spatial problems (e.g., probes with stick).

24

CCIT

 

 

Demonstrates common use of objects (e.g., napkins, keys).

24-28

HELP

 

 

Identifies objects with their use (e.g., “What do you eat with?”).

28-34

HELP

 

 

Dramatizes using a doll or stuffed toy.

24-30

HELP

 

 

Pushes or pulls open a swinging door.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Tries to “fix” a toy or object when it breaks.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Unscrews cap from small bottle.

30

CCP

 

 

Transfers material with spoon, shovel, etc.

30

CCP

 

 

Knows what toys can/cannot do; uses them appropriately.

30

CCP

 

 

Knows what a telephone is used for.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Screws on lids.

36

CCP

 

 

Uses small wooden hammer to pound in pegs/objects.

36

CCP

 

 

Understands that an adapted mobility device or cane can be used as a:

Bumper:                     yes                                         no

Probe:                         yes                                         no

 

Imitation. Visually or tactually copying an action.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Enjoys repeating newly learned activity.

3-4

HELP

 

 

Copies games and play of adults.

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Imitates familiar, then new, gestures.

7-11

HELP

 

 

Imitates several new gestures (adds to existing repertoire).

11-14

HELP

 

 

Imitates actions related to the function of objects.

12

CCIT

 

 

Engages in simple imitative play.

9-12

HELP

 

 

Understands pointing. (NA)

 

12-14

HELP

 

 

Imitates adult behavior. 

12-18

HELP

 

 

Plays with objects as she/he has observed them used (fork).

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Imitates “invisible” gestures. (e.g., blinking eyes, nodding head).

14-17

HELP

 

 

Imitates adult’s actions w/ new object after several hours.

15

CCIT

 

 

Imitates doing housework.

15-18

HELP

 

 

Imitates adult behavior with props.

18

CCIT

 

 

Imitates an action that was observed in the past.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Imitates postures.

26-28

BSMD

 

 

 

Concepts related to properties of objects and the environment. Understanding of concepts related to texture, temperature, shape, color, and prepositions.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Responds differently to warm/cold, rough/smooth, etc.

3

CCIT

 

 

Explores objects and responds to their differences.

6

CCIT

 

 

Plays appropriately with toys that have different properties.

6

CCIT

 

 

Shows understanding of color. (NA)

12-18

HELP

 

 

Demonstrates understanding of size.

12-18

HELP

 

 

Matches familiar objects.

15-19

HELP

 

 

Points to objects or pictures by simple category name.

18

CCIT

 

 

Sorts familiar objects into categories.

19-24

HELP

 

 

Sorts by color. (NA)

21

CCIT

 

 

Sorts by “big” and “little.”

21-24

CCIT

 

 

Understands concept of “one.”

24-30

HELP

 

 

Places an object “in” or “under” when asked.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Uses size words.

 

25-30

HELP

 

 

Matches shapes.

26-30

HELP

 

 

Matches black and white. (NA)

26-29

HELP

 

 

Verbalizes one preposition.

28-33

HELP

 

 

Matches primary colors. (NA)

29-33

HELP

 

 

Stacks rings in correct order (e.g., stacking ring toy).

30-36

HELP

 

 

Sorts objects that are not alike (e.g., silverware, toys).

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Points to larger or smaller of two familiar objects.

30-36

HELP

 

 

Points to colors: red, blue, green, and yellow. (NA)

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Names color of item: red, blue, yellow, green. (NA)

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Understands more/less, next to, front/back.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Identifies the longer of two sticks.

33+

HELP

 

 

Uses two prepositions.

33-33.5

HELP

 

 

Uses three prepositions.

33.5+

HELP

 

 

 

Social-emotional. Understanding of self as a separate person, distinguishing who is familiar and unfamiliar, and feeling emotionally secure to move in space.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Stops crying when sees and/or touches bottle or breast.

0-3

CCIT

 

 

Is comforted when talked to, held, rocked, etc.

0-3

CCIT

 

 

Shows awareness of strangers or new situations.

1-6

DOCS

 

 

Responds differently to family members and strangers.

6

CCIT

 

 

Notices and vocalizes when caregiver prepares to leave.

6-9

CCIT

 

 

Realizes self as separate person from caregiver.

6-9

HELP

 

 

Displays separation anxiety from caregiver.

6-9

HELP

 

 

Tries to get attention by crying and kicking feet.

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Smiles at parents without parents smiling first. (NA)

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Smiles at familiar person other than parent.

6-12

DOCS

 

 

Responds differently to unfamiliar adults and children.

9

CCIT

 

 

Moves away from caregiver who is in same room.

12

CCIT

 

 

Moves partially out of sight of caregiver for short time. (NA)

12-15

CCIT

 

 

Acts shy around strangers.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Shows preferred toys, foods, etc. and makes choices.

15

CCIT

 

 

Tries to please others.

15

CCIT

 

 

Seeks adult’s help in exploring environment.

15

CCIT

 

 

Protects toys and personal objects.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Shows shyness around strangers.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Shows jealousy when affection is shown to other children.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Feels proud of “how I look.”

24-30

HELP

 

 

Realizes that “I am a unique person.”

24-36

HELP

 

 

Separates easily from parent in familiar setting.

42

CCP

 

 

 

Receptive language. Understanding of verbal and gestural/sign language and ability to follow directions specific to concepts and skills related to O&M.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Understands what a “no-no” is and reacts.

9-12

HELP

 

 

Responds to simple requests.

9-14

HELP

 

 

Shows understanding of words by appropriate behavior.

9-14

HELP

 

 

Responds to the command “Come here.”

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Understands when told “no” and “yes.”

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Follows simple directions.

 

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Understands most noun objects.

16-19

HELP

 

 

Brings objects from another room when asked.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Obeys simple directions involving a preposition.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Understands personal pronouns.

20-24

HELP

 

 

Understands some adjectives and action verbs.

20-24 HELP

 

 

Follows two-part commands.

24-29

HELP

 

 

Follows three different three-part commands.

24-36

CCIT

 

 

Has 275-300 different and familiar words.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Follows two directions in correct order.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Places an object “in” or “under” when asked.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Understands many action words.

27-30

HELP

 

 

Follows one-step directions related to two objects.

30

CCP

 

 

Follows one-step commands about an object and a place.

30

CCP

 

 

Identifies familiar objects by touch.

30-36

HELP

 

 

Responds appropriately to “where” questions.

30-36

CCP

 

 

 

Expressive communication. Ability to communicate verbally, gesturally, or with sign language specific to own self and key concepts associated with O&M.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Uses words to describe removed events.

21-24

CCIT

 

 

Identifies rooms in own house.

24-28

HELP

 

 

Uses the words mine and my correctly.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Tells own first name.

 

30

CCP

 

 

Requests assistance.

30

CCP

 

 

Uses personal pronouns.

30

CCP

 

 

Comments on appearance or disappearance of object.

30

CCP

 

 

Asks questions using words such as “where.”

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Correctly gives first and last name.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Uses time words such as morning, afternoon, etc.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Correctly says “in,” “on,” and “under” in a phrase.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Uses approximately 1,000 words.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Knows own sex, if asked if boy or girl.

36

CCP

 

 

Uses words to describe attributes of objects.

36

CCP

 

 

 

Fine motor/upper extremity strength: Grasp, reaching, general hand skills, and upper extremity strength of trunk and shoulders.

Concept / Skill

Range

Status

Comments

Fists hands.

1

BSMD

 

 

Attempts to bring hand to mouth.

1

BSMD

 

 

Brings hands to midline while in supine position.

1

HELP

 

 

Looks at hands or objects in hands.

1-4

BR

 

 

Keeps hands open (indwelling thumb no longer present).

2

BSMD

 

 

Grasps toy actively (grasp is no longer involuntary).

2-4

HELP

 

 

Bears weight on elbows in prone.

3-6

CCIT

 

 

Reaches while supported on one elbow while in prone.

3-6

CCIT

 

 

Clasps hands (hands brought to midline).

3.5-5

HELP

 

 

Uses ulnar palmar grasp (fingers curve around object).

4-5

HELP

 

 

Uses palmar grasp (holds toy with all fingers, but thumb).

4-5

HELP

 

 

Reaches for object with both hands.

4-5

HELP

 

 

Uses radial palmar grasp (thumb and palm are used).

4-5

HELP

 

 

Reaches and grasps object.

4.5-5.5

HELP

 

 

Rotates wrists when holding a small toy (e.g., rattle).

5

BSMD

 

 

Drops object.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Recovers dropped object.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Retains small item in each hand.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Reaches with one hand.

5.5-7

BSMD

 

 

Transfers object from one hand to another.

5.5-7

HELP

 

 

Attempts to secure a small item such as a pellet.

6

BSMD

 

 

Uses wrist movements to activate toys.

6-8

HELP

 

 

Brings toys to midline in supported sitting position.

6-8

BSMD

 

 

Explores objects with fingers.

6-9

CCIT

 

 

Pulls self to hands and knees from a prone position.

6-9

CCIT

 

 

Uses index finger to poke.

6-9

CCIT

 

 

Retains two of three objects offered.

6.5-7.5

HELP

 

 

Reaches for object with extended elbow.

7-8.5

HELP

 

 

Uses whole hand to grasp pellet.

7

BSMD

 

 

Uses inferior pincer grasp (uses pad of thumb & index finger).

7.5-10

HELP

 

 

Retains two, and reaches for, third object.

8-10

HELP

 

 

Extends wrist.

9-10

HELP

 

 

Releases objects voluntarily.

9-11

HELP

 

 

Pulls self to standing position.

9-12

CCIT

 

 

Throws ball from standing position.

10-14

BSMD

 

 

Uses both hands freely; may show preference for one.

11-13

HELP

 

 

Supinates forearm.

11-12

HELP

 

 

Holds toy w/ one hand at midline, other hand used for play.

12

CCIT

 

 

Raises one hand high while on hands and knees.

12

CCIT

 

 

Places pellets into bottle.

13

BSMD

 

 

Pulls apart pop beads.

12-15

CCIT

 

 

Puts small objects such as blocks into container.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Takes small object from container after seeing it put in.

12-18

DOCS

 

 

Moves from hands and knees, to hands and feet, to standing.

15

CCIT

 

 

Holds more than one small object in one hand.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Throws a ball to another person.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Pulls a toy behind self while walking.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Puts loose pop beads together.

21

CCIT

 

 

Uses one hand to open and close scissors.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Demonstrates a hand preference.

30

CCP

 

 

Holds bowl and stirs, etc. (bilateral hand skills).

30

CCP

 

 

Throws small ball at least 6.5 feet.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Catches a large bounced ball with arms and chest.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

 

Gross motor. Presence and integration of motor reflexes.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Performs neck righting reaction.

1

BSMD

 

 

Inhibits extensor thrust.

2-4

HELP

 

 

Inhibits flexor withdrawal.

2-4

HELP

 

 

Inhibits asymmetrical tonic neck reflexes.

3-5

HELP

 

 

Inhibits moro reflex.

4

HELP

 

 

 

Gross motor/balance reactions and indicators of balance: Balance reactions and using trunk muscles to maintain balance.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Sits with support.

4

BSMD

 

 

Demonstrates balance reactions in prone.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Moves head actively in a supported sitting position.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Holds head erect when leaning forward while sitting.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Sits alone momentarily without support.

6

BSMD

 

 

Demonstrates balance reactions in supine.

6-7

HELP

 

 

Demonstrates body righting on body reaction.

6-8

HELP

 

 

Raises self to a sitting position.

8

BSMD

 

 

Supports weight momentarily (standing position).

8

BSMD

 

 

Demonstrates balance reactions on hands and knees.

7-9

HELP

 

 

Moves from sitting to creeping position.

7-10

BSMD

 

 

Sits alone without support for 10 minutes.

8-9

HELP

 

 

Rotates trunk while sitting, twists to pick up objects.

9

BSMD

 

 

Demonstrates balance reactions in sitting.

9-10

HELP

 

 

Moves from sitting to prone.

9-10

HELP

 

 

Walks alone.

9-13

BSMD

 

 

Stands alone.

10

BSMD

 

 

Stands up from a sitting position.

12

BSMD

 

 

Demonstrates balance reactions in kneeling.

12-15

HELP

 

 

Walks alone with good coordination.

14-16

BSMD

 

 

Demonstrates balance reactions in standing.

15-18

HELP

 

 

Walks backwards.

17-19 BSMD

 

 

Steps over a low object without falling.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Stands on one foot while holding another’s hand briefly.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Squats down without falling.

 

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Picks up object from floor without falling.

19-24

HELP

 

 

Walks sideways.

20-22

BSMD:

 

 

Walks with legs closer together.

23-25

HELP

 

 

Runs with coordination.

23-25

BSMD

 

 

Hops on one foot one time while holding onto another person.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Stands on tiptoes for at least one second.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Takes three steps backward.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Stands up straight up with heels touching.

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Bends at waist to pick up items off the floor (does not squat).

24-30

DOCS

 

 

Jumps off floor with both feet.

26-28

BSMD

 

 

Tries to stand on one foot without help.

30-36

DOCS

 

 

Walks up stairs, alternating feet on steps.

35-37

BSMD

 

 

Walks down stairs alternating feet.

38-42

BSMD

 

 

 

Gross motor/static milestones. Ability to achieve and maintain static postures.

Concept/Skill

Range

Status

Comments

Sits with support.

4

BSMD

 

 

Sits alone momentarily without support.

6

BSMD

 

 

Supports weight momentarily (standing position).

8

BSMD

 

 

Stands alone.

13

BSMD

 

 

 

Gross motor/dynamic milestones: Ability to move against gravity and shift body weight.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Thrusts arms and legs in play (in supine).

1

BSMD

 

 

Rolls from side to back.

3

BSMD

 

 

Rolls from prone to supine.

2-5

HELP

 

 

Holds chest up in prone with weight on forearms.

2

HELP

 

 

Keeps head at 90 degrees and lowers with control (prone).

4

BSMD

 

 

Shifts weight onto arms while in prone position.

5

BSMD

 

 

Rolls supine to side.

5

BSMD

 

 

Pivots in a circular direction while in prone.

5-6

HELP

 

 

Pulls self to hands and knees from a prone position.

6-9

CCIT

 

 

Rocks forward and backward while on hands and knees.

6-9

CCIT

 

 

Pulls to a sitting position by another person.

7-8

BSMD

 

 

Rolls supine to prone.

7-8

BSMD

 

 

Lifts head in supine.

6-8

HELP

 

 

Holds weight on one hand while in prone.

6-7.5

HELP

 

 

Brings one knee up by trunk while in prone.

6-8

HELP

 

 

Raises self to a sitting position.

8

BSMD

 

 

Pulls to standing position on furniture.

8

BSMD

 

 

Crawls backward.

7-8

HELP

 

 

Moves from sitting to creeping position.

7-10

BSMD

 

 

Crawls forward.

8-9.5

HELP

 

 

Walks with assistance.

8-12

BSMD

 

 

Goes from sitting to prone.

9-10

HELP

 

 

Sits from standing posture (holding onto furniture).

11

BSMD

 

 

Walks sideways holding onto furniture.

11

BSMD

 

 

Walks alone.

9-13

BSMD

 

 

Walks downstairs with help.

11-19

BSMD

 

 

Stands up from a sitting position.

12

BSMD

 

 

Walks alone with good coordination.

14-16

BSMD

 

 

Walks up stairs with assistance.

17-19

BSMD

 

 

Walks backward.

17-19.

BSMD

 

 

Gets around mostly by walking and not crawling.

18-24

DOCS

 

 

Picks up object from floor without falling.

19-24

HELP

 

 

Walks sideways.

20-22

BSMD

 

 

Walks with legs closer together.

23-25

HELP

 

 

Runs with coordination.

23-25

BSMD

 

 

Jumps off floor with both feet.

26-28

BSMD

 

 

Walks up stairs alone with both feet on each step, holds railing.

26-28 BSMD

 

 

Walks down stairs alone with both feet on each step.

15-28

BSMD

 

 

Walks up stairs alternating feet on steps.

35-37

BSMD

 

 

Walks down stairs alternating feet.

38-42

BSMD

 

 

 

Movement notes (adapted from Foundation for Knowledge in Development, 1988):

Postural tone                    Normal_______ Low________High________

Stability     ______”W-sits” or sits with legs wide apart to maintain sitting stability.

                        ______Internal or external rotation of the hips is evident.

                        ______High guard position when walking is evident.

                        ______Walks with legs far apart to maintain walking stability.

                        ______Takes very small steps to maintain walking stability.

Rotation

                        ______“Fixes” when shifting weight.

                        ______Loses balance during trunk rotation activities.

                        ______Uses no or limited trunk rotation in sitting/standing/walking.

 

Self–initiation. Movement generated by the child.

Concept/skill

Range

Status

Comments

Enjoys repeating a newly learned game.

3-4

HELP

 

 

Waits for adult to take his or her turn in a simple activity.

3-6

CCIT

 

 

Repeats action that brings a reaction from others.

6

CCIT

 

 

Continues a familiar game by initiating movements.

4-5

HELP

 

 

Explores the environment (safety precautions needed!).

9-12

HELP

 

 

Moves away from caregiver who is in same room.

12

CCIT

 

 

Moves briefly out of partial sight of caregiver to play.

15

CCIT

 

 

Makes simple choices about books, food, and so on.

15

CCIT

 

 

Uses adults to solve problems.

 

15

CCIT

 

 

Plays spontaneously with a variety of objects.

15

CCIT

 

 

Gets own toys to play with from familiar place.

15-18

CCIT

 

 

Plays alone with toys for 15 minutes.

18

CCIT

 

 

Approaches peer or adult to initiate play.

18-21

CCIT

 

 

Solves simple problems without adult assistance.

21

CCIT

 

 

Explores environment.

 

21

CCIT

 

 

Engages in adult activities with props spontaneously.

21

CCIT

 

 

Initiates own play, but needs some help to carry out ideas.

24-36

HELP

 

 

 

References

Acronym

Researcher or test reference

Atkinson

Atkinson, J. (2000). The developing visual brain. New York: Oxford University Press.

BSID

Bayley, N. (1993). The Bayley scales of infant development (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Test Corporation.

BSMD

Bayley, N. (1993). The Bayley scales of infant development (2nd ed.): Motor scale record form. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Test Corporation.

BR

Brigance, A.H. (1991). Brigance diagnostic inventory of early development (Rev. ed). North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates.

CA

Stillman, R. (Ed.). (1987). Callier Azusa scale. Dallas, TX: Callier Center for Communicative Disorders.

CCIT

Johnson-Martin, N.M., Jens, K.G., Attermeier, S.M., & Hacker, B.J. (1991). The Carolina curriculum for infants and toddlers with special needs (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

CCP

Johnson-Martin, N.M., Attermeier, S.M., & Hacker, B. (1990). The Carolina curriculum for preschoolers with special needs. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

DOCS

Hreske, W., Miguel, S., Sherbenou, R., & Burton, S. (1994). Developmental observation checklist system. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Glass

Glass, P. (1993). Development of visual function in preterm infants: Implications for early intervention. Infants and Young Children, 6, 11-20.

HELP

Parks, S., Furono, S., O’Reilly, T., Inatsuka, C.M., Hosaka, C.M., & Zeisloft-Falbey, B. (1994). Hawaii early learning profile (HELP): Birth to three. Palo Alto, CA: VORT Corporation.

MAP

Foundation for Knowledge in Development. (1988). Miller assessment for preschoolers. New York: The Psychological Corporation.

Sireteanu

Sireteanu, R. (1996). Development of the visual field: Results from human and animal studies. In F. Vital-Durand, J. Atkinson, & O.J. Braddick (Eds.), Infant vision (pp. 17-31). New York: Oxford Press.